Frans Leeuw

Frans Leeuw
Maastricht University | UM · Faculty of Law

About

133
Publications
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3,530
Citations
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May 2005 - present
Maastricht University
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (133)
Article
Full-text available
Realist evaluation has, over the past two decades, become a widely used approach in evaluation. The cornerstone of realist evaluation is to answer the question: What works, for whom, under what circumstances, and why. This is accomplished by explicating the causal mechanisms that, within a particular context, generate the outcomes of interest. Desp...
Article
Full-text available
The article provides a comparative framework for articulating assumptions made during the policy design process. That includes the framing of the policy issue in terms of the behavior of addressees, identifying problems that obstruct compliance, and choosing a tool with a distinctive change mechanism. Based on this discussion, a spectrum of six gen...
Preprint
Full-text available
Realist evaluation has over the past two decades become a widely used approach in evaluation. The cornerstone of realist evaluation is to answer the question: what works for whom, under what circumstances. This is accomplished by explicating the causal mechanisms by which a program generates outcomes and the context within which it comes alive. Des...
Article
Full-text available
Although systematic policy evaluation has been conducted for decades and has been growing strongly within the European Union (EU) institutions and in the member states, it remains largely underexplored in political science literatures. Extant work in political science and public policy typically focuses on elements such as agenda setting, policy sh...
Article
Full-text available
Overview of policies, measures and legislation and effects with respect to counterterrorism, on the basis of a cooperation with researchers from Germany, France, Spain, Italy and the US. Based on open sources.
Article
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This paper presents a framework to provide a unified view towards the visions of smart and open justice. The framework, coined as Legal Logistics, aims at unifying and embodying different datacentric services that exploit available and relevant data for supporting and enhancing the legitimacy and efficiency of legal systems. As such, the framework...
Article
Full-text available
The article addresses two questions:1. Can Legal Realism be seen as a scientific research programme enabling growth of knowledge? To answer that question, the author uses Lakatos’s work on the methodology of scientific research programmes as a frame of reference.2. What has been the role of American Legal Realism during the first part of the 20th c...
Conference Paper
While in business and private settings the disruptive impact of ICT have already been felt, the legal sector is now also starting to face such great disruptions. Innovations have been emerging for some time, affecting the working practices of legal professionals and the functioning and legitimacy of legal systems. In this paper, we present our visi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
While in business and private settings the disruptive impact of advanced information communication technology (ICT) have already been felt, the legal sector is now starting to face great disruptions due to such ICTs. Bits and pieces of innovations in the legal sector have been emerging for some time, affecting the performance of core functions and...
Chapter
This chapter discusses two developments that in my opinion have not been addressed adequately in the (recent) past and that may imply challenges for the evaluation profession in the (near) future.
Article
Full-text available
One of the goals of the journal Evaluation was to advance theoretical and methodological understandings of evaluation. Twenty years later theory as understood in the field of evaluation is fragmented, a problem widely recognized in the evaluation community. The goal of this article is to make a modest contribution to clarifying this situation. We f...
Article
Full-text available
While traditional legal scholarship is under pressure and debates are taking place on the aims and methods of the academic study of law, at the same time empirical legal research is blossoming if not booming. The more empirical legal research is a growth industry, the more important it is to understand and discuss epistemological, methodological an...
Article
Full-text available
The results of the meta-analysis indicated that the effect sizes from experimental studies examining effects of microcredit on women’s control over household spending are not statistically significantly different from zero. The effects from quasi-experimental studies are statistically insignificant overall, and at best of small magnitude for those...
Article
Contribution analysis and theory-based evaluation are linked. This article discusses the contributions of several (recent) developments to further deepen the links between theory-based evaluation and contribution analysis. This will be done by describing how three well-known (and almost classical) problematic situations for impact evaluations can b...
Article
In this article, the authors explore the relationship between (impact) evaluations and cyber society, in particular digital policies. There appears to be a gap between the pace at which internet and digital policies are penetrating society and the attention professional evaluators are paying to these policies. First, we present an analytical framew...
Chapter
Full-text available
There is scarcely an individual phenomenon or event in society with which we can deal adequately without knowing a great deal of several disciplines, not to speak of the knowledge of particular facts that will be required.' Friedrich Hayek 1 Samenvatting Deze bijdrage schetst in kort bestek de wetenschapshistorische achtergrond van de civilologie....
Article
Full-text available
The current study connects survey data of inmates and correctional staff in the Dutch prison system in order to describe and explain the impact of staff orientation and staff working conditions on perceived prison circumstances of inmates. Importation and deprivation theory are combined to test an integrated model to explain perceived prison condit...
