Frank van Tubergen

Frank van Tubergen
Utrecht University | UU · Department of Sociology

Professor of Sociology

About

141
Publications
60,175
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Introduction
I'm a full Professor of Sociology at Utrecht University and NIDI, Netherlands. My scientific work is focused on immigration, integration and ethnicity. Together with scholars from England, Germany, Netherlands and Sweden, I coordinated the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study in Four European Countries (CILS4EU). I'm the author of "Introduction to Sociology" (Routledge, 2020).

Publications

Publications (141)
Book
Full-text available
I’m very happy to announce that after years of work my book “Introduction to Sociology” (Routledge) is finally out now! I wrote this textbook to provide sociology instructors with teaching materials that are based on up to date, rigorous sociological research. It presents key sociological theories and findings to students in an accessible way. More...
Article
Ethnic minorities from more traditional countries tend to hold more conservative views towards homosexuality compared to the ethnic majority population in Western Europe. Assimilation theory predicts that this difference diminishes over time because of exposure and contact between these groups. The role of ethnic classroom composition in this proce...
Article
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Although Christian migrant groups make up a sizeable part of the immigrant population in Europe, little is known about their religiosity. This paper studies patterns of intergenerational change and proposes and tests hypotheses that specify when and why changes across generations are stronger. Using data from the European Social Survey (2002–2018)...
Article
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Most studies use survey data to study people’s prejudiced views. In a digitally connected world, research is needed on out-group sentiments expressed online. In this study, we show how one can elaborate on existing sociological theories (i.e. group threat theory, contact theory) to test whether anti-immigrant sentiments expressed on Twitter are rel...
Article
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Refugees face significant barriers in the labor markets of western countries due to limited transferability of educational credentials. Post-migration education can increase refugees’ chances in the labor market, but little is known about the prevalence and underlying patterns of such post-secondary educational investments. I contribute to the lite...
Article
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This study compares generalised trust between second-generation Muslim and non- Muslim migrant groups in Europe, and examines the effect on trust of discrimination and cultural transmission. Analysis of data from the European Social Survey of 4,687 respondents in 32 European countries shows that second-generation Muslim groups have lower levels of...
Article
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This article examines discrimination against black and Muslim minority groups in 20 Western labor markets. We analyze the outcomes of 94 field experiments, conducted between 1973 and 2016 and representing ∼240,000 fictitious job applications. Using meta-analysis, we find that black minority groups are more strongly discriminated against than non-bl...
Article
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Background In the past decades, Western European countries have become increasingly religiously diverse; furthermore, a growing share of their population is now youth with a migration background. Little is known about the role religion plays in social ties among children of native and immigrant origins. Purpose This study examines religious group...
Article
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Research on Muslim minorities in western societies has mainly focused on offline behavior, such as mosque attendance, whereas little is known about their presence in the online world. This study explores the online visibility and activities of all (478) mosques in the Netherlands. We collected data on personal websites and four social media platfor...
Article
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Previous studies have found a significant effect of pupil's month of birth on their school- and sports performances. The current study investigates whether this so-called relative age effect also exists in a rather unexplored domain, namely popularity among adolescents in school classes. Whereas prior studies examined relative age related to the cu...
Preprint
The sociological literature on social networks overwhelmingly considers the number of core social contacts. Social networks, however, reach far beyond this small number of social ties. We know little about individual variation in the size of such extended social networks. In this study, we move beyond core networks and explain individual variation...
Article
The sociological literature on social networks overwhelmingly considers the number of core social contacts. Social networks, however, reach far beyond this small number of social ties. We know little about individual variation in the size of such extended social networks. In this study, we move beyond core networks and explain individual variation...
Article
In recent years, western media coverage is frequently filled with issues relating to Islam, which are unfavorable to Muslims. The attitudinal consequences of such media messages are widely discussed; however, empirical research is scarce. This study uses large-scale panel data on adolescents in combination with newspaper data and takes advantage of...
Article
Little is known about the religious development of youth in Europe. In light of the growing ethnic diversity of Western European populations, this paper examines two groups of youth with an immigrant background, i.e. Christian and Muslim youth, and compares their religiosity to that of Christian native youth. We differentiate between three indicato...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this chapter we explore how religious minority and majority youth are in England, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden. We find that minority youth are on average more often affiliated to a religion than majority youth, and mostly affiliated as Christians. We also study religious salience, praying and service attendance. The share of minority and...
Chapter
We introduce our comparative study on minority and majority youth in four European countries by presenting the problem, basic concepts, theoretical starting points and our strategy of analysis. We address differences in integration across (i) immigrant generations (exposure), (ii) immigrant origin groups and (iii) receiving countries, for several i...
