Fred Charles

Fred Charles
Bournemouth University | BU · Department of Creative Technology

PhD

About

133
Publications
38,235
Reads
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2,316
Citations
Additional affiliations
October 2019 - present
Bournemouth University
Position
  • Head of Department
October 2016 - present
Bournemouth University
Position
  • Principal Academic
July 2007 - September 2016
Teesside University
Position
  • Lecturer

Publications

Publications (133)
Article
Full-text available
Social anxiety disorder has been widely recognised as one of the most commonly diagnosed mental disorders. Individuals with social anxiety disorder experience difficulties during social interactions that are essential in the regular functioning of daily routines; perpetually motivating research into the aetiology, maintenance and treatment methods....
Article
The technology supporting Interactive Digital Narrative (IDN) is of particular significance to cultural heritage research. IDN technology provides a means of engagement in cultural heritage sites, a medium for culturally significant stories, and culturally significant story-centric games. While previous work in this space has numerous examples of u...
Book
This book constitutes the refereed post-conference proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Persuasive Technology, PERSUASIVE 2021, held as a virtual event, in April 2021. The 17 full papers presented in this book together with 8 short papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 67 submissions. The papers are grouped in topical sect...
Article
Full-text available
Prefrontal cortex (PFC) asymmetry is an important marker in affective neuroscience and has attracted significant interest, having been associated with studies of motivation, eating behavior, empathy, risk propensity, and clinical depression. The data presented in this paper are the result of three different experiments using PFC asymmetry neurofeed...
Chapter
Full-text available
Interactive digital narrative research presents a diverse range of authoring tools [1, 4, 8, 12, 14]. Although our field often publishes the technology, it less often publishes a refined UX design pipeline for those tools’ authoring experience. This is despite the UX of these tools long being identified as a key challenge [14] and UX design pipelin...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The hypertext community has a history of research in Interactive Digital Narrative (IDN), including experimental works and systems to support authoring. Arguably the most prevalent contemporary form of IDN is within the world of computer games where a mixture of large-scale commercial works and smaller indie experimental pieces continue to develop...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents a modern, open-source game engine/framework for the visual novel genre of interactive narrative. It takes the insights from the engines of visual novel games and the products made with them to produce a free engine that contains all the features and components required of a standard visual novel, and demonstrates its capabilitie...
Chapter
Full-text available
Immersive experiences are typically considered an indicator of successful game design. The ability to maintain the player’s focus and enjoyment in the game lies at the core of game mechanics. In this work, we used a custom virtual reality game aiming to induce flow, boredom and anxiety throughout specific instances in the game. We used self-reports...
Chapter
Full-text available
Interactive Narratives are systems that use automated narrative generation techniques to create multiple story variants which can be shown to an audience, as virtual narratives, using cinematic staging techniques. Previous research in this area has focused on assessment of aspects such as the quality of the automatically generated narratives and th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The creation of interactive narrative is often supported by authoring tools-either to unlock the creation process for non-technical authors or simply make authorship faster and easier. From early Hyper-text focused creation tools this has now evolved to a broad diaspora of tools from specialist applications for particular types of story to general-...
Article
Volitional neural modulation using neurofeedback has been indicated as a potential treatment for chronic conditions that involve peripheral and central neural dysregulation. Here we utilized neurofeedback in patients suffering from Fibromyalgia - a chronic pain syndrome that involves sleep disturbance and emotion dysregulation. These ancillary symp...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Video game narrative has many complexities that are difficult to capture due to the broad range of interactions the player may have and the numerous presentation methods found within games. While existing models of digital narrative do address interactivity, they do not always address the full breadth of agency available to players in games. We con...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Locative Narratives tie elements of the narrative to physical locations that users must visit in order to experience. While single reader locative stories and multiplayer locative games are increasingly common, the intersection of these, multi-reader locative narratives, are much less common. This work will analyse prior works of Locatives Narrativ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Locative Hypertext Narrative has seen a resurgence in the Hypertext and Interactive Narrative research communities over the last five years. However, while locative hypertext provides significant opportunities for rich locative applications for both education and entertainment, many applications in this space are tied to very specific locations, re...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper demonstrates the integration and evaluation of different atmosphere models into Virtual Reality (VR) training for teacher education. We developed three behaviour models to simulate dif- ferent levels of class discipline. We evaluated their performances using a combination of objective and subjective measurements. Our initial results sugg...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The visualization of procedural knowledge from textual documents using 3D animation may be a way to improve understanding. We are interested in applying this approach to documents relating to patient education for bariatric surgery: a domain with challenging textual documents describing behavior recommendations that contain few procedural steps and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
