Franzis Preckel

Franzis Preckel
Universität Trier · Department of Psychology, Giftedness Research and Education

Prof. Dr.

About

211
Publications
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Publications

Publications (211)
Article
Full-text available
We investigated rank-order continuity and mean-level change in adolescents’ self-esteem, academic self-concept, and social self-concept and tested whether interindividual differences in intraindividual change could be explained by four dimensions of classroom climate (i.e., teachers’ focus on students, learning community, pressure related to social...
Poster
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Examination of cross-sectional and developmental gender differences in three forms of academic boredom using SMM- and MIMIC-models
Article
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High-achieving students mostly experience school more positively than lower achieving students do. For students with different intellectual abilities, findings are inconclusive. In this study, the socio-emotional experiences of school were considered through the four dimensions of classroom climate, attitude towards school, social integration, and...
Article
Full-text available
The threshold hypothesis and the necessary-but-not-sufficient hypothesis represent popular views on the relationship between intelligence and creativity. However, most studies investigating these hypotheses used suboptimal or even inappropriate statistical methods, calling into question the robustness of the available evidence. The ability differen...
Article
Full-text available
Descriptive analyses of socially important or theoretically interesting phenomena and trends are a vital component of research in the behavioral, social, economic, and health sciences. Such analyses yield reliable results when using representative individual participant data (IPD) from studies with complex survey designs, including educational larg...
Preprint
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Intersectional approaches have become increasingly important for explaining educational inequalities because they help to improve our understanding of how individual experiences are shaped by simultaneous membership in multiple social categories that are associated with interconnected systems of power, privilege, or oppression. For years, there has...
Article
Cognitive ability is one major component of students’ academic potential. On average, teachers are quite accurate in judging their students’ cognitive ability, but there is considerable variance between teachers. To explain this, the relevant literature discusses several influencing factors on teacher judgment accuracy. One of those factors concern...
Article
Full-text available
Background and Objectives. Perfectionism is a multidimensional personality trait often viewed as a risk factor for developing test anxiety. A recent meta-analysis showed positive correlations of perfectionism facets with test anxiety dimensions. However, all previous research into the perfectionism-test anxiety relation has been cross-sectional. Th...
Article
Full-text available
Practice is the process through which musicians improve their performance abilities and increase their level of expertise. Deliberate Practice (DP) is a theory of expertise based on the concept that interindividual differences in the level of proficiency in a specific domain can be mostly explained by interindividual differences in the amount of de...
Article
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The temporal stability of psychological test scores is one prerequisite for their practical usability. This is especially true for intelligence test scores. In educational contexts, high stakes decisions with long-term consequences, such as placement in special education programs, are often based on intelligence test results. There are four differe...
Article
Zusammenfassung. Diese Studie prüfte die dimensionale Struktur des Linzer Fragebogens zum Schul- und Klassenklima für die 4. – 8. Klassenstufe (LFSK 4 – 8) auf der Ebene des Individual- und Klassenklimas. Die Kovarianzstruktur der Bewertungen des Klassenklimas durch 2 084 Schülerinnen und Schüler, gruppiert in 96 Schulklassen, wurde mittels eines M...
Article
The present study investigates how Need for Cognition (NFC), an individual's tendency to engage in and enjoy thinking, relates to academic achievement in 9th grade students (N = 3.355) attending different school tracks to understand whether school track moderates this relation when controlling for student background variables. Using structural regr...
Article
Full-text available
The present integrative data analysis examined gender differences in achievement, achievement profiles, and achievement motivation in mathematics, reading, and science among 113,864 top-performing adolescent math students (top 5% in their respective countries). To do this, we applied the same analysis protocol to representative individual participa...
Preprint
Full-text available
Descriptive analyses of educational phenomena are a vital component of educational research. Such analyses yield reliable results when using representative individual participant data (IPD) from educational large-scale assessments (ELSAs). The meta-analytic integration of these results offers unique and novel research opportunities to provide stron...
Article
Ability grouping provides an advanced learning environment for gifted students, possibly buffering them from common long-term increases in academic boredom. We present a 3.5-year longitudinal investigation, spanning four waves of measurement (T1-T4), featuring secondary school students (grades 5 through 8) from five different German schools with fu...
Article
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We present a teacher professionalization project for promoting elementary school teachers' diagnostic competencies in recognizing their students' potential in STEM subjects. Teacher professionalization is fostered through the teachers' personal involvement in the development of subject-specific diagnostic materials as well as through continuing tra...