Chapter
How ethnically diverse are the social networks of adolescents in Europe? The present study finds that ethnic majority youth in England, Germany, Netherlands and Sweden have very few ties to ethnic minority peers, either in the neighbourhood or at school. The networks of ethnic minorities are more mixed, because the groups to which they belong are s...
Article
This study investigates the relationship between the ethnic classroom composition and interethnic attitudes of adolescents of the native majority and several ethnic minorities in the Netherlands, Germany, England and Sweden. It contributes to prior research by examining the underlying theoretical features of contact opportunities and levels of thre...
Article
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Boys engage in notably higher levels of resistance to schooling than girls. While scholars argue that peer processes contribute to this gender gap, this claim has not been tested with longitudinal quantitative data. This study fills this lacuna by examining the role of dynamic peer-selection and influence processes in the gender gap in resistance t...
Article
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Most research on segregation in social networks considers small circles of strong ties, and little is known about segregation among the much larger number of weaker ties. This article proposes a novel approach to the study of these more extended networks, through the use of data on personal ties in an online social network. We illustrate this metho...
Article
We study whether peer influence processes, popularity and trust predict privacy settings on Facebook. We use large-scale survey data from 3434 Dutch adolescents combined with observed privacy behavior on Facebook. The findings show that peer influence processes play a role and that adolescents imitate the privacy settings of their peers in the clas...
Article
This study examines how ascribed characteristics (gender and nationality) and achieved characteristics (SES) are related to the extensity and occupational resources of personal networks in Saudi Arabia. Using large-scale survey data from Jeddah, results show that networks of women are smaller and less occupational resourceful, due to fewer non-fami...
Article
This study examines to what extent adolescents' place of residence is related to the opportunities and the preferences to befriend same-ethnic classmates. Analyzing 3345 students within 158 German and Dutch school classes, we find that sharing a neighborhood provides additional meeting opportunities to become friends in class as adolescents are lik...
Article
This study examines the relation between the proportion of co-ethnics in school and adolescents’ problem behaviour in school (e.g. skipping class and arguing with teachers) and whether friendship patterns are underlying this relationship. We use data from the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Survey in Four European Countries on ±16,000 students...
Article
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Ethnically diverse settings provide opportunities for interethnic friendship but can also increase the preference for same-ethnic friendship. Therefore, same-ethnic friendship preferences, or ethnic homophily, can work at cross-purposes with policy recommendations to diversify ethnic representation in social settings. In order to effectively overco...
Article
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In this article, we have used panel data from the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Survey (N = 3,337) to test several mechanisms (English proficiency, friends with native parents, parental socioeconomic status [SES], educational attitudes, bilingualism, and family stability) by which mixed parents (one native, one foreign-born) affect their chil...
Article
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We study what determines whether someone is an early Facebook adopter in a context in which Facebook is still relatively new compared to a far more popular Dutch social networking site (SNS) (Hyves). We use representative survey data of 4363 adolescents aged 14–15 years. First, adolescents who participate in more leisure activities, who have more d...
Article
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This study examines ethnic segregation of core discussion networks in the Netherlands. The analysis is based on Netherlands Longitudinal Lifecourse Study, a large-scale survey of the Dutch population aged 15–45 that contains an oversample of first- and second-generation immigrants from Turkey and Morocco, the two largest non-western immigrant group...
Article
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Interethnic ties are considered important for the cohesion in society. Previous research has studied the determinants of interethnic ties with cross-sectional data or lagged panel designs. This study improves on prior research by applying multilevel growth curve modelling techniques with lagged independent variables, which provide better estimates...
Article
This study set out to examine to what extent ethnic ingroup friendship in secondary school classes are a by-product of cultural and socioeconomic ingroup friendship. Based on homophily theory, we expected similar opinions, leisure activities, religion, risk behaviour and socioeconomic factors to (partly) explain ethnic ingroup preferences. Multilev...
Article
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We study minority language proficiency of adolescent immigrant children in England, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden. We elaborate on theoretical mechanisms of exposure, efficiency and non-economic incentives of minority language acquisition. Using data from adolescent immigrant children in England, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden, we find e...
Article
Parental influence on friendships between native (N = 5,683) and immigrant (N = 3,371) adolescents (aged ± 15) was investigated with the CILS4EU data of pupils in German and Dutch school classes (N = 446) and parents. The researchers examined whether parents affect friendships across group boundaries by shaping the structural opportunities to estab...
Article
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Whereas much research has been done on the benefits of social capital, less is known about the causes of the unequal distribution of social capital in people’s networks. This study examines inequalities in access to social capital in terms of the socio-economic resources that are embedded in personal networks. Using data from NELLS, a nationally re...
Article
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This study examines existing hypotheses on cross-national differences in immigrants’ labor market integration. Unlike previous research, which focused on Western countries, we study the occupational status of immigrants in both Western and non-Western countries. We use census data for 45 Western and non-Western destination countries and test hyp...
