Fred Arnold

Fred Arnold
ICF

PhD

About

161
Publications
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Publications

Publications (161)
Article
Despite a general understanding that interviewers might cause measurement errors on sensitive questions in sample surveys, there is relatively little research on interviewer effects on responses to questions on women justifying a woman's refusal to have sex with her husband, women justifying wife beating, women's experience of physical and sexual v...
Technical Report
Maharashtra state report from the 2019-2021 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-5)
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Background Population-based household surveys, notably the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS), remain the main source of maternal and newborn health data for many low- and middle-income countries. As part of the Every Newborn Birth Indicators Research Tracking in Hospitals (EN-BIRTH) study, this paper...
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Background Worldwide, an estimated 5.1 million stillbirths and neonatal deaths occur annually, 98% in low- and middle-income countries. Limited coverage of civil and vital registration systems necessitates reliance on women’s retrospective reporting in household surveys for data on these deaths. The predominant platform, Demographic and Health Surv...
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Intervention coverage—the proportion of the population with a health-care need who receive care—does not account for intervention quality and potentially overestimates health benefits of services provided to populations. Effective coverage introduces the dimension of quality of care to the measurement of intervention coverage. Many definitions and...
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Background: An estimated 5·1 million stillbirths and neonatal deaths occur annually. Household surveys, most notably the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), run in more than 90 countries and are the main data source from the highest burden regions, but data-quality concerns remain. We aimed to compare two questionnaires: a full birth history modu...
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Background: Under-five and maternal mortality were halved in the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) era, with slower reductions for 2.6 million neonatal deaths and 2.6 million stillbirths. The Every Newborn Action Plan aims to accelerate progress towards national targets, and includes an ambitious Measurement Improvement Roadmap. Population-based...
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Background Nationally-representative household surveys are the standard approach to monitor access to and treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) among children under 5 years (U5), however these indicators are dependent on caregivers’ recall of the treatment received. Methods A prospective case–control study was performed in Mal...
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Background/methods Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are the primary tool for malaria vector control in sub-Saharan Africa, and have been responsible for an estimated two-thirds of the reduction in the global burden of malaria in recent years. While the ultimate goal is high levels of ITN use to confer protection against infected mosquitoes, it is wi...
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Background Population-based intervention coverage indicators are widely used to track country and program progress in improving health and to evaluate health programs. Indicator validation studies that compare survey responses to a “gold standard” measure are useful to understand whether the indicator provides accurate information. The Improving Co...
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Background Formal validation studies are of critical importance in determining whether or not household survey questions are providing accurate information on what they intend to measure. These studies supplement an array of methods used to evaluate survey questions. Methods and Findings This paper summarizes the methods used by the two major inte...
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Background: Since 2003 Tanzania has upgraded its approximately 7000 drug stores to Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets (ADDOs), involving dispenser training, introduction of record keeping and enhanced regulation. Prior to accreditation, drug stores could officially stock over-the-counter medicines only, though many stocked prescription-only antima...
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In 2009, a common set of questions addressing handwashing behavior was introduced into nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS), providing large amounts of comparable data from numerous countries worldwide. The objective of this analysis is to describe global handwashing patterns u...
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Background Regular monitoring of coverage for reproductive, maternal, neonatal, and child health (RMNCH) is central to assessing progress toward health goals. The objectives of this review were to describe the current state of coverage measurement for RMNCH, assess the extent to which current approaches to coverage measurement cover the spectrum of...
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The fourth round of National Family Health Survey (2015-16) is discussed with a brief exposition of the trends in household environment and sanitation, fertility, child health and child mortality, nutrition, health, and status of women between 2005-06 (NFHS-3) and 2015-16 (NFHS-4)
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A brief exposition of the trends in health, fertility, status of women, nutrition and child mortality between 2005-06 and 2015-16 as have emerged from the National Family Health Survey in 17 states.
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Background: To assess the availability, price and market share of quality-assured artemisinin-based combination therapy (QAACT) in remote areas (RAs) compared with non-remote areas (nRAs) in Kenya and Ghana at end-line of the Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria (AMFm) intervention. Methods: Areas were classified by remoteness using a composite...