With the increasing prevalence of powerful mobile technology, interactive entertainment is also becoming increasingly mobile. This can also be said for a range of applications including those pertaining to mental and physical health which are also looking to take advantage of the increase in mobile technology to create digital interventions and oth...
Chapter
User interaction is a central component of Interactive Storytelling, yet it has often been neglected, as precedence is often granted to the pursuit of narrative generation techniques. This chapter presents several paradigms of interaction using examples drawn from fully implemented Interactive Storytelling systems and proposes an empirical classifi...
Article
Full-text available
Invasive brain–computer interfaces (BCI) provide better signal quality in terms of spatial localization, frequencies and signal/noise ratio, in addition to giving access to deep brain regions that play important roles in cognitive or affective processes. Despite some anecdotal attempts, little work has explored the possibility of integrating such B...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Interactive Narratives are systems that use automated narrative generation techniques to create multiple story variants which can be shown to an audience, as virtual narratives, using cinematic staging techniques. Previous research in this area has focused on assessment of aspects such as the quality of the automatically generated narratives and th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The recent increase in interest in Interactive Storytelling systems, spurred on by the emergence of affordable virtual reality technology, has brought with it a need to address the way in which narrative content is visualized through the complex staging of multiple narrative agents' behaviors within virtual story worlds. In this work we address the...
Article
Full-text available
The ability to develop Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) to Intelligent Systems would offer new perspectives in terms of human supervision of complex AI systems, as well as supporting new types of applications. In this paper, we introduce a basic mechanism for the control of heuristic search through fNIRS-based BCI. The rationale is that heuristic se...
Book
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 11th International Conference on E-Learning and Games, Edutainment 2017, held in Bournemouth, United Kingdom, in June 2017. The 19 fulland 17 short papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 47 submissions. They are organized in the following topical sections: Virtual reality and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Despite recent progress in plan-based narrative generation , one major limitation is that systems tend to produce a single plotline whose progression entirely determines the narrative experience. However, for certain narrative genres such as serial dramas and soaps, multiple interleaved subplots are expected by the audience, as this tends to be the...
Article
Full-text available
In the past decade neurofeedback (NF) has become the focus of a growing body of research. With real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) enabling online monitoring of emotion-related areas, such as the amygdala, many have begun testing its therapeutic benefits. However, most existing NF procedures still use monotonic uni-modal interfac...
Article
Full-text available
Affective Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) harness Neuroscience knowledge to develop affective interaction from first principles. In this paper, we explore affective engagement with a virtual agent through Neurofeedback (NF). We report an experiment where subjects engage with a virtual agent by expressing positive attitudes towards her under a NF pa...
Chapter
User interaction is a central component of Interactive Storytelling, yet it has often been neglected, as precedence is often granted to the pursuit of narrative generation techniques. This chapter presents several paradigms of interaction using examples drawn from fully implemented Interactive Storytelling systems and proposes an empirical classifi...
Article
Full-text available
The recent development of Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) for Virtual Worlds has resulted in a growing interest in realistic visual feedback. In this paper, we investigate the potential role of Virtual Agents in neurofeedback (NF) systems, which constitute an important paradigm for BCI. We discuss the potential of virtual agents to contribute to th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
" Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) holds increasing potential for Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) due to its portability, ease of application, robustness to movement artifacts, and relatively low cost. The use of fNIRS to support the development of affective BCI has received comparatively less attention, despite the role played by the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
