Frederic Dick

Frederic Dick
University College London | UCL · Division of Psychology and Language Sciences

About

92
Publications
17,454
Reads
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5,057
Citations
Citations since 2017
16 Research Items
2276 Citations
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Publications

Publications (92)
Article
Full-text available
The English idiom “on the tip of my tongue” commonly acknowledges that something is known, but it cannot be immediately brought to mind. This phrase accurately describes sensorimotor functions of the tongue, which are fundamental for many tongue-related behaviors (e.g., speech), but often neglected by scientific research. Here, we review a wide ran...
Article
Statistical learning plays an important role in acquiring the structure of cultural communication signals such as speech and music, which are both perceived and reproduced. However, statistical learning is typically investigated through passive exposure to structured signals, followed by offline explicit recognition tasks assessing the degree of le...
Poster
Introduction: Prior studies have shown that specific parts of both the left posterior superior temporal sulcus (LpSTS) and left temporo-parietal cortex (LTP) contribute to phonological short-term memory. As the same regions also respond during non-phonological tasks, it is unclear how LpSTS and LTP contribute to phonological short-term memory or ho...
Preprint
Implicit statistical learning is thought to play an important role in acquiring the structure of cultural communication signals such as speech and music. These are distinguished from other sensory phenomena by the fact that we not only perceive, but also reproduce them. While research has suggested an effect of implicit learning on auditory sequenc...
Article
Distinct anatomical and spectral channels are thought to play specialized roles in the communication within cortical networks. While activity in the alpha and beta frequency range (7 - 40 Hz) is thought to predominantly originate from infragranular cortical layers conveying feedback-related information, activity in the gamma range (>40 Hz) dominate...
Article
Full-text available
Auditory selective attention is vital in natural soundscapes. But it is unclear how attentional focus on the primary dimension of auditory representation—acoustic frequency—might modulate basic auditory functional topography during active listening. In contrast to visual selective attention, which is supported by motor-mediated optimization of inpu...
Article
Full-text available
The ability to reproduce novel words is a sensitive marker of language impairment across a variety of developmental disorders. Nonword repetition tasks are thought to reflect phonological short-term memory skills. Yet, when children hear and then utter a word for the first time, they must transform a novel speech signal into a series of coordinated...
Preprint
Full-text available
Measuring the structural composition of the cortex is critical to understanding typical development, yet few investigations in humans have charted markers in vivo that are sensitive to tissue microstructural attributes. Here, we used a well-validated quantitative MR protocol to measure four parameters (R1, MT, R2*, PD*) that differ in their sensiti...
Article
Full-text available
Speech articulation requires precise control of and coordination between the effectors of the vocal tract (e.g., lips, tongue, soft palate, and larynx). However, it is unclear how the cortex represents movements of and contact between these effectors during speech, or how these cortical responses relate to interregional anatomical borders. Here, we...
Chapter
Typically developing children will rapidly and comprehensively master at least one of the more than 6,000 languages that exist around the globe. The complexity of these language systems and the speed and apparent facility with which children master them have been the topic of philosophical and scientific speculation for millennia. In 397 ad, in ref...
Chapter
How are environmental sounds relevant to the neurobiology of language? As studied in the 20th century, the purported structure of language and its processing—a human-specific “faculty” characterized by an abstract system of rules governing the hierarchical recombination of symbols encoded by arbitrary sound units—is seemingly unrelated to the recog...
Article
Performing musicians invest thousands of hours becoming experts in a range of perceptual, attentional, and cognitive skills. The duration and intensity of musicians’ training – far greater than that of most educational or rehabilitation programs – provides a useful model to test the extent to which skills acquired in one particular context (music)...
Article
Full-text available
Very little is known about how auditory categories are learned incidentally, without instructions to search for category-diagnostic dimensions, overt category decisions, or experimenter-provided feedback. This is an important gap because learning in the natural environment does not arise from explicit feedback and there is evidence that the learnin...
Article
Full-text available
Williams Syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder of known genetic origin, characterized by serious delays in language onset yet relatively verbose, intelligible and fluent speech in late childhood and adulthood. How do motor abilities relate to language in this group? We investigated planning and co-ordination of the movement of the speech a...
Article
Full-text available
In adults, patterns of neural activation associated with perhaps the most basic language skill—overt object naming—are extensively modulated by the psycholinguistic and visual complexity of the stimuli. Do children's brains react similarly when confronted with increasing processing demands, or they solve this problem in a different way? Here we sca...
