Frédéric Halgand

Frédéric Halgand
French National Centre for Scientific Research | CNRS · Centre de Biochimie Structurale

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62
Publications
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2,178
Citations

Publications

Publications (62)
Article
Full-text available
Amyloid diseases are degenerative pathologies, highly prevalent today because they are closely related to aging, that have in common the erroneous folding of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) which aggregate and lead to cell death. Type 2 Diabetes involves a peptide called human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), which undergoes a conformati...
Article
Oxidative stress is proposed to be one of the major causes of neurodegenerative diseases. Cellular prion protein (PrP) oxidation has been widely studied using chemical reagents such as hydrogen peroxide. However, the experimental conditions used do not faithfully reflect the physiological environment of the cell. With the goal to explore the confor...
Article
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) belong to the 10 deadliest diseases and are sorely lacking in effective treatments. Both pathologies are part of the degenerative disorders named amyloidoses, involving the misfolding and the aggregation of amyloid peptides; hIAPP for T2D and Aβ 1‐42 for AD. While hIAPP and Aβ 1‐42 inhibitors have...
Article
Immunogenicity related to the degradation of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) remains a major concern for their therapeutic efficacy and safety. Therefore, an analytical method allowing characterization and detection of mAbs degradation is mandatory. In this study, a simultaneous coupling of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to native mas...
Article
Full-text available
Prions are known to be involved in neurodegenerative pathologies such as Creutzfeld-Jakob disease. Current models point to a molecular event which rely on a transmissible structural change that leads to the production of β-sheet-rich prion conformer (PrPSc). PrPSc itself has the capability to trigger the structural rearrangement of the ubiquitously...
Article
L-Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a model protein allowing to shed light on the fundamental molecular mechanisms that drive the acquisition, evolution and regulation of enzyme properties. In this study, we test the hypothesis of a link between thermal stability of LDHs and their capacity against unfolding induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) gen...
Article
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by the aggregation of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), from monomer to amyloid deposits that are made of insoluble fibrils. Discrepancies concerning the nature of formed species or oligomerization kinetics among reported in vitro studies on hIAPP aggregation process have been highlighted. In this work, we in...
Article
Full-text available
Noncovalent interactions are essential for the structural organization of biomacromolecules in cells. For this reason, the study of the biophysical, dynamic, and architectural interactions among biomacromolecules is essential. Since mass spectrometry requires compatible solutions while preserving the noncovalent bonding network, we envisioned that...
Article
Full-text available
Prion protein is involved in deadly neurodegenerative diseases. Its pathogenicity is linked to its structural conversion (α-helix to β-strand transition). However, recent studies suggest that prion protein can follow a plurality of conversion pathways, which hints towards different conformers that might coexist in solution. To gain insights on the...
Article
Drug hypersensitivity is known to rely on a drug-specific T-cell response. Amplitude of antigen-specific T-cell response is partly controlled by the size of the antigen-specific naïve CD4+ T-cell repertoire, but estimate of this repertoire has never been investigated for allergenic drugs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of b...
Article
CP12 is a small chloroplast protein involved in the Benson-Calvin cycle. Since it was demonstrated that the CP12 protein shared different conformational properties between reduced and oxidized states we took advantage of the segregational properties of the Traveling Wave Ion Mobility (TWIM) guide to study subtle conformational changes related to re...
Article
Full-text available
Molecular recognition is central to all biological processes. Understanding the key role played by dedicated chaperones in metalloprotein folding and assembly requires the knowledge of their conformational ensembles. In this study, the NarJ chaperone dedicated to the assembly of the membrane-bound respiratory nitrate reductase complex NarGHI, a mol...
Data
CD spectra of NarJ, NarJT and all cysteine variants of NarJT before (A) and after (B) spin labeling. (TIFF)
Data
Full-text available
NarG(1–15) peptide binding activity as estimated by intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence quenching. (PDF)
Data
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Calculated, theoretical molecular weights and mass errors given in Da and ppm of NarJT species detected under non denaturing conditions. (PDF)
Article
Top-down mass spectrometry has been used to investigate structural diversity within some abundant salivary protein families. In this study, we report the identification of two isoforms of protein II-2 which differed in mass by less than 1 Da, the determination of a sequence for protein IB8a that was best satisfied by including a mutation and a cova...
Article
Overexpression of a protein in a foreign host is often the only route toward an exhaustive characterization, especially when purification from the natural source(s) is hardly achievable. The key issue in these studies relies on quality control of the purified recombinant protein to precisely determining its identity as well as any undesirable micro...
Article
Top-down proteomics characterizes protein primary structures with unprejudiced descriptions of expressed and processed gene products. Gene sequence polymorphisms, protein post-translational modifications, and gene sequence errors can all be identified using top-down proteomics. Saliva offers advantages for proteomic research because of availability...
Article
