Fred Brouns

Fred Brouns
Maastricht University | UM · Department of Human Biology

Prof Dr, FACSM, FECSS, FICC, MOP

About

281
Publications
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13,268
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Publications

Publications (281)
Article
Observations from animal and in vitro laboratory research, and anecdotal evidence, have led to the suggestion that gluten consumption stimulates weight gain by the presence of peptides expressing opioid activity. Another proposed mechanism is that gluten peptides decrease resting energy expenditure resulting in a positive energy balance. In order t...
Article
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Popular media messaging has led to increased public perception that gluten‐containing foods are bad for health. In parallel, ‘ancient grains’ have been promoted with claims that they contain less gluten. There appears to be no clear definition of ‘ancient grains’ but the term usually includes einkorn, emmer, spelt and Khorasan wheat. Gluten is pres...
Article
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Amylase/trypsin inhibitors (ATIs) are widely consumed in cereal-based foods and have been implicated in adverse reactions to wheat exposure, such as respiratory and food allergy, and intestinal responses associated with coeliac disease and non-coeliac wheat sensitivity. ATIs occur in multiple isoforms which differ in the amounts present in differen...
Article
During recent years there have been several parallel trends in popular books and social media suggesting that the consumption of bread made from ‘modern bread wheat’ is bad for health: a) bread contains gluten exorphins which cause the ever-increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity, b) due to intensive breeding and selection, modern bread whe...
Article
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Phytate (PA) serves as a phosphate storage molecule in cereals and other plant foods. In food and in the human body, PA has a high affinity to chelate Zn2+ and Fe2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, K+, Mn2+ and Cu2+. As a consequence, minerals chelated in PA are not bio-available, which is a concern for public health in conditions of poor food availability and low min...
Article
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Wholemeal flours from blends of bread wheat, emmer and spelt were processed into bread using yeast-based and sourdough fermentation. The bread wheat flour contained significantly higher concentrations of total dietary fibre and fructans than the spelt and emmer flours, the latter having the lowest contents. Breadmaking using the sourdough and yeast...
Article
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Amylase/trypsin-inhibitors (ATIs) comprise about 2–4% of the total wheat grain proteins and may contribute to natural defense against pests and pathogens. However, they are currently among the most widely studied wheat components because of their proposed role in adverse reactions to wheat consumption in humans. ATIs have long been known to contrib...
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Protein needs in elderly nutrition
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Can Mono Sodium Glutamate be safely used for taste enhancing and eating stimulation in the elderly?
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Het is al lange tijd bekend dat voedingsvezels een positieve bijdrage leveren aan de volksgezondheid. Voeding die rijk is aan vezels, vermindert het risico op een aantal ziekten en levert gezondheidsvoordelen op door verbetering van de darmfunctie. Het is dan ook opmerkelijk dat er een trend aan het ontstaan is om inname van vezels (vooral uit graa...
Article
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To understand the effects of saccharides on our metabolism and health, we need a clear understanding of what they are, how they differ, and why some types are deemed “less healthy” and others “better for health.” There are various ways to look at this topic. Firstly, saccharides can be classified according to their degree of polymerization (DP). Th...
Article
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Als voorbereiding op het VoedingNLcongres 'Koolhydraten en insulinegevoeligheid' (10 maart 2020) hebben we een expertsessie georganiseerd met professionals afkom stig uit wetenschap en praktijk. We hebben deze experts uitgenodigd om hun visie te geven op verschillende deelvragen omtrent koolhydraten en insulinegevoeligheid, en hen gevraagd om onder...
Chapter
Wheat accounts for about 20% to over 50% of the total calorie intake of food in regions where it is grown. However, there is a clear perception that disorders related to the consumption wheat are increasing, particularly in Western Europe, North America, and Australia. We consider here the evidence for this perception and discuss strategies and the...
Article
Wheat is the primary source of nutrition for many, especially those living in developing countries, and wheat proteins are among the most widely consumed dietary proteins in the world. However, concerns about disorders related to the consumption of wheat and/or wheat gluten proteins have increased sharply in the last 20 years. This review focuses o...
Article
Wheat is an important staple food globally, providing a significant contribution to daily energy, fiber, and micronutrient intake. Observational evidence for health impacts of consuming more whole grains, among which wheat is a major contributor, points to significant risk reduction for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and colon cancer. However, s...
Article
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Consumers intending to eat healthily should consult available information on the energy, salt, sugar and saturated fat content of foods. Some consumers, however, do this more than others do. The objective of this research was to identify distinct subgroups within the group of consumers who intend to eat healthily, segmented according to the timing...
Article
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In the original publication, the disclosure of potential conflicts of interest statement was not correct.