Article
We present a working theory of person-related predictors of talent development in natural science during elementary school. The working theory resulted from the juxtaposition of scientific findings and teachers' expertise. The results showed that both teachers and researchers conceive of talent development in natural science as a complex process in...
Article
Full-text available
Perfectionism is a multidimensional personality trait whose facets differentially relate to indicators of psychological functioning, such as global self-esteem. There has been some theoretical disagreement whether perfectionism affects global self-esteem, or vice versa. This question merits renewed attention due to increasing efforts to prevent the...
Article
Full-text available
We provide a systematic review of findings on the relation between circadian preference and school achievement published after the last comprehensive review in 2015. We further test this relation in a longitudinal study. Our review of 26 studies revealed a positive relation between morningness and students’ school achievement, and a negative relati...
Article
Individuals' general intelligence is highly stable over time and strong empirical evidence supports its validity for diagnostic purposes. Frequently, general intelligence is assessed as a composite of different specific cognitive abilities (e.g., verbal, numerical, figural ability). In previous research, these specific abilities only showed margina...
Article
One important predictor of students' intrinsic motivation and schoolwork engagement is the balance between schoolwork difficulty and student skill level, such that students are adequately challenged. However, the question arises whether this is equally true for all students or whether there are students for whom having adequately challenging school...
Article
Full-text available
Differentiation hypotheses concern changes in the structural organization of cognitive abilities that depend on the level of general intelligence (ability differentiation) or age (developmental differentiation). Part I of this paper presents a review of the literature on ability and developmental differentiation effects in children, revealing the n...
Article
Extending research on the ‘disharmony stereotype’, we examined teachers-in-training’s perceptions of gifted children’s characteristics and their expected teacher-child interactions. Also, we investigated whether adding context information that contrasts the impaired social functioning of gifted students could buffer teachers’ stereotypes. An experi...
Article
Full-text available
The structure of academic self-concept (ASC) is assumed to be multidimensional and hierarchical. This methodological review considers the most central models depicting the structure of ASC: a higher-order factor model, the Marsh/Shavelson model, the nested Marsh/Shavelson model, a bifactor representation based on exploratory structural equation mod...
Preprint
Full-text available
The present integrative data analysis examined gender differences in achievement, achievement profiles, and achievement motivation in mathematics, reading, and science among 115,481 top-performing adolescent math students (top 5% in their respective countries). To do this, we applied the same analysis protocol to representative individual participa...
Preprint
Full-text available
Individuals’ general intelligence is highly stable over time and strong empirical evidence supports its validity for diagnostic purposes. Frequently, general intelligence is assessed as a composite of different specific cognitive abilities (e.g., verbal, numerical, figural ability). In previous research, these specific abilities only showed margina...
Chapter
Zur Unterstützung der Entwicklung leistungsstarker und potenziell besonders leistungsfähiger Schülerinnen und Schüler setzt das LemaS-Teilprojekt 20 LUPE bei den diagnostischen Kompetenzen der Lehrpersonen an. Basis hierfür ist ein Talententwicklungsmodell mit spezifischem Bezug zur Leistungsentwicklung in den MINT-Fächern (Mathematik und Sachunter...
Article
Full-text available
Im Schulkontext fallen Annahmen von Lehrkräften über Hochbegabte oft entsprechend des soge-nannten Disharmoniestereotyps aus, d. h. Hochbegabte werden im Leistungsbereich positiver als nicht Hochbegabte bewertet, jedoch gleichzeitig und fälschlicherweise negativer hinsichtlich ihres Verhaltens und ihrer Persönlichkeit. Eine Forschungslücke zeigt si...
Article
Full-text available
It is well-documented that academic achievement is associated with students’ self-perceptions of their academic abilities, that is, their academic self-concepts. However, low-achieving students may apply self-protective strategies to maintain a favorable academic self concept when evaluating their academic abilities. Consequently, the relation betw...
Article
Full-text available
The incremental validity of specific cognitive abilities beyond general intelligence has been investigated in studies using hierarchical multiple regression analyzes (HMR). In the present study, we investigated whether the incremental validity of specific cognitive abilities (i.e., verbal, figural, and numerical ability) for the explanation of scho...
Article
Full-text available
Ability self-concept (SC) and self-efficacy (SE) are central competence-related self-perceptions that affect students’ success in educational settings. Both constructs show conceptual differences but their empirical differentiation in higher education has not been sufficiently demonstrated. In the present study, we investigated the empirical differ...