A hybrid linear ion-trap Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer was used for top-down characterization of the abundant human salivary cystatins, including S, S1, S2, SA, SN, C, and D, using collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) after chromatographic purification of the native, disulfide intact proteins. Post-translational...
Article
Full-text available
CP12 is a small chloroplastic protein involved in the Calvin cycle that was shown to bind copper, a metal ion that is involved in the transition of CP12 from a reduced to an oxidized state. In order to describe CP12's copper-binding properties, copper-IMAC experiments and site-directed mutagenesis based on computational modelling, were coupled with...
Article
Calbindin D28k (calbindin) is a cytoplasmic protein expressed in the central nervous system, which is implied in Ca2+ homeostasis and enzyme regulation. A combination of biochemical methods and mass spectrometry has been used to identify post-translational modifications of human calbindin. The protein was studied at 37°C or 50°C in the presence or...
Article
This chapter introduces the basic principles and concepts of mass spectrometry (MS). If a molecule can be converted into a gas phase ion, it can be interrogated by this technique. Making possible the study of proteins by MS required the development of methods to convert them into the gas phase ions and of techniques to separate the ions and detect...
Article
In a recent study, we reported the detection of apoA-II associated with the plasma high density lipoproteins of pigs that were previously thought to lack or to have this apolipoprotein in trace amounts. Dogs have also been reported to lack this apolipoprotein; however, genomic data have revealed that the gene for apoA-II is present on chromosome 38...
Article
Full-text available
Saliva is a body fluid with important functions in oral and general health. A consortium of three research groups catalogued the proteins in human saliva collected as the ductal secretions: 1166 identifications--914 in parotid and 917 in submandibular/sublingual saliva--were made. The results showed that a high proportion of proteins that are found...
Article
Cofilin is a major cytoskeletal protein that binds to both monomeric actin (G-actin) and polymeric actin (F-actin) and is involved in microfilament dynamics. Although an atomic structure of the G-actin-cofilin complex does not exist, models of the complex have been built using molecular dynamics simulations, structural homology considerations, and...
Article
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can result in protein sequence polymorphisms (PSPs) when codon translations are altered. Both top-down and bottom-up proteomics strategies can identify PSPs, but only if databases and software are used with this in mind. A 14319 Da protein from human saliva was characterized using the top-down approach on a hy...
Article
The Ure2 protein from baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) has prion properties. In vitro, at neutral pH, soluble Ure2p forms long, twisted fibrils. Two models have been proposed to account for Ure2p polymerization. The first postulates that a segment of 70 amino acid residues in the flexible N-terminal domain from different Ure2p molecules for...
Article
Top-down mass spectrometry focuses on intact proteins, thereby avoiding loss of information accompanying 'shotgun' protocols that reduce the proteome to a collection of peptides. A suite of liquid-chromatography technologies has been developed for purification of intact integral membrane proteins in aqueous/organic solvent mixtures compatible with...
Article
We have investigated a specific enzymatic biosensor for detecting target pollutant 3,5-dinitro-trifluoromethylbenzene (3,5-DNBTF). The predicted enzyme is a nitroreductase that catalyzes the total nitroreduction of 3,5-DNBTF to its corresponding diamine. The photo-activation of this diamine offers a large panel of detection tools. After broad scree...
Article
The small chloroplast protein CP12 plays the role of a protein linker in the assembly process of a PRK/GAPDH/CP12 complex that is involved in CO2 assimilation in photosynthetic organisms. The redox state of CP12 regulates its role as a protein linker. Only the oxidized protein, with two disulfide bonds, is active in complex formation. Several obser...
Article
The core complex of purple bacteria is a supramolecular assembly consisting of an array of light-harvesting LH1 antenna organized around the reaction center. It has been isolated and characterized in this work using a Rubrivivax gelatinosus mutant lacking the peripheral LH2 antenna. The purification did not modify the organization of the complex as...
Article
Full-text available
Cystic fibrosis is a fatal human genetic disease caused by mutations in the CFTR gene encoding a cAMP-activated chloride channel. It is characterized by abnormal fluid transport across secretory epithelia and chronic inflammation in lung, pancreas, and intestine. Because cystic fibrosis (CF) pathophysiology cannot be explained solely by dysfunction...
Article
Imaging with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) has expanded very rapidly with the development of gold cluster ion sources (Au3⁺). It is now possible to acquire ion density maps (ion images) on a tissue section without any treatment and with a lateral resolution of few micrometers. In this article, we have taken advantage of...
Article
Using the proteomic tandem affinity purification (TAP) method, we have purified the Saccharomyces cerevisie U2 snRNP-associated splicing factors SF3a and SF3b. While SF3a purification revealed only the expected subunits Prp9p, Prp11p and Prp21p, yeast SF3b was found to contain only six subunits, including previously known components (Rse1p, Hsh155p...
Article
Full-text available
Histone H3 lysine 9 methylation is associated with long-term transcriptional repression through recruitment of heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) proteins. These proteins are believed to promote the formation of dense chromatin structures interfering with DNA accessibility. During the G2 phase of the cell cycle, HP1 proteins are delocalized from foci...
Article
The use of gold cluster focused ion beams produced by a liquid metal ion gun in a TOF-SIMS mass spectrometer is shown to dramatically enhance secondary ion emission of phospholipids and peptides. The method has been successfully tested with cells grown onto plastic slips and with mouse brain slices, without any treatment of the samples. Very reliab...
