Frank W Stahnisch

Frank W Stahnisch
The University of Calgary | HBI · Department of Community Health Sciences

Dr.

About

298
Publications
112,456
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712
Citations
Citations since 2017
74 Research Items
355 Citations
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Introduction
Dr. Frank W. Stahnisch is a historian of medicine and neuroscience and has received his doctorate from the Free University of Berlin (Germany) in 2001. He holds the "Alberta Medical Foundation/Hannah Professorship in the History of Medicine and Health Care" at the University of Calgary (Canada) and is an Editor-in-Chief of the international "Journal of the History of the Neurosciences" (Taylor & Francis - Routledge Group).
Additional affiliations
July 2016 - present
The University of Calgary
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Description
  • Alberta Medical Foundation/Hannah Professorship in the History of Medicine and Health Care
June 2008 - June 2016
The University of Calgary
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Description
  • AMF/Hannah Professorship in the History of Medicine and Health Care
August 2006 - May 2008
McGill University
Position
  • Visiting Assistant Professor

Publications

Publications (298)
Article
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The aim of this paper is to discuss a key question in the history and philosophy of medicine, namely how scholars should treat the practices and experimental hypotheses of modern life science laboratories. The paper seeks to introduce some prominent historiographical methods and theoretical approaches associated with biomedical research. Although m...
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Parallel to his well-known work on the microarchitecture of the CNS, Santiago Ramón y Cajal conducted various investigations of its de- and regenerative capacities. However, Ramón y Cajal's theoretical stance on the issue remains rather ambiguous and can even be assumed to reflect modern views on the potential of structural plasticity in the CNS.
Article
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This paper focuses on the make-up of different cultures in experimental neurology, neuroanatomy, and clinical psychiatry. These cultures served as important research bases for early regenerative concepts and projects in the area of neurology and psychiatry at the beginning of the 20th century. Nevertheless, the developments in brain research and cl...
Book
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This book brings together a number of thoughts and observations on the history of experimental physiology, as it has emerged since the late eighteenth century. Previously unused archival material and then unexplored themes are brought together and further investigated for the first time. These have helped to map the contextual changes which became...
Book
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In recent decades, developments in research technologies and therapeutic advances have generated immense public recognition for neuroscience. However, its origins as a field, often linked to partnerships and projects at various brain-focused research centres in the United States during the 1960s, can be traced much further back in time. In A New F...
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Medical historians and educators have long lamented that the integration of the study of the history of medicine into the educational curricula of medical schools and clinic-based teaching has been protractedly troubled. Employing the development of the history of medicine program at the University of Calgary as a case study, this article emphasize...
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Periodical Literature Surveyed (publications outside of the "Journal of the History of the Neurosciences"): July 1, 2018 -- June 30, 2019
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Eminent neurosurgeon Wilder Penfield (1891-1976), who was later nominated twice for the Nobel Prize, visited the clinical department for nervous and psychiatric diseases in Breslau, Germany for two lengthy research stays in 1928 and 1931 during the interwar period. These journeys were transformative for his own clinical and research investigations...
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Over recent decades, a growing number of articles have emphasized that people suffering from neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Disease frequently display changes in their experience and use of plastic and visual art [2,3]. Accordingly, researchers in the wider field of neuroaesthetics have intensified their investigat...
Article
As the subtitle of "Foreign Practices" suggests, this book reconstructs the role of solicited and unsolicited immigration of physicians to twentieth-century Canada and the place of this immigration in the making and sustaining of Medicare. The book, written by two medical historians from the University of New Brunswick and McGill University, has a...
Article
Contemporary medical education is increasingly concerned with such processes as “identity building” and “professionalization,” along with how narrative can help us understand such processes and other learning matters in health care and medicine. This article examines the means of identity construction through narrative writing and self–reflection,...
Chapter
Kurt Goldstein (1878–1965) gilt als einer der Mitbegründer der theoretischen Neurologie im deutschen Sprachraum während der Weimarer Zeit und räumte dem Begriff der ‚Morphologie‘ in seiner holistischen ‚Gestaltlehre‘ einen zentralen philosophischen wie klinischen Stellenwert ein. Obwohl er selbst nur eine kurze akademische Ausbildung in Philosophie...