Article
Like Cook et al., we suggest that mirror neurons are a fascinating product of cross-modal learning. As predicted by an associative account, responses in motor regions are observed for novel and/or abstract visual stimuli such as point-light and android movements. Domain-specific mirror responses also emerge as a function of audiomotor expertise tha...
Article
We combined quantitative relaxation rate (R1= 1/T1) mapping-to measure local myelination-with fMRI-based retinotopy. Gray-white and pial surfaces were reconstructed and used to sample R1 at different cortical depths. Like myelination, R1 decreased from deeper to superficial layers. R1 decreased passing from V1 and MT, to immediately surrounding are...
Article
Full-text available
Pronouncing a novel word for the first time requires the transformation of a newly encoded speech signal into a series of coordinated, exquisitely timed oromotor movements. Individual differences in children's ability to repeat novel nonwords are associated with vocabulary development and later literacy. Nonword repetition (NWR) is often used to te...
Article
A fundamental tenet of neuroscience is that cortical functional differentiation is related to the cross-areal differences in cyto-, receptor-, and myeloarchitectonics that are observed in ex-vivo preparations. An ongoing challenge is to create non invasive magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques that offer sufficient resolution, tissue contrast,...
Article
This study investigated the development of children's skills in identifying ecologically relevant sound objects within naturalistic listening environments, using a non-linguistic analogue of the classic 'cocktail-party' situation. Children aged 7 to 12.5 years completed a closed-set identification task in which brief, commonly encountered environme...
Chapter
Book synopsis: Educational Neuroscience presents a series of readings from educators, psychologists, and neuroscientists that explore the latest findings in developmental cognitive neurosciences and their potential applications to education. Represents a new research area with direct relevance to current educational practices and policy making Feat...
Article
Purpose: The authors sought to describe longitudinal changes in Percentage of Consonants Correct-Revised (PCC-R) after severe pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI), to compare the odds of normal-range PCC-R in children injured at older and younger ages, and to correlate predictor variables and PCC-R outcomes. Method: In 56 children injured betw...
Article
Full-text available
In contrast to vision, where retinotopic mapping alone can define areal borders, primary auditory areas such as A1 are best delineated by combining in vivo tonotopic mapping with postmortem cyto- or myeloarchitectonics from the same individual. We combined high-resolution (800 μm) quantitative T(1) mapping with phase-encoded tonotopic methods to ma...
Article
Full-text available
This study compared the comprehension of syntactically simple with more complex sentences in Italian–English adult bilinguals and monolingual controls in the presence or absence of sentence-level interference. The task was to identify the agent of the sentence and we primarily examined the accuracy of response. The target sentence was signalled by...
Article
Full-text available
We combined quantitative relaxation rate (R1= 1/T1) mapping—to measure local myelination—with fMRI-based retinotopy. Gray–white and pial surfaces were reconstructed and used to sample R1 at different cortical depths. Like myelination, R1 decreased from deeper to superficial layers. R1 decreased passing from V1 and MT, to immediately surrounding are...
Article
Full-text available
In this combined structural and functional MRI developmental study, we tested 48 participants aged 7-37 years on 3 simple face-processing tasks (identity, expression, and gaze task), which were designed to yield very similar performance levels across the entire age range. The same participants then carried out 3 more difficult out-of-scanner tasks,...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the effects of competing speech on auditory semantic comprehension using a dichotic sentence-word priming paradigm. Lexical decision performance for target words presented in spoken sentences was compared in strongly and weakly biasing semantic contexts. Targets were either congruent or incongruent with the sentential bias. Sent...
Article
Full-text available
Auditory and written language in humans' comprehension necessitates attention to the message of interest and suppression of interference from distracting sources. Investigating the brain areas associated with the control of interference is challenging because it is inevitable that activation of the brain regions that control interference co-occurs...
Article
Full-text available
Several perisylvian brain regions show preferential activation for spoken language above and beyond other complex sounds. These "speech-selective" effects might be driven by regions' intrinsic biases for processing the acoustical or informational properties of speech. Alternatively, such speech selectivity might emerge through extensive experience...
Article
Full-text available
Little is currently known about the postnatal emergence of functional cortical networks supporting complex perceptual and cognitive skills, such as face processing. The present study examined the emergence of the core cortical network underlying face processing in younger and older school-age children as well as young adults. Participants performed...