Article
Attempts to incorporate the phosphoramidite of the thymine-thymine (6-4) photoproduct C5 thiol analogue (s(5)T(6-4)T PP), whose sulfur atom was protected with the methylsulfenyl group, into oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs), are reported. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionisation mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) coupled to enzymatic digestion, accur...
Article
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a neuromuscular disease linked to the lack of the dystrophin, a submembrane protein, leading to muscle weakness and associated with a defect of the lipid metabolism. A study of the fatty acid composition of glycerophosphatidylcholines by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometr...
Article
The use of photoionization at atmospheric pressure shows great potential for the mass analysis of large apolar or hydrophobic peptides. Mass spectra that were obtained using this technique showed mainly singly charged ions. While polar peptides spectra do not produce fragment ions, others lead to B-type or C-type in-source fragmentation. These diss...
Article
Arabidopsis thaliana threonine deaminase (TD) is a tetramer composed of identical approximately 59600 Da subunits. TD activity has been shown to be inhibited by isoleucine. This effect is reversed by a large excess of valine. Nondenaturant gel filtration, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry experiments demonstrated that bindin...
Article
The macromolecular complexes formed by the enzyme acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase with NADPH, magnesium ions and the competitive inhibitor N-hydroxy-N-isopropyloxamate (IpOHA) were analysed by electrospray mass spectrometry. Each ligand was added successively to a protein solution, allowing the stoichiometry of the whole macromolecular edifice (...
Article
Analysis by electrospray mass spectrometry of lysozyme and ribonuclease A showed that the presence of triethylammonium cations leads to a spectacular decrease of the protein charge state compared with this obtained with ammonium cations, thus confirming the role played by the presence of bases (ammonia or triethylamine) in the solvent phase. Howeve...
Article
Acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase is a key enzyme involved in the biosynthetic pathway of the amino acids isoleucine, valine, and leucine. This enzyme is of great interest in agrochemical research because it is present only in plants and microorganisms, making it a potential target for specific herbicides and fungicides. Moreover, it catalyzes an...
Article
Full-text available
Acetohydroxyacid isomeroreductase catalyses a two-step reaction composed of an alkyl migration followed by an NADPH-dependent reduction. Both steps require a divalent cation and the first step has a strong preference for magnesium. Manganese ions are highly unfavourable to the reaction: only 3% residual activity is observed in the presence of this...
Article
Acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase (EC 1.1.1.86), the second enzyme of the parallel branched chain amino acid pathway, is a homodimer with an Mr of approximately 114000 which in the presence of Mg2+ ions catalyzes an unusual alkyl migration followed by an NADPH-dependent reduction. Prior binding of NADPH and Mg2+ to the enzyme was shown to be requi...
Article
The macromolecular complexes formed by the enzyme acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase with NADPH, magnesium ions and the competitive inhibitor N-hydroxy-N-isopropyloxamate (IpOHA) were analysed by electrospray mass spectrometry. Each ligand was added successively to a protein solution, allowing the stoichiometry of the whole macromolecular edifice (...
Article
Plant acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase (EC 1.1.1.86), the second enzyme of the branched chain amino acid biosynthetic pathway, has been submitted to high-throughput screening for herbicide discovery. We report here the discovery of a new class of compounds belonging to the thiadiazole family, which exhibit a strong inhibitory effect on this plant...
Article
Full-text available
The inclusion of protein contaminants into crystals of turkey egg white lysozyme (TEWL) was investigated by electrospray mass spectrometry of the dissolved crystals. The results show that significant amounts of the structurally related contaminant hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) are included in the crystals of TEWL. The structurally unrelated contami...
Article
The flow evolving in a water-filled square cavity which is suddenly heated and cooled on the opposing sidewalls is observed by using the shadowgraph technique. The horizontal boundaries of the cavity are thermally insulating, while the heated and cooled vertical sidewalls are conducting. In a previous publication, the emphasis was on the very early...
Article
Using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and combining charge state distribution observations with hydrogen/deuterium exchanges, it is possible to evidence the presence of several conformers or to obtain local information on conformation changes induced by single mutations on bacterial cytochromes c. Mass spectrometry is shown to be a fast a...
Article
To estimate the stability of Rhodobacter capsulatus ferrocytochrome c2 wild-type and site-directed mutants, charge state distributions and hydrogen/deuterium exchange rates were monitored by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The relative stability of the mutants was observed with the order: V11 insert > Y75F > wild-type = K32E > K12D = K14...
Article
A new and simple solution to the problem of determining a function which will effect a possible state transfer of a linear, time-invariant system is presented here. This solution is based on relating the given system to a family of phase-variable canonical form systems, i.e. to a family of scalar differential equations, and solving the problem for...
Article
The conformational properties of Rhodobacter capsulatus cytochrome c2 wild-type and two site-directed mutants (glycine 34 replaced by serine and proline 35 replaced by alanine) were characterized by their charge state distributions and hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange properties monitored by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The results s...

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