Article
Sprouting induces activation and de novo synthesis of hydrolytic enzymes that make nutrients available for plant growth and development. Consumption of sprouted grains is suggested to be beneficial for human health. Positive consumer perceptions about sprouted cereals have resulted in new food and beverage product launches. However, because there i...
Article
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How do ancient grains compare with modern grains, and can gluten and wheat lead to obesity and disease? Can we separate the wheat from the chaff in terms of “what is true?”
Preprint
Much epidemiological research confirms a correlation between a high consumption of sugar sweetened beverages and obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. In many of these studies, soft drinks, fruit drinks with added sugars and 100% fruit juices without added sugars were considered as one separate category and the total consumption was calcul...
Article
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The full text can be downloaded here and is available at: https://www.umj.com.ua/article/127979/o-roli-nizkouglevodnoj-vysokozhirovoj-diety-v-lechenii-i-profilaktike-saharnogo-diabeta-i-ozhireniya RELATED ARTICLES: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/333431763_Management_of_Type_2_Diabetes_Mellitus_with_Overweight_Focus_on_SGLT-2_Inhibitors_an...
Article
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A call for the development of international rules that make it impossible to arbitrarily add sugars to almost anything. Such a practice would significantly reduce our sugar consumption immediately.
Article
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In the past, different types of diet with a generally low-carbohydrate content (< 50–< 20 g/day) have been promoted, for weight loss and diabetes, and the effectiveness of a very low dietary carbohydrate content has always been a matter of debate. A significant reduction in the amount of carbohydrates in the diet is usually accompanied by an increa...
Article
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Are 'ancient wheat grains' better for health than 'modern bread wheat'?
Article
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Background/objectives: Renewed dietary recommendations for carbohydrates have recently been published by various international health authorities. The present work (1) reviews the methods and processes (systematic approach/review, inclusion of public consultation) used to identify, select and grade the evidence underpinning the recommendations, pa...
Article
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Voedingsvezels zijn belangrijk voorde volksgezondheid. Een voeding rijk aan vezels verbetert de darmfunctie en vermindert het risico op ziekte. Veel niet-verteerbare maar snel fermenteerbare koolhydraten (FODMaPs) zijn ook voedingsvezels maar worden volgens sommigen maar beter vermeden omdat ze kunnen leiden tot een opgeblazen gevoel en andere buik...
Article
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In een serie artikelen over koolhydraten vertelt Fred Brouns over dit veelbesproken voedingscomponent. In dit eerste deel wordt de basis gelegd: wat zijn koolhydraten en wat hebben ze met suiker te maken?
Article
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In deze serie over koolhydraten legt emeritus hoogleraar Fred Brouns ons alles uit over koolhydraten. In dit deel gaat hij dieper in op suiker, wat ook onder de noemer koolhydraten valt. Wat doen suikers in je lijf en wat is de glycemische index van voedingsstoffen? Lees deel één van deze serie om te begrijpen uit welke moleculen suikers zijn opgeb...
Article
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Lessen in koolhydraten: levensstijl is leidend voor consumptie In deze serie over koolhydraten vertelt emeritus hoogleraar Fred Brouns ons alles over koolhydraten, waarvan suiker een onderdeel is. In dit deel: welke rol speelt levensstijl in de hoeveelheid suiker die je mag eten? Suiker kàn schadelijk zijn Natuurlijke suikers komen overal in onze v...
Conference Paper
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Introduction: The quality of carbohydrates (dietary fiber, whole grains, glycemic index and load) matters greatly to health and disease. In the first International Carbohydrate Quality Consortium (ICQC) meeting in Stresa we developed a consensus report on glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL) and glycemic response(1). ICQC decided to focus this s...
Article
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Lessen in koolhydraten: suiker op het etiket Gezonde levensstijl ○ In deze serie over koolhydraten legt emeritus hoogleraar Fred Brouns alles uit over koolhydraten. In dit deel: Hoe weet je als consument wat de toegevoegde suikers en wat de natuurlijke suikers zijn? Lees ook: Lees ook: wat zijn koolhydraten Suiker is suiker, of het nou kristalsuik...
Article
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Nutrition science has enriched our understanding of how to stay healthy by producing valuable knowledge about the interaction of nutrients, food, and the human body. Nutrition science also has raised societal awareness about the links between food consumption and well-being, and provided the basis for food regulations and dietary guidelines. Its co...
Article
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Het is al lange tijd bekend dat voedingsvezels een positieve bij-drage leveren aan de volksgezondheid. Voeding die rijk is aan ve-zels, vermindert het risico op een aantal ziekten en levert gezond-heidsvoordelen op door verbetering van de darmfunctie. Het is dan ook opmerkelijk dat er een trend aan het ontstaan is om in-name van vezels (vooral uit...