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It took 83 years after the foundation of the “Canadian Society for the Protection of Science and Learning” in 1938 – which had been founded at the University of Toronto to help the plight of Central European academic émigrés fleeing the new Nazi governments in Germany, Austria, and increasingly their occupied neighbouring countries – that the Canad...
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This article investigates the scientific performance and impact of Jewish and politically oppositional émigré German-speaking neurophysiologists from Nazi-occupied Europe since the 1930s. The massive loss of nearly 30% of all academic psychiatrists and neurologists in Germany between 1933 and 1945 also shattered the basis of German-speaking neurosc...
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The modern thesis regarding the "structural plastic" properties of the brain, as reactions to injuries, to tissue damage, and to degenerative cell apoptosis, can hardly be seen as expendable in clinical neurology and its allied disciplines (including internal medicine, psychiatry, neurosurgery, radiology, etc.). It extends for instance to wider res...
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In his new book, Bernd Gausemeier provides an institutional history of the Buch research campus from its inception to the fall of the Berlin Wall. The translated title, Central Periphery: Biological and Medical Research in Berlin-Buch, 1930–1989, reveals a methodological playfulness. The author makes frequent use of inverted language—phrases such a...
Chapter
The notion of biomedical dominance emerged as a key concept in the Western medical tradition during the twentieth century. It refers to the exclusivity and pretention of laboratory research and evidence-based medicine regarding the level of knowledge generation, decision-making practices, and matters of health-care application within the whole fiel...
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The peculiar therapeutic practice of “ovarian compression”—paradoxically, both in initiating and in terminating hysterical activity—remains largely unexplained territory from both historical and medical perspectives. The gynecological indications of “hysteria” and “hystero-epilepsy” are now considered to be among similar questionable indications as...
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“Hysteria” and “hystero-epilepsy” were common medical diagnoses among physicians during the nineteenth century. In Paris, L’Hôpital de la Salpêtrière—originally a hospice for the poor and a prison for prostitutes and other female inmates—became a center of great interest for the possible role of neurological diseases in these conditions. At the sam...
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Dr. Bert Sakmann (b. 1942) studied at the Universities of Tuebingen, Freiburg, Berlin, Paris, and Munich, graduating in 1967. Much of his professional life has been spent in various institutes of the Max Planck Society. In 1971, a British Council Fellowship took him to the Department of Biophysics of University College London to work with Bernard K...
Article
With The Scientific Method: An Evolution of Thinking from Darwin to Dewey, Henry M. Cowles attempts to historicize the very idea of a distinct scientific method that ought to have emerged around the end of the 19th century. It materialized—according to the author—in scholarly theories of knowledge, disciplinary textbooks, and school curricula, whic...
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This volume brings together such topics as the history of psychiatry, biomedical ethics in history, military medicine, children, women and changing gender roles in modern medicine, public health history, and a special communication on the history of Canadian hospital workers. Of special note is a paper by internationally renowned historian, Dr. Pet...
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This article on the neurosurgeon Diana Beck in the United Kingdom describes the life and work of one of the first female neurological surgeons globally. Sharing this eminent biography can be seen as very timely given current discussions regarding equity, diversity, and inclusion topics. The article presents some important features of the educationa...
Chapter
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Creating the Future of Health is the fascinating story of the first fifty years of the Cumming School of Medicine at the University of Calgary. Founded on the recommendation of the Royal Commission on Health Services in 1964 the Cumming School has, from the very beginning, focused on innovation and excellence in health education. With a pioneering...
Chapter
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Creating the Future of Health is the fascinating story of the first fifty years of the Cumming School of Medicine at the University of Calgary. Founded on the recommendation of the Royal Commission on Health Services in 1964 the Cumming School has, from the very beginning, focused on innovation and excellence in health education. With a pioneering...
Chapter
Full-text available
Creating the Future of Health is the fascinating story of the first fifty years of the Cumming School of Medicine at the University of Calgary. Founded on the recommendation of the Royal Commission on Health Services in 1964 the Cumming School has, from the very beginning, focused on innovation and excellence in health education. With a pioneering...
Book
Full-text available
Creating the Future of Health is the fascinating story of the first fifty years of the Cumming School of Medicine at the University of Calgary. Founded on the recommendation of the Royal Commission on Health Services in 1964 the Cumming School has, from the very beginning, focused on innovation and excellence in health education. With a pioneering...
