Fred Volkmar

Fred Volkmar
Yale University | YU · Child Study Center

About

561
Publications
140,998
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43,611
Citations
Citations since 2017
74 Research Items
11618 Citations
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Publications

Publications (561)
Article
Difficulty with attention is an important symptom in many conditions in psychiatry, including neurodiverse conditions such as autism. There is a need to better understand the neurobiological correlates of attention and leverage these findings in healthcare settings. Nevertheless, it remains unclear if it is possible to build dimensional predictive...
Chapter
Differential Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder provides a framework for clinical considerations and best practices related to diagnosing children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) versus commonly co-occurring conditions. Differential diagnosis is a complex process, and it is common for clinicians to observe symptom overlap between conditions....
Article
Differential Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder describes clinical considerations and best practices related to diagnosing children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) versus commonly co-occurring conditions. Each chapter focuses on the similarities and differences between ASD and a second diagnosis. For example, one chapter outlines clinical co...
Preprint
Difficulty with attention is an important symptom in many conditions in psychiatry, including neurodiverse conditions such as autism. There is a need to better understand the neurobiological correlates of attention and leverage these findings for individuals in healthcare settings. Nevertheless, it remains unclear if it is possible to build robust...
Article
The purpose of this article is to explore the intersectionality of autism and sociocultural factors as well as discuss the complexities associated with appropriate assessment, diagnosis, and intervention. Based on a review of the literature, the authors present a brief history of the emergence of the term autism and highlight factors that have cont...
Article
Full-text available
People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are represented among those who espouse extremist thought and have committed violent acts associated with their beliefs. Media often highlight a perpetrator's psychiatric diagnosis following acts of mass violence, which in some instances has included ASD. ASD may itself not provide useful information for u...
Book
Full-text available
Developmental Psychopathology: An Introduction offers an authoritative, approachable overview of mental developmental disorders and problems faced by children and adolescents. Noted researchers and authors, Dr. Fred Volkmar, Eli Lebowitz and Denis Sukhodolsky from the Child Study Center at Yale University School of Medicine, present essential infor...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we review the impact of DSM-III and its successors on the field of autism—both in terms of clinical work and research. We summarize the events leading up to the inclusion of autism as a “new” official diagnostic category in DSM-III, the subsequent revisions of the DSM, and the impact of the official recognition of autism on research....
Article
Full-text available
The present study objectives were to examine the performance of the new M-CHAT-R algorithm to the original M-CHAT algorithm. The main purpose was to examine if the algorithmic changes increase identification of children later diagnosed with ASD, and to examine if there is a trade-off when changing algorithms. We included 54,463 screened cases from...
Article
Full-text available
Diminished visual attention to faces of social partners represents one of the early characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here we examine if the introduction of puppets as social partners alters attention to speakers' faces in young children with ASD and typically developing (TD) controls. Children with ASD (N = 37; Mage = 49.44 months...
Article
This paper, written in honor of Professor Ed Zigler, focuses on some of the themes in developmental disabilities research that were so central to his work. It has now been nearly 80 years since Leo Kanner first identified the prototypic form – early infantile autism – of what is now autism spectrum disorder. In this article we summarize the develop...
Article
Full-text available
Early identification of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is regarded as crucial for swift access to early intervention and, subsequently, better outcomes later in life. However, current instruments miss large proportions of children who later go on to be diagnosed with ASD, raising a question of what these instruments measure. The present study utili...
Article
Full-text available
Performing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans of children can be a difficult task, as participants tend to move while being scanned. Head motion represents a significant confound in fMRI connectivity analyses. One approach to limit motion has been to use shorter MRI protocols, though this reduces the reliability of results. Hence, t...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Performing fMRI scans of children can be a difficult task, as participants tend to move while being scanned. Head motion represents a significant confound in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) connectivity analyses, and methods to limit the impact of movement on data quality are needed. One approach has been to use shorter MRI...
Chapter
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that manifests during the early developmental period of childhood. Behaviourally characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, in combination with stereotyped and restricted patterns of behaviour and/or interest, it is currently believed that ASD occurs in appro...