Chapter
Book synopsis: This volume describes, in up-to-date terminology and authoritative interpretation, the field of neurolinguistics, the science concerned with the neural mechanisms underlying the comprehension, production and abstract knowledge of spoken, signed or written language. An edited anthology of 165 articles from the award-winning Encycloped...
Article
In a non-linguistic analog of the "cocktail-party" scenario, informational and contextual factors were found to affect the recognition of everyday environmental sounds embedded in naturalistic auditory scenes. Short environmental sound targets were presented in a dichotic background scene composed of either a single stereo background scene or a com...
Article
We report the case of patient M, who suffered unilateral left posterior temporal and parietal damage, brain regions typically associated with language processing. Language function largely recovered since the infarct, with no measurable speech comprehension impairments. However, the patient exhibited a severe impairment in nonverbal auditory compre...
Article
Full-text available
To examine how young children recognize the association between two different types of meaningful sounds and their visual referents, we compared 15-, 20-, and 25-month-old infants' looking time responses to familiar naturalistic environmental sounds, (e.g., the sound of a dog barking) and their empirically matched verbal descriptions (e.g., "Dog ba...
Article
Previous event-related potential (ERP) studies have revealed that faces and words show a robust difference in the lateralization of their N170. The present study investigated the development of this differential lateralization in school-age boys. We assessed the potential role of fetal testosterone (FT) level as a factor biasing the prenatal develo...
Article
Full-text available
Regions of the human temporal lobe show greater activation for speech than for other sounds. These differences may reflect intrinsically specialized domain-specific adaptations for processing speech, or they may be driven by the significant expertise we have in listening to the speech signal. To test the expertise hypothesis, we used a video-game-b...
Article
Full-text available
Face processing in the human brain recruits a widespread cortical network based mainly in the ventral and lateral temporal and occipital lobes. However, the extent to which activity within this network is driven by different face properties versus being determined by the manner in which faces are processed (as determined by task requirements) remai...
Article
Regions of the human temporal lobe show greater activation for speech than for other sounds. These differences may reflect intrinsically specialized domain-specific adaptations for processing speech, or they may be driven by the significant expertise we have in listening to the speech signal. To test the expertise hypothesis, we used a video-game-b...
Article
Since all faces share the same first-order configuration, individual faces are recognized by subtle differences in their individual features and second-order configuration. This study asked two questions about the ERP signatures of featural and configural face processing. First, which ERP components are sensitive to subtle modifications of features...
Chapter
Book synopsis: Based on the most up-to-date research, Child Neuropsychology is a thorough and accessible guide to the key concepts and basic processes central to neuropsychological assessment and child evaluation. Essays by leading experts in the field cover basic neuropsychological functions and related disorders in the context of brain developmen...
Chapter
Book synopsis: Developmental language disorders (DLD) occur when a child fails to develop his or her native language often for no apparent reason. Delayed development of speech and/or language is one of the most common reasons for parents of preschool children to seek the advice of their family doctor. Although some children rapidly improve, others...
Article
To clarify how different the processing of verbal information is from the processing of meaningful non-verbal information, the present study characterized the developmental changes in neural responses to words and environmental sounds from pre-adolescence (7-9 years) through adolescence (12-14 years) to adulthood (18-25 years). Children and adults'...
Article
Full-text available
This set of three experiments assessed the influence of different psychophysical factors on the lateralization of the N170 event-related potential (ERP) component to words and faces. In all experiments, words elicited a left-lateralized N170, whereas faces elicited a right-lateralized or nonlateralized N170 depending on presentation conditions. Exp...
Article
How does the development and consolidation of perceptual, attentional, and higher cognitive abilities interact with language acquisition and processing? We explored children's (ages 5-17) and adults' (ages 18-51) comprehension of morphosyntactically varied sentences under several competing speech conditions that varied in the degree of attentional...
Article
Many recent models of language comprehension have stressed the role of distributional frequencies in determining the relative accessibility or ease of processing associated with a particular lexical item or sentence structure. However, there exist relatively few comprehensive analyses of structural frequencies, and little consideration has been giv...
Article
Full-text available
We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in conjunction with a voxel-based approach to lesion symptom mapping to quantitatively evaluate the similarities and differences between brain areas involved in language and environmental sound comprehension. In general, we found that language and environmental sounds recruit highly overlapping c...