Article
People are increasingly aware of the positive effects of a healthy diet. Concurrently, daily food consumption decisions – choices about both the quality and quantity of food that is ingested – are steered more by what consumers consider healthy. Despite the increased aim to eat healthier, however, consumers often do not read or incorrectly interpre...
Article
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Globally a new trend is developing that recommends avoidance of nondigestible, rapidly fermentable carbohydrates, also referred to as FODMAPs. This trend includes the publication of "free from" books and articles and the launch of diet programs and specialty foods. In this article we present information to help in making appropriate dietary recomme...
Article
Background and aims: There is an increasing societal concern that consumption of specific foods such as sugar might become 'addictive' and, hence, promote weight gain. Claims about the addictiveness of sugar however are based largely on findings from few animal studies, whereas there is a lack of direct human evidence for symptoms of sugar-related...
Article
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Over de gezondheidseffecten van stoffen als suiker en vet wordt in de media een hoop gezegd en geschreven. Dat maakt het de consument allesbehalve makkelijk, stelt Fred Brouns. Hij legt uit hoe hij in zijn werk als wetenschapper duidelijkheid probeert te scheppen, en geeft zijn kijk op een minder zoete wereld. Fred Brouns Emeritus hoogleraar Innova...
Article
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Voedingsvezels zijn belangrijk voor de volksgezondheid. Een voeding rijk aan vezels verbetert de darmfunctie en vermindert het risico op ziekte. Veel niet-verteerbare maar snel fermenteerbare koolhydraten (FODMaPs) zijn ook voedingsvezels maar worden volgens sommigen maar beter vermeden omdat ze kunnen leiden tot een opgeblazen gevoel en andere bui...
Article
Full-text available
Lessen in koolhydraten: hoe verwerkt ons lichaam suiker? In deze serie over koolhydraten legt emeritus hoogleraar Fred Brouns ons alles uit over koolhydraten. In dit deel gaat hij dieper in op suiker, wat ook onder de noemer koolhydraten valt. Wat doen suikers in je lijf en wat is de glycemische index van voedingsstoffen? Lees deel één van deze se...
Technical Report
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With this report we aim to present the current state of scientific knowledge of intolerance to gluten and wheat, with reference to other grains such as barley, oats, rye and spelt. A sound knowledge of this matter is essential for three main groups of people with gluten and/or wheat related intolerances: Individuals with coeliac disease , Individua...
Article
The aim of this study was to validate an ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the determination of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) in food items and to analyze AGEs in a selection of food items commonly consumed in a Western diet. N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), N(ε)-(1-carboxyethyl)lysine...
Article
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The way in which sugar and carbohydrate names as well as their commercial/trade names are frequently used leads to them often wrongly interpreted in terms of what they are. This forms a source of confusion that is spreading through the internet. Below some explanations are given to help achieve correct interpretation and referencing. There are many...
Article
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From a compositional and a physiological point of view, syrups are considered to be concentrated natural sugar sources, mostly composed of carbohydrate molecules containing glucose and fructose, and should therefore be regarded as sugar.
Article
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From a compositional and a physiological point of view, syrups are considered to be concentrated natural sugar sources, mostly composed of carbohydrate molecules containing glucose and fructose, and should therefore be regarded as sugar
Article
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Recent proposals to initiate an evidence-based evaluation of the effects of wheat types and food processing in the context of wheat and gluten avoidance was presented as an important activity within the European Health Grain Forum. Worldwide an anti-gluten and anti-wheat hype has developed over the last 4 years, with significant impact on all parts...
Technical Report
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Met dit rapport beoogt het Nederlands Bakkerij Centrum de huidige stand van zaken weer te geven over de kennis van voedselovergevoeligheid voor tarwe en verwante granen (rogge, spelt, haver, Quinoa, gerst) voor drie hoofdgroepen van mensen met een aan tarwe gerelateerde voedselovergevoeligheid. Het gaat om de groep mensen met coeliakie of tarwealle...
Article
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Wheat- A call to action - The cereal foods supply chain must share responsibility for public health
Article
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There is a global increase in obesity and related co-morbidities, causing unacceptable increases chronic disease and health care costs. To help reduce the prevalence of overweight food consumption recommendations are being made at national and international level. Recently the WHO published guidelines for the consumption of added sugars but include...
Article
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D e discussie over de gezond-heidseffecten van vetten, kool-hydraten en suikers is als een pendulum die heen en weer slingert. Nu is het ene en dan weer een ander nutriënt de oorzaak van overge-wicht en hieraan gerelateerde chronische aandoeningen. Verschillende dieettrends volgen elkaar op. Er zijn enerzijds diëten waarbij koolhydraten van vetten...