Article
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This article examines the role of parents and peers for the religiosity of ethnic minority and majority adolescents, about which little is known in the literature. We analyze data from the nationally representative and cross-nationally comparative survey ‘Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study in Four European Countries’ CILS4EU (2010–2011) with...
Article
Inspired by the emerging literature on transnationalism in the United States, this paper studies the return visits of adolescent children of immigrants in four European countries. Using data from the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study, cross-classified multilevel analyses indicate that parental economic resources, ethnic motivations, and pol...
Article
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This study investigates settlement intentions of immigrants and refugees. We combine data from several large-scale surveys collected between 1998 and 2009 in the Netherlands, focusing on the population that reside in the Netherlands ten years or less (N=4,151). Results show that Surinamese and Antillean immigrants and Somalian refugees are generall...
Article
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This study examined the intergenerational transmission of religiosity within Muslim immigrant families who live in the Netherlands, a rather secular society. We studied whether transmission of religiosity within immigrant families is influenced by warm family relations on the one hand, and integration into the host country on the other hand. Two an...
Article
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This study examines discrimination of Arabic-named applicants in online recruitment procedures in the Netherlands. We develop and implement a new field experiment approach, posting fictitious résumés (n = 636) on two online résumé databases. Two phases of recruitment procedures are examined: employers' decisions to (1) view applicants' complete rés...
Article
This paper deals with the influence of friends in class on adolescents’ problematic school behavior (i.e. inattention in class and not doing homework). We examine whether this influence is moderated by ego (i.e. the adolescent's indegree), alter (i.e. friends’ indegree) and dyadic characteristics (i.e. friendship reciprocity). Influence processes a...
Article
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This article studies the role of human and social capital in the use of job-search methods of immigrants in the Netherlands. Making use of large-scale data designed to study the four largest immigrant groups in the Netherlands, we show that strong differences exist across national-origin groups. Furthermore, we find that when immigrants have more c...
Article
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This article examines which individual-level factors are related to people's likelihood of discriminating against ethnic minority job applicants. It moves beyond describing to what extent discrimination occurs by examining the role of individuals' interethnic contacts, education and religion in shaping their behavior towards ethnic minority job app...
Article
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In this article, we extend insecurity theory by examining the influence of various kinds of insecurities on religiosity. Religiosity is operationalized in terms of a public dimension (church attendance) and a private dimension (subjective religiosity). Using data from four rounds of the European Social Survey (ESS, 2002–2008) on 26 European countri...
Article
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This study examines differences in the size and socio-economic resources of core discussion networks across national-origin groups and immigrant generation. The analysis is based on the Netherlands Longitudinal Lifecourse Study (2008Á10), a nationally representative, large-scale survey of the Dutch population that contains an over-sample of first-a...
Article
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This study examines oppositional culture among immigrant and majority adolescents in the Netherlands. Oppositional culture theory expects that immigrant adolescents would uphold positive attitudes towards education. The social exclusion theory predicts instead that immigrant adolescents develop an oppositional culture, particularly in ethnically co...
Article
This study examines whether refugees self-identify as a member of the host society. We use survey data of more than 2,500 Somali, Iraqi, Afghani, Iranian, and ex-Yugoslavian refugees in the Netherlands. The results show that economic participation in the host country is positively related to refugees’ national self-identification. In addition, we f...
Article
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Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, we examined the impact of social contacts on immigrant occupational status and income. In addition to general social contacts, we also analyzed the effects of bonding (i.e., co-ethnic) and bridging (i.e., interethnic) ties on economic outcomes. Results show that general social contacts have a positiv...
Article
This study examines cross-national differences in the religiosity of immigrants in Europe utilizing three different measures of religiosity: religious attendance, praying, and subjective religiosity. Hypotheses are formulated by drawing upon a variety of theories—scientific worldview, insecurity, religious markets, and social integration. The hypot...
Article
This paper examines the development of inter-ethnic friendships between immigrants and Canadians. It uses longitudinal data from three waves of the Canadian LSIC survey, in which newly arrived immigrants were followed during the first 4 years of settlement. It is found that pre-migration characteristics play an important role in the development of...
Article
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This study examines the determinants of immigrants’ second-language proficiency in the multilingual context of Belgium, which is divided into Dutch, French and bilingual (Dutch–French) regions. Data are from a large-scale immigrant survey conducted in 1994–96 among Turkish and Moroccan males. Binary and multinomial logit regression analyses show th...
Article
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This study examines the job search methods of refugees in the Netherlands. It uses a large-scale survey, collected in 2003, among refugees from Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, former Yugoslavia and Somalia. Results show that refugees mainly search and find jobs via an employment agency. Refugees search less often via their personal network, though 20% fou...