Chapter
Full-text available
Creating the Future of Health is the fascinating story of the first fifty years of the Cumming School of Medicine at the University of Calgary. Founded on the recommendation of the Royal Commission on Health Services in 1964 the Cumming School has, from the very beginning, focused on innovation and excellence in health education. With a pioneering...
Article
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Eine Beschreibung des Lebens und der enorm vielfältigen Arbeitsgebiete des "Vaters der Pathologie" Rudolf Virchow (13.10.1821-05.09.1902) sprengt insgesamt (fast) den Rahmen eines solchen Versuchs selbst. Sein ärztliches Leben reichte mindestens für vier: morphologischer Pathologe, anthropologischer Sammler, sozialmedizinischer Reformer und Abgeord...
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Periodical literature surveyed: July 1, 2017–June 30, 2018.
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Neuroscience is the scientific research movement emerging in the United States around Francis Otto Schmitt (1903-1995) at the MIT in the 1960s. It was thought as an unifying framework first centred on molecular biology, and extending its scope progressively to virtually all novel aspects of the study of the nervous system including cognition, behav...
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Rational betrachtet erleben wir in dieser, unserer Zeit nur eine neue Pandemie – diesmal verursacht durch SARS-CoV-2. Erstaunlich irrational scheint, dass sich jetzt erst viele, angesichts der vom Tier auf den Menschen übertragenen Infektion, der Verletzlichkeit des Menschen bewusst werden. Komplex sind die Zusammenhänge zwischen unserer Lebensweis...
Book
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From 1928 to 1972, the Alberta Sexual Sterilization Act, Canada’s lengthiest eugenic policy, shaped social discourses and medical practice in the province. Sterilization programs—particularly involuntary sterilization programs—were responding both nationally and internationally to social anxieties produced by the perceived connection between mental...
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This volume examines an important historical problem, namely, how governments, progressive groups, and professional associations were co-opted by the ideologies and fashionable scientific claims of contemporary eugenicists. It links the troubled eugenics history in western Canada to further developments on the international stage and examines the m...
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A discussion of well-known German-American neurologist, psychiatrist, and psychologist Kurt Goldstein (1878–1965) as a prime example of eugenic thought—highlighting the interrelated nature of eugenic issues in the United States, Europe, and Canada at the beginning of the twentieth century—is quite paradoxical in several ways. By many scholars, Gold...
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This volume, which is edited by Shula Marks, emeritus professor and distinguished research fellow at the School of Advanced Study in the University of London; Paul J. Weindling, Wellcome Trust research professor in the history of medicine at Oxford Brookes University; and Laura Wintour, historian and grant program officer at the Council for At-Risk...
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The reverberations of the Second World War caused the loss of up to one-third of all academic psychiatrists and cognitive scientists from Germany and occupied Central European countries between 1933 and 1945. These disastrous developments for the wider academic landscape in many ways annihilated the foundation of German-speaking psychiatric and cli...
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While working for the American and West German authorities as a psychiatric expert in the indemnification trials for Holocaust survivors from the 1950s to the 1980s, German-born physician William G. Niederland not only became an advocate survivors’ claims for compensation, but worked out the psychiatric contours of empathy in modern psycho-traumato...
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The new University of Calgary Faculty of Medicine was a result of major administrative and political changes in the provincial health-care system in Alberta. After it was established in 1966, the faculty soon became a reflexive and autonomous actor, as can be seen in its responses to the decisions and plans made by the government of Alberta. This r...
Book
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Bedside and Community is the inside story of fifty years of health care and health research at the University of Calgary. Drawing on the first-person accounts of researchers, administrators, faculty, and students along with archival research, and faculty histories, this collection celebrates the many significant contributions the University of Calg...
Article
The state of evidence around the vascular hypothesis of MS (and related degenerative conditions) is such that it has seen several trends, favors, and declines in the long history of medicine. Providing both medical researchers and historians of neuroscience and psychiatry with a deeper understanding of this challenging relationship between medical...
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When Sebastian “Seb” Littmann (1931–1986) arrived at the University of Calgary in 1982 as the new chair of the psychiatry department, it marked the culmination of his career. His compassionate work throughout the 1970s as Director at Toronto’s Clarke Institute would have been especially in the minds of his prospective Calgary employers. What escape...