Article
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Digestible maltodextrins are low-sweet saccharide polymers consisting of D-glucose units linked primarily linearly with alpha-1,4 bonds, but can also have a branched structure through alpha-1,6 bonds. Often, maltodextrins are classified by the amount of reducing sugars present relative to the total carbohydrate content; between 3 and 20 percent in...
Article
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Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterised by deficits in the ability to socialise, communicate and use imagination, and displays of stereotypical behaviour. It is widely accepted that ASD involves a disorder in brain development. However, the real causes of the neurodevelopmental disorders associated with ASD are not clear. In this respect, it...
Article
Seaweeds have great potential as feed ingredients for fish farming, though their effects on the fatty acid content and profile of fish flesh are not well established. Recent studies suggest that seaweed supplementation can increase the concentration of long chain omega‐3 PUFA (LC n‐3 PUFAs) in various animal species, though this effect has never be...
Article
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Consumers and patients are unsure of whom to trust for nutritional advice. Although medical doctors are seen as experts in nutrition and their advice is regularly followed, data are lacking on the amount of nutrition education in European medical school curricula. In line with US research, we distributed a survey on required and/or optional nutriti...
Article
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A causal role of fructose intake in the aetiology of the global obesity epidemic has been proposed in recent years. This proposition, however, rests on controversial interpretations of two distinct lines of research. On one hand, in mechanistic intervention studies, detrimental metabolic effects have been observed after excessive isolated fructose...
Article
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Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins present in most plants. They play a role in protecting plants against external pathogens, like fungi, and other organisms. Some common dietary staples, such as cereal grains and legumes, have relatively high concentrations of a variety of lectins. A part of the proteins present in wheat germ is characterize...
Article
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European regulations mandate that only substantiated and approved statements can be used as nutrition and health related claims in food marketing. A thorough understanding of consumer perceptions of these approved claims is needed to assess their impact on both the selection of functional foods and innovative functional food concepts. In this artic...
Article
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Introduction: Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins present in most plants, and their seeds, nuts and fruits. Authors of popular nutritional plans, such as the Paleolithic diet, propose adverse health effects of these lectins. With the use of different arguments, the consumption of foods high in lectins, such as wheat, is discouraged. In this n...
Article
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After earlier debates on the role of fat, high fructose corn syrup, and added sugar in the aetiology of obesity, it has recently been suggested that wheat consumption is involved. Suggestions have been made that wheat consumption has adverse effects on health by mechanisms related to addiction and overeating. We discuss these arguments and conclude...
Article
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Mainstream multinationals have started to acknowledge that the market for gluten-free products is not as small as previously thought, mainly because of new findings concerning wheat sensitivity.
Article
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Na suiker en fructose wordt nu ook tarwe, wereldwijd de meest gecultiveerde graansoort, bestempeld als verslavend en de oorzaak van obesitas. Een goede reden om de weten-schappelijke kennis over tarwe en andere glutenhoudende granen en hun effecten op gezondheid en ziekte op een rij te zetten.
Article
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Van alle glutenhoudende granen is tarwe het meest ongezond. Het maakt dik en leidt verder tot gewrichtsklachten, astma, diabetes en coeliakie. Dat stelt de Amerikaanse cardioloog W.R. Davis in zijn boek 'Wheat Belly', een absolute bestseller in de Verenigde Staten die binnenkort ook in een Nederlandse vertaling verschijnt. Fred Brouns is hoogleraar...
Article
Postprandial glucose, together with related hyperinsulinemia and lipidaemia, has been implicated in the development of chronic metabolic diseases like obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this review, available evidence is discussed on postprandial glucose in relation to body weight control, the development...
Article
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Over the last three decades substantial attention has been given to the role of dietary fiber in health and disease, in particular diabetes, cardiovascular disease, intestinal health, and some types of cancer. As a result the food industry started to add back fiber to refined foods and develop fiber rich foods. Scientists suggested that whole grain...
Article
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The plant Stevia rebau¬diana Bertoni is native to South America and its leaves have been used by natives for sweetening purposes for centuries. A group of different types of steviol glycosides (SG), which naturally occur in the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is responsible for the sweet taste. Stevioside and rebau¬dioside A (Reb A) are the mos...
Article
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Viscous fibers typically reduce total cholesterol (TC) by 3-7% in humans. The cholesterol-lowering properties of the viscous fiber pectin may depend on its physico-chemical properties (viscosity, molecular weight (MW) and degree of esterification (DE)), but these are not typically described in publications, nor required by European Food Safety Auth...
Article
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The impact of slowly digestible sugars in reducing the risk of developing obesity and related metabolic disorders remains unclear. We hypothesised that such carbohydrates (CHO), resulting in a lower glycaemic and insulinaemic response, may lead to greater postprandial fat oxidation rates in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). The presen...