Frederic Silvestre

Frederic Silvestre
University of Namur | FUNDP · Research Unit in Environmental and Evolutionary Biology (URBE)

PhD

About

83
Publications
11,696
Reads
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2,239
Citations
Introduction
Fascinated by the world of animals, I started studies in biology at the University of Liège in Belgium. I’ve been graduated in Zoological Sciences in 1996 after the defense of a MS thesis in the Laboratory of Oceanology of the Prof. J-M. Bouquegneau. I then wanted to give a more applied orientation to my cursus and I got a Master Degree in Environmental Management at the Free University of Brussels where I achieved a thesis on ecotourism in Antarctica. Afterwards, I decided to accept a teaching assistant position at the University of Namur (FUNDP) in the laboratory of Prof. P. Devos. There, I could teach animal biology while developing an original research trying to implement new « omics » approaches in ecotoxicology. With the help of the laboratory of cellular biology and Prof. M. Raes, I developped a proteomic workflow adapted to non model organisms such as the Chinese mitten crab. PhD in 2005, I worked 2 years on a scientific collaboration project with the University of CanTho, Vietnam, on the sustainability of aquaculture. I then got a post-doc grant from the FNRS during which I implemented collaborations with american teams. My first post-doc experience brought me in beautiful Louisiana at the University of Louisiana Lafayette where I worked with Prof. P. Klerks, a specialist of ecotoxicology and adaptation of fish to pollutants. I then moved to the Golden State, California, more precisely at the University of California Davis with the help of a Fulbright grant. I worked there with the Prof. D. Kültz, one of the world specialist of environmental stress response and evolutionary proteomics in fish. Since 2010, I am assistant professor at the University of Namur where I founded the « Systems Ecotoxicology Laboratory ». My main scientific interests concern the effects of environmental stressors (pollutants and global warming) on aquatic organisms (fish and invertebrates). My questions are : how organisms can acclimate and adapt to a changing environment and how these processes can give new insights into the general theory of evolution.
Additional affiliations
September 2010 - present
University of Namur
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
January 2010 - present
Institut National des Sciences et Technologies de la Mer
January 2010 - present
University of California, Davis
Education
July 2009 - September 2009
University of Louisiana Lafayette
Field of study
July 2008
Lake Tahoe, CA
Field of study
  • Green Technology Entrepreneurship Academy
March 2008 - October 2008

Publications

Publications (83)
Article
Organisms exposed to endocrine disruptors in early life can show altered phenotype later in adulthood. Although the mechanisms underlying these long-term effects remain poorly understood, an increasing body of evidence points toward the potential role of epigenetic processes. In the present study, we exposed hatchlings of an isogenic lineage of the...
Article
Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation modulate gene expression in a complex fashion and are consequently recognized as among the most important contributors to phenotypic variation in natural populations of plants, animals and microorganisms. Interactions between genetics and epigenetics are multifaceted and epigenetic variation stands at t...
Article
Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation modulate gene expression in a complex fashion and are consequently recognized as among the most important contributors to phenotypic variation in natural populations of plants, animals and microorganisms. Interactions between genetics and epigenetics are multifaceted and epigenetic variation stands at t...
Article
β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), a neurotoxin naturally produced by cyanobacteria, diatoms and dinoflagellates, constitutes a serious environmental and health threat especially during acute blooms, which are becoming more frequent. This neurotoxin is implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases (ND) in humans through contaminated water or food...
Article
Full-text available
Oxidative stress is frequently generated in cells of organisms exposed to environmental pollutants. The production of reactive oxygen species can have either adaptive or maladaptive consequences for the organism as well as for the entire population. However, regarding fish species and other invertebrates exposed to aquatic xenobiotics, the signalin...
Article
During gametogenesis and embryonic development, precise regulation of gene expression, across cell/tissue types and over time, is crucial. In vertebrates, transcription is partly regulated by histone lysine acetylation/deacetylation, an epigenetic mechanism mediated by lysine acetyltransferases (KAT) and histone deacetylases (HDAC). Well characteri...