Article
Environmental sounds are increasingly viewed as an attractive nonlinguistic analog for studying meaningful speech in that they can convey referential—or at least associative—information about objects, scenes, and events that unfold over time. However, environmental sounds also differ significantly from speech along other perceptual and informationa...
Article
Does lexical processing rely on a specialized semantic network in the brain, or does it draw on more general semantic resources? The primary goal of this study was to compare behavioral and electrophysiological responses evoked during the processing of words, environmental sounds, and non-meaningful sounds in semantically matching or mismatching vi...
Article
This study examined the neurophysiological effects of acoustic degradation on auditory semantic processing. Event-related potentials were recorded to target words presented in a sentence context. Targets were semantically congruent or incongruent with the context, which was acoustically intact or low-pass filtered. In unaltered contexts, N400 ampli...
Article
Full-text available
Contrasting linguistic and nonlinguistic processing has been of interest to many researchers with different scientific, theoretical, or clinical questions. However, previous work on this type of comparative analysis and experimentation has been limited. In particular, little is known about the differences and similarities between the perceptual, co...
Article
This study compared sentence comprehension skills in typically developing children 5-17 years of age, children with language impairment (LI) and children with focal brain injuries (FL) acquired in the pre/perinatal period. Participants were asked to process sentences 'on-line', choosing the agent in sentences that varied in syntactic complexity (ac...
Article
Introduction Not all sentence types are a#ected equally in agrammatic aphasia. For instance, Schwartz, Sa#ran and Marin (1980) found that Broca's aphasic patients perform much better on semantically reversible active sentences than they do on passive structures. Some researchers have interpreted such patterns as indicative of impairments to particu...
Article
s a predictor of decits in processing for both speech and environmental sounds. The lesion mapping and further statistical assessments reliably revealed a posterior superior temporal region (Wernicke's area, traditionally considered a language-specic region) as being differentially more important for processing nonverbal sounds compared with verbal...
Article
Full-text available
The most parsimonious account of language evolution is one where incremental, quantitative changes in primates' vocal tract, fiber pathways, and neuroanatomy converge with social and cultural developments. From this convergence arises the framework upon which complex language skills could build. Such an 'Emergentist' view emphasizes phylogenetic co...
Article
IntroductionNot all sentence types are a#ected equally in agrammatic aphasia.For instance, Schwartz, Sa#ran and Marin (1980) found that Broca'saphasic patients perform much better on semantically reversible activesentences than they do on passive structures. Some researchers haveinterpreted such patterns as indicative of impairments to particulargr...
Article
Spectral and temporal degradation of the speech stream is increasingly used to model receptive language deficits such as aphasia and developmental language disorders. As with results from patient studies, the specific pattern of receptive deficits can reveal underlying structural and processing characteristics of different languages. Here, we test...
Article
Full-text available
For more than a century, lesion−symptom mapping studies have yielded valuable insights into the relationships between brain and behavior, but newer imaging techniques have surpassed lesion analysis in examining functional networks. Here we used a new method—voxel-based lesion−symptom mapping (VLSM)—to analyze the relationship between tissue damage...
Article
Full-text available
Although aphasia is often characterized as a selective impairment in language function, left hemisphere lesions may cause impairments in semantic processing of auditory information, not only in verbal but also in nonverbal domains. We assessed the 'online' relationship between verbal and nonverbal auditory processing by examining the ability of 30...
Article
Aphasia is often characterized as a linguistic deficit. However, aphasic patients frequently have impairments in non-linguistic domains as well. To shed light on the nature of these deficits, as well as to explore the neural correlates of meaningful nonlinguistic information processing in auditory and visual modalities, we made use of behavioral an...
Article
The dramatic changes in cognitive ability observed throughout childhood mirror comparably significant changes in the developing brain. Studies of animals provide important data on associations between the development of behavior and the neural substrate. However, understanding the development of brain-behavior relations for higher cognitive functio...
Article
Full-text available
Although aphasia is often characterized as a selective impairment in language function, left hemisphere lesions may cause impairments in semantic processing of auditory information, not only in verbal but also in nonverbal domains. We assessed the `online'relation-ship between verbal and nonverbal auditory processing by examining the ability of 30...
Article
Do language abilities develop in isolation? Are they mediated by a unique neural substrate, a "mental organ" devoted exclusively to language? Or is language built upon more general abilities, shared with other cognitive domains, and mediated by common neural systems? Here, we review results suggesting that language and gesture are "close family", t...