Chapter
Cette contribution considère divers événements internes à la médecine de l’après-guerre, qui reflètent des développements plus généraux dans la société ouest-allemande et dans ses relations cruciales aux États-Unis. Une évaluation détaillée des nouvelles « normalités traumatiques » depuis la fin de la Deuxième Guerre mondiale peut être considérée d...
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Mildenberger’s volume presents a pioneering study in this hitherto under-researched area and represents a worthy step forward in the field of complementary and alternative therapy and health care during the Nazi period. This book will be of interest to specialized research libraries in the history of medicine and health care, centers for German his...
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Multiple research paths characterize Alberta's history of neuroscience, as they led up to the creation of the Hotchkiss Brain Institute (HBI) in 2004. This article features several findings and observations from a research project that took its origin from the 10th anniversary of the HBI at the Cumming School of Medicine in Calgary. It has investig...
Article
This neuroscientist was born in the period of the German Empire in 1917 into a middle-class Jewish-German family. His father was a world-renowned ophthalmologist, whose life and career served as an inspiration for his son to pursue a career in medicine. With the rise of Adolf Hitler (1889–1945) and the National Socialist Party to power in 1933, his...
Article
In studying the history of neuroscience in the twentieth century, the forced emigration of Jewish and other oppositional academics from Central Europe in the 1930s and 1940s is crucial to understanding the context through which the field developed, particularly in North American institutions. Dr. Rudolf Altschul (1901-1963) was an accomplished neur...
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In 1857, French-Austrian psychiatrist Bénédict Augustin Morel (1809-1873) published his infamous though highly successful Traité des dégénérescences physiques, intellectuelles et morales de l'espèce humaine, which was fully dedicated to the social problem of "degeneration" and its psychiatric and neurological underpinnings. European psychiatrists,...
Article
The physician described in the Neurognostic Question is Walter Wilhelm Igersheimer, MD (1917–2012), a refugee from Nazi Germany, internee, neurological pediatrician, and pioneering psychiatrist. With an interest in the pathology of the nervous system, his education and medical career in Great Britain were cut short with the outbreak of World War II...
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Objective: This article explores the life and career of Sebastian K. Littmann. He was a foundational figure of the University of Calgary's Department of Psychiatry in his role as its second chair and, before this, as an influential administrator at Toronto's Queen Street Mental Health Centre and Clarke Institute during a transitional period in the...
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Even before the completion of his medical studies at the universities of Berlin, Munich, and Strasburg, as well as his M.D.-graduation – in 1884 – under Friedrich Goltz (1834–1902), experimental biologist Jacques Loeb (1859–1924) became interested in degenerative and regenerative problems of brain anatomy and general problems of neurophysiology. It...
Chapter
Eine adäquate Charakterisierung des deutsch-amerikanischen Neurologen, Philosophen, Aphasiologen, Experimentalpsychologen und Anthropologen Kurt Goldstein (1878-1965) scheitert oft an den zur Verfügung stehenden disziplinären akademischen Berufsbezeichnungen, die alle einen (aber eben nur einen) Teil seiner wissenschaftlichen und intellektuellen Id...
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Oaths recited in medical schools provide valuable insight into the medical profession’s evolving core of ethical commitments. This study presents a brief overview of medical oaths, and how they came to attain their current prominence. The authors examine medical oaths used in twentieth-century North America (the USA and Canada) through a critical r...
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[English transl. of title: "Kurt Goldstein or: The Short Moment of Gestalt-Theoretical Holism"] Kurt Goldstein (1878-1965) can be regarded as a psychosomatic physician avant la lettre, when practicing neurology and psychiatry during the Weimar period at the University of Frankfurt/Main and the academic hospital of Berlin-Moabit. This is particular...
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The elusive nature of conscious experience has naturally led to the development of several competing theories of consciousness in contemporary scientific thought. While he first came to prominence with his Nobel Prize-winning contributions to immunology, Gerald Maurice Edelman (1929-2014) subsequently offered his own novel theory related to conscio...
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Periodical literature surveyed: July 1, 2016-June 30, 2017.
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This volume, written by three neurosurgeons—one of which (Dr. Eisenberg) also has formal training in the history of medicine—looks at both the research trajectories and fate of thirteen graduated neurosurgery fellows who lost their positions in Germany and Austria after the Nazis had issued their appalling anti-Semitic “Law on the Re-Establishment...