Article
Full-text available
The article describes what evaluation studies have to offer to legal research. Several cases and types of evaluations are presented, in relation to legal or semi-legal questions. Also, a short overview of the contemporary history of evaluation studies is presented. Finally, it will address the question of how to ensure that in legal research and in...
Article
There is growing interest in the concept of ‘‘mechanism’’ across many areas of the social sciences. In the field of program and policy evaluation, a number of scholars have also emphasized the importance of causal mechanisms for explaining how and why programs work. However, there appears to be some ambiguity about the meaning and uses of mechanism...
Article
The paper summarizes several benefits of evaluations, such as increased accountability and transparency, organizational learning, experimentation, dissent and democratization. It also points at diverse costs of evaluations, such as financial costs, error costs, costs resulting from performance paradoxes, routinization and loss of critical power'. I...
Article
For many standard as well as emerging criminal law Web 2.0 applications, such as the development of mashups and dataspace systems, privacy preserving data integration is of crucial importance. In many organizations different databases contain different kinds of data concerning the same entity. This may have several good reasons. However, to have an...
Article
This paper is the protocol for a synthetic review of microfinance. The protocol describes the objectives and scope of the review, the search strategy, inclusion criteria, coding, and synthesis options.
Article
This chapter discusses the development of evaluation policy in the Netherlands. It distinguishes between several periods: the 1970s and before, when there was little or no evaluation, much less evaluation policy; the late 1970s and 1980s, when evaluation increased but there was still little formal policy; the 1990s, when the government began to est...
Article
Evaluation, monitoring, inspection and performance auditing have become a booming business. The numbers of professional societies have strongly increased and there are so many studies that authors recently referred to them as ‘streams’ and ‘fleets’. Evaluation has also been called a ‘positive social epidemic’. This article reveals that the booming...
Conference Paper
In this paper, we have analyzed the complaint database of the National Ombudsman who handles complaints with regard to almost all government organizations in the Netherlands. We searched for trends with regard to complaints and handling of complaints during a period of 25 years. For this purpose, we have applied a combination of conventional databa...
Article
Der vorliegende Beitrag vergleicht die institutionelle Verankerung der Evaluationsfunktion in den drei Ländern Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz. Dabei sind die in jedem politischen System individuell ausgestalteten Rahmenbedingungen mit zu berücksichtigen. Die Gegenüberstellung profitiert aber vom Umstand, dass die drei Systeme einige gemein...
Article
Increasingly, in the world of evaluation, `systems of evaluation' have been developed.This article outlines four criteria that help characterize such systems. One criterion is the existence of a distinctive epistemological perspective; another is that, in order to be labelled a system, evaluation activities are carried out by evaluators within orga...
Article
This article presents an approach to systematic reviews that combines the Campbell Collaboration Crime and Justice standards and the realist notion of contexts-mechanisms-outcomes (CMO) configurations. Both approaches have their advantages and drawbacks, and the authors will make a case for combining both approaches to profit from their advantages...
Article
This article renders the results of research that investigated personality disorders in a sample of paraphilic and nonparaphilic child molesters. The sample contained 36 paraphilic child molesters and a matched comparison group of 34 nonparaphilic child molesters. The analyses of the research results show that four personality disorders discriminat...
Article
Full-text available
This article provides an analysis of a cross-section of 31 evaluations in one policy field in one country during a period of two years. It offers a national profile of an evaluation effort in law enforcement and demonstrates that this cross-section diverges widely from the typical interventions evaluated under the auspices of the Campbell Collabora...
Conference Paper
A reliable estimation of the capacity required for the Dutch justice chains in the near future is inevitable to implement a policy that is capable to handle forthcoming judicial cases in a society. To come up with reliable estimations, an understanding of the vital processes in the justice chains is required. However, the Dutch justice chains are c...
Article
This article reports on a synthetic methodology used to reduce the gap between evaluations and policy-making. The authors report on a review of the effectiveness of international violence prevention programmes and discuss how these findings were disseminated to policy-makers. The findings were immediately adopted by the Dutch government and this ar...
Article
Full-text available
This paper renders the results of research investigating the parental sensitivity experienced and personality disorders in a sample of exhibitionists. The sample contained 33 exhibitionists as well as a matched comparison group of 33 normal subjects. Results show that parental sensitivity and some personality disorders discriminate between exhibiti...