User interaction with Embodied Conversational Agents (ECA) should involve a significant affective component to achieve realism in communication. This aspect has been studied through different frameworks describing the relationship between user and ECA, for instance alignment, rapport and empathy. We conducted an experiment to explore how an ECA's n...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Neurofeedback systems can be modeled as closed-loop control systems with negative feedback. However, little work to date has investigated the potential of this representation in gaining a better understanding of the actual dynamics of neurofeedback towards explaining subjects' performance. In this paper, we analyze neurofeedback training data throu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has become increasingly accessible in recent years, which allows this relatively lowcost and portable brain sensing modality for the application of braincomputer interfaces (BCI). Although there is a growing body of research on fNIRS-based BCI utilising users’ covert psychophysiological activity, there...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Patient education documents increasingly take the form of Patient Guidelines, which share many of the properties of clinical guidelines in terms of knowledge content and the description of clinical protocols. They however differ in one specific aspect, which is that some recommendations for patient behaviour may be violated, and that no explicit re...
Article
Full-text available
Clinical guidelines are standardised documents, which summarise best practice in complex medical situations. Their target audience comprises health professionals, or in some cases patient groups, for whom they constitute important sources of patient education. These documents are characterised by a rich knowledge content, which also relies on a com...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We explore a novel approach in which BCI input is used to influence the behaviour of search algorithms which are at the heart of many Intelligent Systems. We describe how users can influence the behaviour of heuristic search algorithms using Neurofeedback (NF), establishing a connection between their mental disposition and the performance of the se...
Article
Narrative generation represents an application domain for AI planning where plan quality is related to properties such as shape of plan trajectory. In our work we have developed a plan-based approach to narrative generation that uses character relationships as a key determinant in controlling plan shape (relationships are key in genres such as seri...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Narrative generation represents an application domain for AI planning where plan quality is related to properties such as shape of plan trajectory. In our work we have developed a plan-based approach to narrative generation that uses character relationships as a key determinant in controlling plan shape (relationships are key in genres such as seri...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We report the development of an affective BCI based on frontal alpha asymmetry neurofeedback, which has previously been used in clinical experiments. Our results evidence a pattern of high-performance for some subjects, combined with high illiteracy, with 52.3% of subjects succeeding in the neurofeedback task. We suggest that individual asymmetry b...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Interactive Narrative is a form of digital entertainment based on AI techniques which support narrative generation and user interaction. Despite recent progress in the field, there is still a lack of unified models integrating narrative generation, user response and interaction. This paper addresses this issue by revisiting existing Interactive Nar...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The recent development of Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) to Virtual World has resulted in a growing interest in realistic visual feedback. In this paper, we investigate the potential role of Virtual Agents in neurofeedback systems, which constitute an important paradigm for BCI. We discuss the potential impact of virtual agents on some important d...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper discusses the potential of Brain-Computer Interfaces based on neurofeedback methods to support emotional control and pursue the goal of emotional control as a mechanism for human augmentation in specific contexts. We illustrate this discussion through two proof-ofconcept, fully-implemented experiments: one controlling disposition towards...
Article
Full-text available
Computer games are ideally placed to form the content of future Immersive Media, but this prospect is faced with both technical and usability issues. This paper describes an experiment in immersive gaming using a state-of-the-art computer First Person Shooter (FPS) game, in which we analyze user experience and performance through a combination of i...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we describe a case study that supports pathophysiological reasoning using a combination of diagrammatic and qualitative reasoning. Pressure-Volume (P-V) representations of the cardiac cycle have been traditionally used to represent clinical situations, from textbooks to research articles. This has led us to develop an interactive ver...
Article
Full-text available
Background Patient education documents are faced with a number of issues that limit their dissemination, from intrinsic readability to how they appeal to patients. Previous studies have demonstrated a positive impact of visual media across the range of patients’ literacy skills, both health-specific and generic. Objectives To devise a production me...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we present a proof-of-concept demonstrator of an Interactive Narrative for patient education. Traditionally, patient education documents are produced by health agencies, yet these documents can be challenging to understand for a large fraction of the population. In contrast, an Interactive Narrative supports a game-like exploration o...