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Research on memory has been a major focus in the neurosciences over the past decades. An important advance was achieved by Wilder Penfield at the Montreal Neurological Institute, who reported from the 1930s to the 1950s about experiential phenomena induced by electrical brain stimulation in humans, implying neuronal causation of memory. Since then,...
Chapter
The massive loss of nearly thirty per cent of all academic psychiatrists and neurologists in Germany between 1933 and 1945 in many ways also destroyed the basis of German-speaking psychiatric and neuroscientific research, as has been pointed out by many historiographical studies over the past decades. In return, the process of forced-migration of J...
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Being Brains: Making the Cerebral Subject is a fine-grained account of the "neuro-" in a range of disciplines, and, importantly-crucially-, takes stock of the history and scope of this prefix. But more than this the book is an exploration, a critical engagement with the surge of brain-centered approaches to behavior, to physiology, to mind, to subj...
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Fernando Vidal––research professor at the Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies and at the Autonomous University of Barcelona (Spain)––and Francisco Ortega––a professor of social medicine and public health at the State University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)––address the question why the neurocentric view of human subjectivity emerged...
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Karl T. Neubuerger (1890-1972) was a German-American neuropathologist, who had received his postgraduate training in psychiatry and neuropathology from the German Research Institute for Psychiatry in Munich in the 1920s. He studied a wide variety of neuropathology topics, ranging from military neuropathology, epileptology, to neuro- oncology, etc....
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World War II drew to a close in Europe on May 8, 1945. Many institutes for brain research, psychology, and psychiatry of the former Kaiser Wilhelm Society (KWG) were destroyed. Numerous scientists and scholars had died or were forced into exile in America, Britain, and elsewhere around the globe, where they found new working environments after the...
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It is a great pleasure to have the opportunity to write this essay review of Daniel P. Todes’s (Department of the History of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University) breathtakingly encompassing biography of the Russian scientist Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849–1936). The international history of physiology and history of science communities have eagerly awa...
Book
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The forced migration of neuroscientists, both during and after the Second World War, is of growing interest to international scholars. Of particular interest is how the long-term migration of scientists and physicians has affected both the academic migrants and their receiving environments. As well as the clash between two different traditions and...
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The transmigration of scholars and scientists, whether forced or voluntary has been a continuous phenomenon, but an under-researched topic in the longer history of science, medicine, and technology. On occasion dramatic cases have drawn scholarly attention, such as Réné Descartes’ (1596-1650) escape to the Netherlands in the theologically charged c...
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All of the three books, examined in this joint bibliographical review, explore specific topics that have remained neglected in existing scholarship. If there had been any doubt that forced migration scholarship was still important and for the historiography of science, technology, engineering, and medicine, then these three excellent recent books h...
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The book is written by Californian artist, educator, and lecturer Amy Ione, who heads the Diatrope Institute at Berkeley that examines the boundaries between science, technology, and cognition from diverse artistic perspectives. It includes stimulating considerations about individual perspectives on human memory and the imagination, as these origin...
Chapter
Materials and techniques that were incorporated into the sciences of the brain and mind in the postwar era migrated to North America with their displaced owners, as is shown in this chapter that places “luggage” at the forefront of historical analysis. In the wake of the Nazis’ rise to power, thousands of medical doctors and scientists of Jewish de...
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NeurHist Alert 23: Periodical Literature Surveyed: July 1, 2015 -- June 30, 2016.
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German-American neurologist and psychiatrist William G. Niederland may be seen as one of the many émigré neuroscientists that brought foregoing Central-European concepts in medicine to their new host countries and adapted them to their receiving milieus. This process is particularly palpable in Niederland's changing views of Karl Jasper's (1883-196...
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This article explores the work by Bernard Katz (1911–2003), Stephen W. Kuffler (1913–1980), and John C. Eccles (1903–1997) on the nerve–muscle junction as a milestone in twentieth-century neurophysiology with wider scientific implications. The historical question is approached from two perspectives: (a) an investigation of twenti- eth-century solut...
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In the latest Editorial, readers of JHN may have read that Stan Finger stepped down as Editor-in-Chief of the journal. This is a particular event in the journal’s history that started over 25 years ago, when it was founded by the British neurologist Frank Clifford Rose. It is undoubtedly true that Stan played a major role in the founding of History...