Article
Full-text available
The paper first describes general trends in evaluation in (mainly) western societies. Why is evaluation growing, what are the characteristics of this ‘growth industry’ and what developments are occurring outside western societies? Trends in the evaluation of criminal justice programs in the USA, the UK and the Netherlands are then discussed. Two im...
Article
Full-text available
This article uses a policy scientific approach to reconstruct assumptions underlying the Dutch Educational Supervision Act. We show an example of how to reconstruct and evaluate a program theory that is based on legislation of inspection. The assumptions explain how inspection leads to school improvement. Evaluation of these assumptions is used to...
Article
Over the past decade, the international donor community has come up with a range of initiatives to curb governmental corruption in developing countries. Top-down approaches devise administrative and judicial reforms, whereas bottom-up approaches deal with the process of awareness-raising in civil society. The World Bank currently integrates these t...
Article
Full-text available
This paper discusses methods for reconstructing theories underlying programs and policies. It describes three approaches. One is empirical–analytical in nature and focuses on interviews, documents and argumentational analysis. The second has strategic assessment, group dynamics, and dialogue as its core. The third has cognitive and organizational p...
Article
Full-text available
Many European countries have inspectorates of education and although they differ in some ways, all focus on the quality of education, all undertake evaluations and all strive for improvement in education. First, it will be argued that reciprocity between inspectors and inspectees (such as schools, colleges and institutes for vocational education) i...
Article
Full-text available
Administrative reform has led to a strong increase in the use of performance assessment instruments in the public sector. However, this has also led to several unintended consequences, such as the performance paradox, tunnel vision, and “analysis paralysis.” These unintended consequences can reduce the quality of the knowledge about actual levels o...
Article
Administrative reform has led to a strong increase in the use of performance assessment instruments in the public sector. However, this has also led to several unintended consequences, such as the performance paradox, tunnel vision, and “analysis paralysis.” These unintended consequences can reduce the quality of the knowledge about actual levels o...
Chapter
This chapter discusses some highlights of developments of evaluation in Europe and also describes a number of challenges for the evaluation community for the next years.
Article
The Debates, Notes and Queries section provides an opportunity for evaluation-related issues to be debated as well as for more genera! interchange. Debates can take the form of sustained arguments by the advocates of different approaches or of briefer thoughts or notes. Contributors may also wish to comment and raise questions about material that h...
Article
This article reports on a mid-term evaluation of the impact of a recent anticorruption program developed by the Bank's Economic Development Institute (EDI). Central in EDI's approach is helping to develop and/or reinvigorate a country's National Integrity System (NIS). Integrity pillars, amongst others, are administrative reforms, watchdog agencies...
Chapter
In 1995 the Netherlands Court of Audit (NCA) published a survey of all Dutch quangos operating at the national level (Algemene Rekenkamer, 1995). The definition of a quango used in this study is, ‘organizations, based on either public or private law, with public authority (i.e. have the right to make legally binding decisions that affect citizens a...
Article
Social cohesion and integration is not only a classical problem of sociology but also of government. Governments implement policies and establish public sector organizations to solve this problem. As the number of such organizations increases, the question arises of how to ensure that their activities are geared to one another, i.e. how to attain c...
Article
Concentrating on ways of describing and measuring organizational networks as a form of social capital, and how it is affected by changes in public-sector procedures, this article advocates a particular approach to the evaluation of public-sector reforms. The authors report on an empirical investigation conducted in the Netherlands, in which they mo...
Article
This chapter describes differences and similarities between auditing and evaluation and their respective contributions to performance improvement.
Article
It is believed that public sector auditing leads to a more efficient and effective performance of the public sector. This assumption recently has been challenged by adherents of the new public management (NPM). Describes characteristics of NPM such as freeing up controls over and devolving greater responsibility to managers. Answers the question, w...
Article
This section, which will appear in each issue of the journal, is open to contributions from members of the evaluation community worldwide. We particularly welcome news about evaluation societies, the events that they are undertaking and other international evaluation activities. Please send contributions c/o The Editorial Office.
Article
L'A. estime que la sociologie aux Pays-Bas est tres tournee vers les recherches de niveau international. Il souligne le fait que le nombre des publications en langues etrangeres et notamment en anglais redigees par des universitaires hollandais n'a cesse de croitre entre 1979 et 1990. Il affirme que les sociologues jouent un role social et politiqu...
Article
This section, which will appear in each issue of the journal, is open to contributions from members of the evaluation community worldwide. We particularly welcome news about evaluation societies, the events that they are undertaking and other international evaluation activities. Please send contributions c/o The Editorial Office.

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