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To describe the state of the public and private malaria diagnostics market shortly after WHO updated its guidelines for testing all suspected malaria cases prior to treatment. 10 nationally representative cross-sectional cluster surveys were conducted in 2011 among public and private health facilities, community health workers, and retail outlets (...
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Improving access to quality-assured artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) is an important component of malaria control in low- and middle-income countries. In 2010 the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria launched the Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria (AMFm) program in seven African countries. The goal of the program was to d...
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Coverage estimates of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are often calculated at the national level, but are intended to be a proxy for coverage among the population at risk of malaria. The analysis uses data for surveyed households, linking survey enumeration areas (clusters) with levels of malaria endemicity and adjusting coverage estimates based on...
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The Affordable Medicines Facility - malaria (AMFm) is primarily an artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) subsidy, aimed at increasing availability, affordability, market share and use of quality-assured ACTs (QAACTs). Mainland Tanzania was one of eight national scale programmes where AMFm was introduced in 2010. Here we present findings from outlet...
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The Affordable Medicines Facility - malaria (AMFm), implemented at national scale in eight African countries or territories, subsidized quality-assured artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) and included communication campaigns to support implementation and promote appropriate anti-malarial use. This paper reports private for-profit provider awarene...
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After the collapse of the Taliban regime in 2002, Afghanistan adopted a new development path and billions of dollars were invested in rebuilding the country's economy and health systems with the help of donors. These investments have led to substantial improvements in maternal and child health in recent years and ultimately to a decrease in materna...
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Considerable progress has been made in reducing maternal, newborn, and child mortality world-wide, but many more deaths could be prevented if effective interventions were available to all who could benefit from them. Timely, high-quality measurements of intervention coverage—the proportion of a population in need of a health intervention that actua...
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Nationally representative household surveys are increasingly relied upon to measure maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) intervention coverage at the population level in low- and middle-income countries. Surveys are the best tool we have for this purpose and are central to national and global decision making. However, all survey point estimat...
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Household surveys are the primary data source of coverage indicators for children and women for most developing countries. Most of this information is generated by two global household survey programmes-the USAID-supported Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and the UNICEF-supported Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). In this review, we pro...
Article
Background: Malaria is one of the greatest causes of mortality worldwide. Use of the most effective treatments for malaria remains inadequate for those in need, and there is concern over the emergence of resistance to these treatments. In 2010, the Global Fund launched the Affordable Medicines Facility--malaria (AMFm), a series of national-scale p...
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Objective:This study examines the epidemiology of obesity and markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adult men and women in Tashkent City, Uzbekistan. The study also examines the association between obesity and the markers of CVD. Method: The analysis uses data from the 2002 Uzbekistan Health Examination Survey, which included a representative...
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Many countries in South Asia, including Nepal, India and Bangladesh, demonstrate a strong cultural preference for sons, which may influence fertility desires and contraceptive use. Demographic and Health Survey data from married, nonpregnant women aged 15-49 who had at least one child were used to examine the relationship of parity and number of so...
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HIV estimates in India were based on HIV sentinel surveillance (HSS) data and several assumptions. Expansion of sentinel surveillance to all districts and community based HIV prevalence measured by National Family Health Survey-3 (NFHS-3) in 2006 provided opportunity to replace many of the assumptions with evidence based information and improve the...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report provides clear evidence of the poor state of nutrition among young children, women, and men in India and the lack of progress over time, based on measurements of height and weight, anaemia testing, testing for the iodization of household cooking salt, utilization of nutrition programmes, and information on child feeding practices and vi...
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To describe an approach for evaluating the impact of malaria control efforts on malaria-associated mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, where disease-specific mortality trends usually cannot be measured directly and most malaria deaths occur among young children. Methods for evaluating changes in malaria-associated mortality are examined; advantages an...