Article
Full-text available
The numbers of potential neurotoxicants in the environment are raising and pose a great risk for humans and the environment. Currently neurotoxicity assessment is mostly performed to predict and prevent harm to human populations. Despite all the efforts invested in the last years in developing novel in vitro or in silico test systems, in vivo tests...
Article
Early-life represents a critically sensitive window to endocrine disrupting chemicals, potentially leading to long-term repercussions on the phenotype later in life. The mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, referred to as the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD), are still poorly understood. To gain molecular understanding of these...
Article
Full-text available
Mangrove rivulus, Kryptolebias marmoratus, is a hermaphrodite fish capable of self-fertilization. This particularity allows to naturally produce highly homozygous and isogenic individuals. Despite the low genetic diversity, rivulus can live in extremely variable environments and adjust its phenotype accordingly. This species represents a unique opp...
Article
The comparative effects of cortisol and 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC), two major corticosteroids in fish, have yet received little attention in teleosts. We evaluated the proteomic and immune responses of Eurasian perch to chronic corticosteroid treatments. We implanted immature perch with cortisol (80mg/kg) or DOC (4mg/kg) and measured the proporti...
Article
Full-text available
In addition to genetic variation, epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation might make important contributions to heritable phenotypic diversity in populations. However, it is often difficult to disentangle the contributions of genetic and epigenetic variation to phenotypic diversity. Here, we investigated global DNA methylation and mRNA expres...
Article
Triclosan (TCS) is a broad spectrum antibacterial agent widely used in personal care products and present in most aquatic ecosystems. This study investigated the occurrence of triclosan acclimation and the biological mechanisms underlying the stress response triggered in early-life stage of zebrafish. Zebrafish eggs were first exposed to four diffe...
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Full-text available
DNA methylation, a well-studied epigenetic mark, is important for gene regulation in adulthood and for development. Using genetic and epigenetic approaches, the present study aimed at evaluating the effects of heat stress and copper exposure during zebrafish early embryogenesis when patterns of DNA methylation are being established, a process calle...
Article
17-α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) is one of the most potent endocrine disrupting compounds found in the aquatic environments, and is known to strongly alter fish reproduction and fitness. While the effects of direct exposure to EE2 are well studied in adults, there is an increasing need to assess the impacts of exposure during early life stages. Sensitiv...
Article
Xenobiotics such as organochlorine compounds (OCs) and metals have been suggested to play a significant role in the collapse of European eel stocks in the last decades. Several of these pollutants could affect functioning of the nervous system. Still, no information is so far available on levels of potentially neurotoxic pollutants in eel brain. In...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Applications of OMICS to high throughput studies of changes of genes, RNAs, proteins, metabolites, and their associated functions in cells or organisms exposed to environmental chemicals has led to the emergence of a very active research field: environmental OMICS. This developing field holds an important key for improving the scientifi...
Article
Nitrofurans, banned antibiotics in the European Union (EU), have often been found in imported aquaculture products in the past and are still found nowadays according to the Rapid Alert System for Feed and Food (RASFF) of the European Commission. A quantitative method based on liquid chromatography coupled to isotopic dilution tandem mass spectromet...
Article
Since the 1980s, the stocks of European eel have been declining in most of their geographical distribution area. Many factors can be attributed to this decline such as pollution by xenobiotics like perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). This study aimed at evaluating the in vitro toxicity of eel peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) exposed to PFOS....
Article
We evaluated the physiological and humoral immune responses of Eurasian perch submitted to 4-h hypoxia in either single or repeated way. Two generations (F1 and F5) were tested to study the potential changes in these responses with domestication. In both generations, single and repeated hypoxia resulted in hyperglycemia and spleen somatic index red...
Article
Full-text available
Nowadays, the unprecedented rates of anthropogenic changes in ecosystems suggest that organisms have to migrate to new distributional ranges or to adapt commensurately quickly to new conditions to avoid becoming extinct. Pollution and global warming are two of the most important threats aquatic organisms will have to face in the near future. If gen...