Article
Full-text available
There are different views on whether perfectionism is a characteristic of intellectually gifted students. Over the last decades, comparative studies of intellectually gifted and non-gifted students have produced inconsistent results. This heterogeneity in findings might be explained by underpowered studies and the multidimensional nature of perfect...
Conference Paper
The incremental validity of specific cognitive abilities beyond general intelligence has been investigated in studies using hierarchical multiple regression analyses (HMR). In the present study, it was investigated whether the incremental validity of specific cognitive abilities on school grades varied as a function of the general ability level, us...
Conference Paper
We present two domain-specific talent development models for mathematics and natural science in elementary school. The models were formulated based on the joined expertise of giftedness researchers and teachers. An extensive search of the scientific literature, as well as several teacher workshops in the context of a nation-wide German teacher trai...
Conference Paper
We present a five-year project aimed at improving teachers’ skills to detect mathematical and scientific talent in elementary school students. Within the project, teachers from 23 German schools and researchers cooperate to extend teachers’ diagnostic competencies, substantiate their practices scientifically, and to learn from each other’s experien...
Article
Full-text available
Achievement in different domains, such as academics, music, or visual arts, plays a central role in all modern societies. Different psychological models aim to describe and explain achievement and its development in different domains. However, there remains a need for a framework that guides empirical research within and across different domains. W...
Article
Full-text available
Adolescence is important for the development of achievement motivation, including achievement goal pursuit. Longitudinal research is scarce on adolescents' goal development and its implications for academic outcomes. In our research, we first present a systematic review of findings on achievement goals in adolescence. Then we report 2 longitudinal...
Article
Full-text available
Differentiation of intelligence refers to changes in the structure of intelligence that depend on individuals' level of general cognitive ability (ability differentiation hypothesis) or age (developmental differentiation hypothesis). The present article aimed to investigate ability differentiation, developmental differentiation, and their interacti...
Preprint
Full-text available
Achievement is strongly associated with students’ academic self-concepts. However, low-achieving students may apply self-protective strategies to maintain a favorable academic self-concept when evaluating their academic abilities. Consequently, the relation between achievement and domain-specific self-concept might not be linear across the entire a...
Article
Ambivalent stereotypes of the gifted still persist in the public. The aim of the current study is to provide a holistic picture of the personality (Big Five) and school functioning (motivation: academic self-concept, school values, achievement motives, achievement goals; grades; general knowledge) of gifted and non-gifted adolescents via self-repor...
Chapter
In this chapter the phenomenon known as “Spearman’s law of diminishing returns” (SLODR) is presented. SLODR belongs to the broader research field studying ability differentiation where variances of general and/or specific abilities vary with age or the level of general cognitive ability. Specifically, SLODR implies that the strength with which gene...
Article
This paper investigates a quadrant-based typology of circadian preference including morning (M) types (high morningness, low eveningness), evening (E) types (low morningness, high eveningness), low M-E types (low morningness and low eveningness), and high M-E types (high morningness and eveningness). In Study 1, a latent class analysis of circadian...
Article
Zusammenfassung. In dieser Studie wird ein Modell zur Struktur und Genese fachbezogener Selbstkonzepte im Psychologiestudium entwickelt und anhand einer Stichprobe aus 170 Studierenden überprüft. In zwei generalisierten I/E-Modellen mit den Grundlagenfächern einerseits und den Anwendungsfächern andererseits werden die Effekte der fachbezogenen Leis...
Article
Full-text available
Stereotypes influence teachers’ perception of and behaviour towards students, thus shaping students’ learning opportunities. The present study investigated how 315 Australian pre-service teachers’ stereotypes about giftedness and gender are related to their perception of students’ intellectual ability, adjustment, and social-emotional ability, usin...
Article
Perfectionism is a multidimensional personality disposition comprising different facets that relate differentially to various indicators of psychological and academic functioning. The Integrated Model of the Development of Perfectionism posits that child, parental, and environmental variables influence perfectionism development. So far, environment...
Article
Theoretical approaches and empirical research suggest a decline in motivation and self-perceptions among students through their school career. However, precise statements about the magnitude of the change during the school career remain elusive. Conducting a meta-analysis of 107 independent longitudinal studies with 912 effect sizes, we found an ov...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the relationship between teachers’ beliefs about gifted students’ characteristics compared to students with average-ability and the teachers’ motivation (i.e., enthusiasm, self-efficacy). We investigated pre-service teachers’ beliefs and motivational orientations as substantial components of their professional competencies a...
Article
This study expanded on research on temporal relations among motivation constructs as stated by expectancy-value theory, which has so far neglected the differentiation of value facets, the examination of long time spans with multiple measurement waves, and domain-specific patterns of findings. We examined the longitudinal relations among academic se...