Chapter
Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders - edited by Fred R. Volkmar January 2019
Article
Full-text available
Cambridge Core - Psychiatry - Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders - edited by Fred R. Volkmar
Article
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Published research often address aspects related to “statistical significance” but fail to address the clinical and practical importance and meaning of results. Our main objectives in this article are to investigate the merit of common measures of Effect Size in statistical research and to highlight the importance of the simple Relative Risk ratio....
Article
Full-text available
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), particularly the α7 nAChR, are implicated in the pathophysiology of both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and aggressive behavior. We explored the feasibility, tolerability, and preliminary efficacy of targeting nAChRs using transdermal nicotine to reduce aggressive symptoms in adults with ASD. Eight subjec...
Article
Full-text available
The autism mental status exam is an eight-item observational assessment that structures the way we observe and document signs and symptoms of ASD. Investigations of test performance indicate strong sensitivity and specificity using gold-standard assessment as reference standard. This study aims to explore potential sex differences in AMSE test perf...
Article
OBJECTIVES We compared sex-stratified developmental and temperamental profiles at 18 months in children screening negative for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) on the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) but later receiving diagnoses of ASD (false-negative group) versus those without later ASD diagnoses (true-negative group). METHODS W...
Article
Full-text available
Lay summary: This study addresses how the behavioral changes after treatment for ASD reflect underlying brain changes. Before and after receiving VR-SCT, young adults with high-functioning ASD passively viewed biological motion stimuli in a MRI scanner, tapping changes in the social brain network. The results reveal neuroplasticity in this age pop...
Chapter
Full-text available
Life course health development (LCHD) incorporates theories and empirical evidence from the biological, physical, and social sciences to formulate a framework that explains how health develops over the life course. The life course health development conceptual framework can be applied to autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to help prioritize a research...
Article
Youth with ASD are more likely to experience bullying than their typically developing peers. This risk has not been studied in youth with ASD transitioning to college. We examined the occurrence of bullying in 35 high functioning youth with ASD who were preparing to attend college. We also examined youth anxiety and ASD symptoms. Fifty-one percent...
Chapter
Kanner’s initial description of the syndrome of infantile autism emphasized that autism – or lack of interest in the social world – was an essential feature of the condition. For many years, subsequently the nature of the difficulties the child has in learning from the social world was poorly understood. However, over the last two decades, a consid...
Article
Increasing numbers of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are enrolling in post-secondary academic institutions. However, research indicates that post-secondary students with ASD are struggling more than their typically developing peers, with high rates of loneliness, anxiety, depression, and an increased incidence of dropping-out befor...
Article
Full-text available
Social media holds promise as a technology to facilitate social engagement, but may displace offline social activities. Adolescents with ASD are well suited to capitalize on the unique features of social media, which requires less decoding of complex social information. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed social media use, anxiety and friend...
Chapter
Adolescence presents some set of challenges to students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as to typically developing students. High school presents a range of challenges: the need for higher levels of social skills and more complex executive functioning. An increasing number of students with ASDs are moving on to college or vocational school afte...
Chapter
Awareness by primary care providers is essential in providing the earliest opportunities for screening and diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder. The diagnosis of autism is important in helping the child and family secure needed services. The M-CHAT helps in identifying children at risk—thus many children who score positive do not receive an autism...
Chapter
This chapter reviews some facts about autism and related conditions as they appear in infants and young children. Most parents of children with autism become concerned about the child's development in the first year or two of life. After 1 year of age, parents may notice in children with autism: problems in social interaction, communication, play,...
Chapter
This chapter discusses some of the issues involved in providing quality health care to individuals on the autism spectrum. It reviews some practical approaches to making visits more successful, coping with the emergency department and hospitalization, coordination of care issues, and the medical home for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (...
Chapter
This chapter discusses some of the issues for families of having a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This includes the role of parents and other family members, the special issues posed for siblings, how parents and family members can effectively communicate with each other, and how members of the extended family can be involved. Educators...