Article
The success of reproduction depends greatly upon gamete quality, especially oocytes which carry most of the molecular material necessary for early embryogenesis. However, it remains difficult to find relevant morphologic and/or biochemical parameters to assess oocyte quality and thus have a reliable prediction of the reproduction performance. To un...
Article
Temperature and trace metals are common environmental stressors, and their importance is increasing due to global climate change and anthropogenic pollution. Oxidative damage and antioxidant properties have been studied in liver and gills of the European bullhead (Cottus gobio) subjected to cadmium (CdCl(2) at nominal concentrations of 0.01 and 1mg...
Article
Proteomics technology are increasingly used in ecotoxicological studies to characterize and monitor biomarkers of exposure. The present study aims at identifying long term effects of malachite green (MG) exposure on the proteome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from the Asian catfish, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus. A common (0.1 ppm) conc...
Article
The potential genotoxic and carcinogenic properties reported for malachite green (MG) and the frequent detection of MG residues in fish and fish products, despite the ban of MG, have recently generated great concern. Additional toxicological data are required for a better understanding of the mechanism of action and a more comprehensive risk assess...
Article
Full-text available
The current study aimed to evaluate the influence of domestication process on the stress response and subsequent immune modulation in Eurasian perch juveniles (Perca fluviatilis) submitted to chronic confinement. Briefly, F1 and F4 generations were confined into small-size tanks and sampled 7 and 55 days after stocking. Cortisol and glucose levels...
Article
This study aimed to investigate the interactions of two abiotic factors (temperature and salinity) and deltamethrin (pyrethroid pesticide) exposure on some oxidative stress biomarkers as well as on acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE) in hepatopancreas, gills and muscle of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). A combination of three temperatures (2...
Article
Sewage treatment plants are frequently associated with the release of xenobiotics and, consequently, with alterations of the reproductive function induced by many of these substances in aquatic organisms. In order to assess the impacts of sewage treatment plant (STP) discharges in polluted rivers, two sentinel species (gudgeon Gobio gobio and stone...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change is predicted to increase the average water temperature and alter the ecology and physiology of several organisms including fish species. To examine the effects of increased water temperature on freshwater fish reproduction, adult European bullhead Cottus gobio of both genders were maintained under three temperature regimes (T1: 6-10,...
Article
The environmental persistence, bioaccumulative tendency and potential toxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have generated great concern. This study aimed at evaluating the toxicity of short-term PFOS exposure in gills of the European bullhead Cottus gobio, a candidate sentinel species, by monitoring the response of some enzymes (citrate syn...
Article
The objective was to evaluate the impact of domestication process on the physiological stress response of cultured Eurasian perch confronted to a chronic stress situation. Briefly, F1 and F4 juveniles were submitted to chronic confinement and investigated on days 5, 15 and 30. Capture and 15min-anesthesia were imposed on fish to assess the effect o...
Article
The present study aimed at evaluating the toxicity of short-term cadmium (Cd) exposure in the European bullhead Cottus gobio, a candidate sentinel species. Several enzymatic activity assays (citrate synthase, cytochrome c oxidase, and lactate dehydrogenase) were carried out in liver and gills of fish exposed to 0.01, 0.05, 0.25, and 1 mg Cd/L for 4...
Article
This study examined the advantages of the use of biomarkers as an early warning system by applying it to different shrimp farming systems in Soctrang and Camau provinces, main shrimp producers in Mekong River Delta, Vietnam. Shrimp were collected at 15 different farms divided into four different farming systems: three farms were converted from orig...
Article
The intensification of shrimp farming has been related to the increasing use of chemotherapeutics and potentially suboptimal rearing conditions. For the purpose of assessing the stress level of cultured giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, a proteomic analysis (2D-DIGE) was performed on hemolymph. On the one hand, shrimp were exposed for 7 days to t...
Article
Temperature and selenium are two environmental parameters that potentially affect reproduction and stock recruitment of sturgeon in the San Francisco Bay/Delta Estuary. To identify proteins whose expression is modified by these environmental stressors, we performed a proteomic analysis on larval green and white sturgeons exposed to 18 or 26 degrees...