Article
With the aim of broadening the understanding of the nomological network of Complex Problem Solving (CPS), we investigated the link between CPS and Need for Cognition (NFC) while controlling for reasoning ability. Further, we explored whether the relation between NFC and CPS was mediated by test-taking behavior (i.e., exploration time). Using struct...
Article
Zusammenfassung. Im Fokus dieses Beitrags steht die Selbstwirksamkeitserwartung (SWE) von Psychologiestudierenden, beschrieben als subjektive Gewissheit Aufgaben der psychologischen Praxis erfolgreich bewältigen zu können. Im Hochschulkontext ist SWE der stärkste Prädiktor für Studien- und späteren Berufserfolg. Da bislang kein adäquates Strukturmo...
Article
Using a sample of third grade elementary school students (N = 514), we tested a generalized internal/external frame of reference (GI/E) model using math, verbal, and physical education achievements as predictors, and math, verbal, and physical ability self-concepts and intrinsic values as outcomes. Therefore, the present study adds to the generaliz...
Article
Background: Achievement in math and achievement in verbal school subjects are more strongly correlated than the respective academic self-concepts. The internal/external frame of reference model (I/E model; Marsh, 1986, Am. Educ. Res. J., 23, 129) explains this finding by social and dimensional comparison processes. We investigated a key assumption...
Article
Effects of full-time ability grouping on students’ academic self-concept (ASC) and mathematics achievement were investigated in the first 3 years of secondary school (four waves of measurement; students’ average age at first wave: 10.5 years). Students were primarily from middle and upper class families living in southern Germany. The study sample...
Article
Need for Cognition (NFC) is increasingly investigated in educational research. In contrast to other noncognitive constructs in this area, such as academic self-concept and interest, NFC has consistently been conceptualized as domain-general. We employed structural equation modeling to address the question of whether NFC can be meaningfully and gain...
Article
The last two decades witnessed a surge in empirical studies on the variables associated with achievement in higher education. A number of meta-analyses synthesized these findings. In our systematic literature review, we included 38 meta-analyses investigating 105 correlates of achievement, based on 3,330 effect sizes from almost 2 million students....
Article
Full-text available
Academic self-concept (ASC) is comprised of individual perceptions of one’s own academic ability. In a cross-sectional quasi-representative sample of 3,779 German elementary school children in grades 1 to 4, we investigated (a) the structure of ASC, (b) ASC profile formation, an aspect of differentiation that is reflected in lower correlations betw...
Data
Procedure and results of mean difference testing of general ASC, reading ASC, writing ASC, math ASC between grade levels. (DOCX)
Article
The present study investigated changes in self-esteem, academic self-concept, intellectual self-concept, and social self-concepts of acceptance, assertion, relations with same-sex peers and relations with other-sex peers with 177 gifted students participating in a 16-day summer school in Germany. Students were assessed three times by self-report qu...
Article
The present study investigated individual and social antecedents of test anxiety. Based on Pekrun's (2006) control-value theory of achievement emotions, we studied the relationship of students’ test anxiety with students’ control and value cognitions, the interaction of control and value cognitions, and parent-reported family valuing of mathematics...
Article
The authors examined the big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE) on academic self-concept (ASC) using different indicators of academic ability (i.e., achievement test, cognitive ability test, grades corrected for grading-on-a-curve effects, uncorrected grades). They investigated under what circumstances grades are suitable indicators of academic abilit...
Article
The investment trait need for cognition (NFC) is conceptualized as the intrinsic motivation to engage in and enjoy effortful cognitive endeavors. Higher NFC levels have been shown to be related to a deeper elaboration of information, better performance on cognitive exercises, and more effective complex problem solving, moreover NFC has shown only a...
Article
According to the reciprocal-effects model (REM), prior academic self-concept (ASC) has a positive effect on subsequent achievement beyond what can be explained in terms of prior achievement and vice versa. The present study investigated the REM for students studying in special classes for the gifted compared to students studying in regular classes....
Chapter
Der vorliegende Beitrag geht den Auswirkungen der Fähigkeitsgruppierung und Förderung Hochbegabter in gymnasialen Begabtenklassen anhand der Längs¬schnittstudie PULSS (Projekt zur Untersuchung des Lernens in der Sekundarstufe) nach. Die Befunde dieser Begleitstudie zu Begabtenklassen in Bayern und Baden-Württemberg deuten darauf hin, dass die Auswa...