Chapter
This chapter discusses some of the behavioral problems and emotional difficulties seen in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). It groups problem behaviors and emotional problems into several broad categories. Behavioral and educational interventions are usually the first line of treatment for the behavior problems observed in ASD and are based on inte...
Chapter
This chapter discusses some of the medications more frequently used in treating challenging behaviors and mental health problems in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The medications most often prescribed to treat irritability in autism are called major tranquilizers. Antidepressants and the chemically related selective serotonin re...
Chapter
Autism and related conditions (now widely known as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs)) are disorders that share significant social disability as a major defining feature. This chapter gives an overview of diagnostic concepts, causes of the condition, and current research. The condition known as autistic disorder, childhood autism, or infantile autism...
Chapter
This chapter provides a quick review of selected model programs, all of which are, to some degree, evidence-based; this illustrates the range of effective approaches employed. It discusses specific aspects of evidence-based interventions relevant to all schools. Model programs for intervention can be grouped into several general groups. This groupi...
Chapter
This chapter lists different medical conditions and problems of autism. Seizure disorders are the most frequently encountered medical complications associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The most common sensory sensitivities reported among children with ASDs are probably those that involve sensitivity to sounds and noises. Children with vi...
Chapter
Many different complementary and alternative treatments have been suggested and used for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). These treatments may be complementary (treatments undertaken in combination with evidence-based treatments) or alternative (undertaken instead of more conventional treatments). This chapter summarizes some of t...
Chapter
This chapter touches on the complex issues of services for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It is primarily concerned with the United States. Autism is mentioned specifically in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) law as one of the conditions that meet the requirement for disability. The intent of the law is to identif...
Chapter
This chapter reviews some of the challenges and opportunities for the school-age child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Problems in communication are universal for children with ASDs. Different strategies can be used to facilitate communication in children with ASDs. For children with limited verbal language, an emphasis on communication is ind...
Article
Earlier detection and effective, evidence-based practices are gradually improving outcomes for people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although some continue to need intensive support as adults, an increasing number are now going to college, becoming independent, and marrying. With the transition to adulthood, people with ASD will face a number...
Presentation
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Oral presentation of findings from a clinical study.
Article
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The co-occurrence of psychotic and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms represents an important clinical challenge. Here we consider this problem in the context of a computational psychiatry approach that has been applied to both conditions-predictive coding. Some symptoms of schizophrenia have been explained in terms of a failure of top-down pr...
Article
Full-text available
Background Childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD) is a rare form of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) of unknown etiology. It is characterized by late-onset regression leading to significant intellectual disability (ID) and severe autism. Although there are phenotypic differences between CDD and other forms of ASD, it is unclear if there are neurobio...
Article
Improved outcomes for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have opened a range of potential pathways during the transition to adulthood. These include attending college, entering the labor force, and achieving a degree of independent living. Less cognitively able individuals may be eligible for state benefits and may enter supported empl...
Article
Full-text available
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by remarkable heterogeneity in social, communication, and behavioral deficits, creating a major barrier in identifying effective treatments for a given individual with ASD. To facilitate precision medicine in ASD, we utilized a well-validated biological motion neuroimaging task to identify pretreatmen...
Article
Full-text available
Sex differences in typical development can provide context for understanding ASD. Baron-Cohen (Trends Cogn Sci 6(6):248–254, 2002) suggested ASD could be considered an extreme expression of normal male, compared to female, phenotypic profiles. In this paper, sex-specific M-CHAT scores from N = 53,728 18-month-old toddlers, including n = 185 (32 fem...
Article
Full-text available
Cohen's (Educ Psychol Meth. 1960;23:37-40) kappa statistic has been criticized recently for providing low chance-corrected coefficients (<0.40) despite high levels of examiner agreement (e.g., ≥85%). The AC1 statistic (Series. 2002;2:1-9; BMC Med Res Methodol. 2013;13:61), the alpha statistic (J Clin Epidemiol. 1996;49:775-782), the B statistic (BM...
Article
In 2014, the Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB®) initiated a program for credentialing behavior technicians. The new credential, Registered Behavior Technician™ (RBT®), is for providers of behavioral intervention to a wide range of individuals with mental health needs and developmental delays, including individuals diagnosed with autism sp...