Article
A comparative proteomic approach was used to assess the protein expression profile in the liver of 34days old pikeperch larvae fed from day 10 post hatching, with three isoproteic and isolipidic formulated diets varying by their phospholipid (PL) contents (% dry diet weight): 1.4% (PL1), 4.7% (PL5) and 9.5% (PL9). Using 2D-DIGE minimal labelling of...
Article
The purpose of the present study is to provide information on the current state of knowledge regarding the effects of pesticides and antibiotics used in aquaculture on penaeid shrimp, one of the most common aquatic products for human consumption, with a special emphasis on the use of behavioral, physiological, and biochemical response. These includ...
Article
Gene delivery has become an increasingly important strategy for treating a variety of human diseases, including infections, genetic disorders and tumours. To avoid the difficulties of using viral carriers, more and more non-viral gene delivery nanoparticles are developed. Among these new approaches polyethylene imine (PEI) is currently considered a...
Article
The aim of this study was to assess the adverse effects of enrofloxacin (EF) on Tra catfish, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, in relation with density stress. Fish were held at 40, 80 or 120 fish m(-3) and fed with pellets containing either 1 g kg(-1) EF or no EF. Antibiotic exposure lasted 7d and all fish were fed without EF for another 7-d recovery p...
Article
The impact of commonly used pesticides, endosulfan and deltamethrin, on the molecular stress level in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, was assessed using classical oxidative stress biomarkers, protein carbonylation profiles, and levels of heat shock proteins. Results showed that 4 days exposure to 0.1 μg L(-1) deltamethrin significantly (p<0.05)...
Article
The impact of commonly used pesticides, endosulfan and deltamethrin, on the molecular stress level in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, was assessed using classical oxidative stress biomarkers, protein carbonylation profiles, and levels of heat shock proteins. Results showed that 4 days exposure to 0.1 µg L-1 deltamethrin significantly (p<0.05) i...
Article
This study aimed to assess the potentiality to use cholinesterase activity (ChE) in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) as a biomarker of exposure to 2 antibiotics (enrofloxacin, furazolidone) and 2 pesticides (endosulfan, deltamethrin), commonly used in Vietnamese farms. ChE from muscle and gills was first characterised using three different subs...
Article
Full-text available
Exposure to environmental pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is now taken into account to partly explain the worldwide decline of amphibians. PCBs induce deleterious effects on developing amphibians including deformities and delays in metamorphosis. However, the molecular mechanisms by which they express their toxicity during the d...
Article
In Vietnam, enrofloxacin is one of the most commonly used antibiotics in shrimp farms. Although the European Union set a maximum residue limit (MRL) of 100 μg/kg for enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin in edible tissues of aquatic animals for human consumption, only few data are available on its potential deleterious effects on shrimp. Th...
Article
Over the last decades, amphibians decline has been reported worldwide. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is one of the possible causes in addition to climate changes, UV-radiation or habitat destruction. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that PCBs could induce oxidative stress in young tadpoles. Developing Xenopus laevis wer...
Article
Goldfish (Carassius auratus) were exposed to a mixture of herbicides, namely atrazine, simazine, diuron, and isoproturon (ASDI) at a cumulative concentration of 50microg/l for 12 weeks. Control fish and exposed fish were sampled at 4, 8 and 12 weeks of exposure to observe the combined impact of herbicides on non-specific and specific mechanisms of...
Article
Sewage treatment plants are frequently associated with the release of xenobiotics and, consequently, with alterations of the reproductive function induced by many of these substances in aquatic organisms. In order to assess the impacts of sewage treatment plant (STP) discharges in polluted rivers, two sentinel species (gudgeon Gobio gobio and stone...
Article
In order to study the responses of wild fish to environmental contaminations, different sites (two references and three contaminated) were sampled across the Walloon hydrographical network (southern Belgium). The status of fish communities was characterized according to an index of biotic integrity (IBI). Furthermore, population structure, reproduc...