Article
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Several studies in the migration literature have hypothesized that social contacts, in particular contacts with natives, are important for immigrant employ-ment. Empirical work, however, has been inconclusive whether social contacts indeed have a causal effect. This study uses the German Socio-Economic Panel (1984–2004) to estimate the effect of so...
Article
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Little is known about the language acquisition of refugees in Western countries. This study examines how pre- and post-migration characteristics of refugees are related to their second language proficiency. Data are from a survey of 3,500 refugees, who were born in Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, former Yugoslavia and Somalia, and who resided in the Nethe...
Article
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This study focuses on the economically disadvantaged position of refugees. We use survey data of refugees from Somalia, Iran, Afghanistan, Iraq, and the former Yugoslavia in the Netherlands, to analyze refugees’ odds of employment and their occupational status. In line with human capital and social capital theory, we find that host country specific...
Article
This study examines the religious participation of Islamic immigrants in Belgium using data from the Migration History and Social Mobility Survey collected in 1994–1996 from 2,200 men who had immigrated from Turkey and Morocco. Religious participation is measured as mosque attendance, fasting during Ramadan, and sacrificing a sheep at the Festival...
Article
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Little is known about the validity of group-level theories of ethnic intermarriage despite the fact that such theories are often invoked in explaining why certain ethnic groups are "closed," whereas others are relatively "open." We develop a comparative perspective by analyzing the marriage choices of 94 national-origin groups in the United States,...
Article
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This study examines the economic returns to schooling acquired in the country of origin and the country of destination. It uses large-scale survey data on Turkish, Mo-roccan, Surinamese and Antillean immigrants in the Netherlands, which contain direct measures of pre-and post-migration schooling. It is studied whether the returns to origin-country...
Article
Previous studies on social integration of immigrants were predominantly of static nature. This article provides a dynamic account by distinguishing differences in social integration that develop shortly after immigrants’ arrival in the host country from changes with length of stay. We examine contacts in leisure time between natives and non-western...
Article
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Why are some nations more religious than others? This article pro-poses a multilevel framework in which country differences in reli-gious attendance are explained by contextual, individual, and cross-level interaction effects. Hypotheses from different theories are simultaneously tested with data from 60 nations obtained from the European/World Val...
Article
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To examine the association between ethnicity, ethnic intermarriage, ethnic composition of schools and adolescent alcohol use. Data were derived from the National Survey of Students in the Netherlands, a repeated, nationally representative, cross-sectional study of students aged 11-20 in secondary school. Surveys conducted in 1994, 1996, 1999, and 2...
Article
This article proposes a dynamic perspective on immigrants’ language proficiency. Hypotheses are formulated about immigrants’ language skills at arrival and about the speed with which immigrants learn the language thereafter. It pools data from the 1980, 1990, and 2000 U.S. Censuses, and uses a synthetic cohort design to analyze the language skills...
Article
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Using large-scale data on immigrants in the Netherlands, the authors tested competing arguments about the role of origin- and host-country human capital and bonding and bridging social capital in immigrants’ self-employment. When taking job-skill level into account, immigrants with a higher level of origin- and destination-country education are les...
Article
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In contrast to previous research on interethnic contact, which is static in nature, this article provides a dynamic analysis. The aim is to explain individuals’ changes in interethnic contact over time by considering relevant time-constant and time-varying characteristics. We investigate the effects of these characteristics measured at time one (t...
Article
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This article examines the determinants of immigrants’ language proficiency and language use, two dimensions of language which have so far remained rather separate in the literature. The underlying question is whether similar or different patterns underlie these two aspects of language. The data are from large-scale, repeated cross-sectional surveys...
Chapter
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World War II in the Netherlands lasted from May 1940 to May 1945. Suicide numbers peaked in these months, in the first case because of suicide by Jews, and in the second case because of suicide by collaborators with the German occupier. Suicide rates for Jews were higher in 1942 than in 1940 and even higher in 1943 than in 1942. Foreign Jews were m...
Article
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This study examines the role of the partner in the economic incorporation of immigrant men and women. It derives hypotheses from the theory of household specialization theory and social capital theory, leading to opposite expectations on the impact of the partner's labour-market resources and employment status. To test the hypotheses, the study rel...
Article
Nijhof is ontevreden met de ‘afstandelijkheid’ die volgens hem “veel Nederlands sociologisch onderzoek van de laatste jaren” kenmerkt. Om te beginnen kun je vraagtekens zetten bij deze kwantificerende uitspraak van Nijhof: was er vroeger minder sprake van afstandelijkheid? Is deze uitspraak gebaseerd op zijn persoonlijke indrukken? Of heeft hij daa...
Article
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We use a unique data source to examine postimmigration investments in education among four immigrant groups in the Netherlands. We derive hypotheses from the Immigrant Human Capital Investment model (IHCI), which argues that immigrants' investments are an outcome of settlement intentions, skill transferability, and opportunity costs. The multinomia...