Article
Objective: Adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are increasingly attending college. This case report highlights the nature of the psychiatric difficulties these individuals may face and the potential role for college mental health practitioners. Participants: A case of a female student with ASD presenting with significant inattentive...
Article
Children with autism have heightened risk of developing oral health problems. Interventions targeting at-home oral hygiene habits may be the most effective means of improving oral hygiene outcomes in this population. This randomized control trial examined the effectiveness of a 3-week video-modeling brushing intervention delivered to patients over...
Chapter
Autism is a prevalent and strongly genetic brain-based disorder. Early focus in the field on the relevance of psychogenic factors led to the blaming of parents for the occurrence of the disorder, and as a result mainstream research on psychotherapeutic approaches has until recently been limited. Although psycho analytic approaches continue to be co...
Chapter
This chapter reviews the historical background behind the emergence and evolution of the diagnostic term “autism.” The changes in terminology and diagnostic criteria pertaining to autism over time, from the first edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-I) through DSM-5, are discussed in detail, and the advantages a...
Article
Significant changes have occurred in the field of autism, now referred to as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Despite what we have learned about autism in the past 30 years, the medical community still has more to uncover. Scientists from the fields of neuroimaging, genetics, epidemiology, cognitive neuroscience, and immunology have all joined toget...
Article
This study was conducted to identify a potential neuroendophenotype for autism using diffusion tensor imaging. Whole-brain, voxel-based analysis of fractional anisotropy was conducted in 50 children: 19 with autism, 20 unaffected siblings, and 11 controls. Relative to controls, participants with autism exhibited bilateral reductions in fractional a...
Article
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurogenetic disorder in which a period of typical development is followed by loss of previously acquired skills. Once thought to occur exclusively in females, increasing numbers of male cases of RTT have been reported. This systematic review included 36 articles describing 57 cases of RTT in males. Mutations of the MECP2 g...
Article
Full-text available
Aggression remains a major cause of morbidity in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Current pharmacotherapy for aggression is not always effective and is often associated with morbidity. Nicotinic acetylcholinergic neurotransmission may play a prominent role in ASD pathophysiology based on human and animal studies, and preclinical studie...
Article
A growing body of research has raised concerns about the number of individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) according to DSM-IV-TR who may no longer qualify for diagnoses under the new DSM-5 criteria, published in May 2013. The current study systematically reviews 25 articles evaluating samples according to both DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5...
Article
In the 70 years that have elapsed since the first description of infantile autism considerable progress has been made. The official recognition of the condition in 1980 stimulated further research and around the same time the strong neurobiological and genetic aspects of autism began to emerge. Subsequent research has focused on issues of early dia...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we examined the frequency of sensory-related issues as reported by parents in a large sample of school-age adolescents and adults with autism/autism spectrum disorder (ASD) [1] as compared to a group of individuals receiving similar clinical evaluations for developmental/behavioral difficulties but whose final diagnoses were not on t...
Article
Full-text available
In this review, we briefly summarize much of the existing literature on gender-related concerns and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), drawing attention to critical shortcomings in our current understanding and potential clinical implications. Some authors have concluded that gender identity disorder (GID), or gender dysphoria (GD), is more common in...
Article
For the last several years, the number of papers submitted to the Journal has continued to increase steadily, from 740 submissions in 2012, to 822 in 2013, and 940 last year. Of these, less than a third (about 30 %) were ultimately accepted. Having expanded our editorial board and the number of associate editors, JADD continues to produce the highe...
Article
Autism is a prevalent and strongly genetic brain-based disorder. Early focus in the field on the relevance of psychogenic factors led to the blaming of parents for the occurrence of the disorder, and as a result mainstream research on psychotherapeutic approaches has until recently been limited. Although psychoanalytic approaches continue to be con...

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Projects (5)
Project
The goal of this project is to gain better knowledge on how Virtual reality can be used in training with children with ASD. We investigate this through the use of an intervention trial. The study is a collaboration between several institutions that include Østfold University College, The Arctic University of Norway - University of Tromsø, University of Washington and Yale University.