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The emergence of early brain research activities at the University of Strasburg constitutes a prominent interdisciplinary research field, which combines investigative approaches from anatomy, pathology, radiology, medicine, and surgery. This process happened during three consecutive political breaks: the Wilhelminian Empire’s restitution of the Ger...
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The Anatomy of Murder: Ethical Transgressions and Anatomical Science during the Third Reich. By Sabine Hildebrandt . New York: Berghahn, 2016. Pp. xvi + 374. Cloth $120.00. ISBN 978-1785330674. - Volume 49 Issue 3-4 - Frank W. Stahnisch
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The neurosciences have a long and fascinating history, one in which the bodily organs of the brain, spine, nerves, and eyes, and more recent theories about the soul and the mind have triggered the interest of natural philosophers, physicians, and researchers, as well as laypeople from ancient times to the contemporary modern period. As such, the hi...
Book
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Over the past decades, the neurosciences (clinical and basic) have attracted a vast interest both from a historiographical perspective as well as from science and technology studies approaches. It is quite interesting, however, that the very “methods” that modern neuroscience research programs use are barely analyzed and comparatively criticized wi...
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The First 25 Years of the Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
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Periodical literature surveyed: July 1, 2014-June 30, 2015
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Research in biological psychiatry during the first half of the 20th century was frequently based in a number of interrelated disciplines and their methods, such as neurology, neuroanatomy, and pathology as well as experimental biology. The German-American psychiatrist and neurologist Lothar B. Kalinowsky provides an example of a highly innovative a...
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Over the past decades, the neurosciences – in the wider plural meaning of the term – have attracted great interest both from a historical perspective as well as from a science and technology studies perspective. Of note is the remarkable fact that the very “methods” that the modern neurosciences have used in their research programs in the past have...
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Background and purpose: Understanding physician decision making is increasingly recognized as an important topic of study, especially in stroke care. We sought to characterize the process of acute stroke decision making among neurologists in the United States and Canada from clinical and epistemological perspectives. Methods: Using a factorial d...
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Neurogenetics and biological psychiatry research during the first half of the 20th century was often based on a number of interrelated disciplines, such as neurolgy, neuroanatomy, neuropathology, and experimental biology. The German-American psychiatric geneticist, Franz Josef Kallmann (1897-1965) was an academic product of this interdisciplinary b...
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Biological psychiatry in the early twentieth century was based on interrelated disciplines, such as neurology and experimental biology. Neuropsychiatrist Franz Josef Kallmann (1897–1965) was a product of this interdisciplinary background who showed an ability to adapt to different scientific contexts, first in the field of neuromorphology in Berlin...
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This special issue of the Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, comprised of six articles and one commentary, reflects on the multifold dimensions of intellectual migration in the neurosciences and illustrates them by relevant case studies, biographies, and surveys from twentieth-century history of science and medicine perspectives. The spec...
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Probably only specialists in neuroanatomy today will remember the name of German-American biomedical researcher and health educator Hartwig Kuhlenbeck. Most well known are his detailed studies about brain function in relation to consciousness, as these were expounded in his seminal book "Brain and Consciousness - Some prolegomena to an Approach to...
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A critical analysis of the historical involvement of neurology and neurosurgery in military emergency care services enables us to better contextualize and appreciate the development of modern neurology at large. Wartime neurosurgery and civil brain science during the German Nazi period tightly coalesced in the specific injury types that military ne...

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Projects (7)
Project
outlines and development of entangled fields of behavioral, cognitive and neurosciences in the 2nd half of the 20th century in the Max Planck Society as well as in a global perspective
Project
Research regarding this project focuses on the philosophical, epistemological, and contextual dimensions of the history of experimental physiology and the modern neurosciences. It aims at uncovering some of the cultural and social constellations that have influenced the wider development of experimental physiology, laboratory medicine, and brain research since the late 18th century (particularly France and Germany), the historical relationship between neurology/the neurosciences, and the philosophy of the mind (focus on the German-speaking countries and North America). Furthermore, the relationship between clinical neuroscience (particularly Canada and the United States), the historical epistemology of the life sciences (18th to 21st centuries), and the longer history of visualization practices in biomedicine are explored.