Frank Stafford

Frank Stafford
University of Michigan | U-M · Department of Economics

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128
Publications
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Publications

Publications (128)
Article
Full-text available
Despite the promising future of employment opportunities in occupations related to Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM), women remain underrepresented in some STEM occupational fields. We use data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to study the role of gender differences in achievement and self-perceived ability in math dur...
Article
Full-text available
The mortgage market has given rise to a changing and diverse set of borrowers actively using ARMs. Data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) for 2007 and 2013–2015 are used to study borrowing decisions. One view is that an ARM should be offered and taken by those better able to respond to an upward reset. Yet favorable economic conditions...
Article
As of 2007, many households had taken on very substantial commitments to housing and companion mortgage payments. At the same time they held little in the way of a traditional buffer stock of safer liquid assets but were more likely to have opened stock market accounts. Many of these families when experiencing subsequent mortgage payment difficulti...
Article
Duration-based measures of happiness from retrospectively constructed daily diaries are gaining in popularity in population-based studies of the hedonic experience. Yet experimental evidence suggests that perceptions of duration—how long an event lasts—are influenced by individuals’ emotional experiences during the event. An important remaining que...
Article
Time diaries are a well established method for providing population estimates of the amount of time and types of activities respondents carry out over the course of a full day. This paper focuses on a computer assisted telephone application developed to collect multiple, same-day 24-hour diaries from older couples who participated in the 2009 Panel...
Article
It has been well documented that response rates to cross-sectional surveys have declined over the past few decades. It is less clear whether response rates to longitudinal surveys have experienced similar changes over time. This article examines trends in response rates in several major, national longitudinal surveys in the United States and abroad...
Article
We utilize data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) to study borrowing decisions and other factors related to the run-up in housing prices in 1999-2007, their precipitous decline in 2007-2009, and how they contributed to mortgage distress and foreclosures as of 2009-2011. Difficulties were concentrated in selected real estate markets whe...
Article
The U.S. economy experienced a shift away from employment with coverage under a defined benefit (DB) pension plan during 1991-2009. Defined contribution (DC) plan coverage seems not to have risen much, if at all, for married men in the recent decade. Overall, the percent of the labor force covered by any pension type fell over the period 2001-2009,...
Article
This paper investigates the link between disability and subjective wellbeing, using data from the 2009 Disability and Use of Time supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, the longest running national panel study in the United States. Disability is construed broadly to include both the presence of any physical, cognitive, or sensory impairm...
Article
This paper examines ways that families use time to shape their children's health behaviors. Specifically, it explores ways that parents can prepare children to make health-enhancing choices as adults. It also analyzes ways that offspring manage their time during young adulthood, when they are old enough to make independent decisions about whether t...
Article
Using same-day diaries from 394 older couples in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), this paper develops and explores several new measures of diary quality. Two overarching questions are explored: 1) How do diary quality measures reflecting the data collection process enhance understanding of time use in later life? and 2) How well do same-d...
Article
Using same-day diaries from 394 older couples in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), this paper develops and explores several new measures of diary quality. Two overarching questions are explored: 1) How do diary quality measures reflecting the data collection process enhance understanding of time use in later life? and 2) How well do same-d...
Chapter
The family is regarded as a powerful if not the most powerful influence on education. Illustrations of this belief are everywhere. A study of the educational payoff to recent U.S. training programs for adults on welfare concluded that the effectiveness in skill acquisition was limited. One of the reasons given was that it is not easy to overcome ba...
Article
There are extraordinary opportunities to address the next generation of research challenges in the social, behavioral, and economic sciences that build on the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). First, PSID offers untapped opportunities to examine questions of relevance to our understanding of environmental sustainability. Second, cross-national...
Article
The U.S. economy experienced a dramatic rise in the price of owner occupied housing during 1999-2007, and then a precipitous decline from 2007 through 2009. In this paper we utilize data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) during 1999–2009 to study first the factors and borrowing decisions which were related to the run-up and then to see...
Article
Why do estimates of the intergenerational persistence in earnings vary so much for the United States? Recent research suggests that lifecycle bias may be a major factor [Grawe, N., Lifecycle bias in estimates of intergenerational earnings persistence. Labour Economics 2006, 13:551-570; Haider, S., and Solon, G., Life-cycle variation in the associat...
Article
A wide range of economic and health behaviors are influenced by individuals' attitudes toward the future - including investments in human capital, health capital and financial capital. Intergenerational correlations in such behaviors suggest an important role the family may play in transmitting time preferences to children. This article presents a...
Article
Full-text available
Why do we observe a wage differential between smokers and non-smokers? Pooling reports of current and prior smoking activity across 15 years from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) allows the reconstruction of individual smoking histories. Dividing the sample into smoking history groups, the four largest of which are: persistent smokers, nev...
Article
Full-text available
Community-based studies have suggested a multigenerational pattern of obesity affecting children's risk of overweight, but no national data have substantiated such a pattern. Our objective was to examine the prevalence of overweight [body mass index (BMI) >or=95th percentile for age and sex] among children aged 5 to 19 in a national sample, stratif...
Article
This paper assesses the feasibility of collecting retrospective data on family income in a two-year periodicity in a survey. We draw data and experience from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) conducted in the University of Michigan. In 1997, partly because of budget constraints and partly because of an interest in extending the PSID into ne...
Article
Using a unique set of household-level panel data, we estimate the effect of capital gains on saving by asset type, controlling for observable and unobservable household-specific fixed effects. The results suggest that the decline in the personal saving rate since 1984 is largely due to the significant capital gains in corporate equities experienced...
Article
Full-text available
A belief exists that those in the Third Age, defined as the age range from 65-79 years, now have more choices: their health is better, their finances are better, and their ability to maintain their own home or work in the job market is better than it was for earlier generations of Third Agers. What is the health status of those in the Third Age, an...
Article
Abstract Direct respondent reports of time use are commonly found to exceed estimates from diary- based measures. In addition it is common to have proxy reports of time in household chores and market work. Here we show that for core housework, as reported in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), married men are likely to report greater weekly...
Article
This article discusses recent efforts by staff members associated with the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) to extend access to PSID files in the context of instruction using the World Wide Web and the role that PSID’s online Data Center and online tutorials can play in helping the economics discipline fulfill its educational objectives.
Article
Applying a permanent income model with exogenous liquidity constraints and mortgage behavior, household refinancing when mortgage interest rates are historically high and rising, a persistent empirical puzzle, is explained. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, households experiencing an unemployment shock and having limited initial l...
Article
Full-text available
We present a model in which individuals' preferences are defined over their consumption, transfers to offspring, and social status associated with income. We show that a separating equilibrium exists where individuals' expenditure on conspicuous consumption is a signal for their unobserved income. In this equilibrium, poor families that climb up th...
Article
Although time use has received much attention by social scientists as an index of resource allocation and social relations across groups, only a few studies have carefully assessed the relative strengths and weaknesses of the existing methods of measuring time use: time diary (TD), stylized (S) respondent report, and experiential sampling method (E...
Article
Given differences in public saving programs between Sweden and the United States, an examination of household private wealth accumulation in these two countries can be enlightening. In this paper we examine wealth inequality and mobility in Sweden and the United States over the past decade. We show that wealth inequality has been significantly grea...
Article
Full-text available
We thank members of the Public Finance and Macroeconomics seminars at the University of Michigan and seminar participants at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, the Inter-American Development Bank, and Indiana University for helpful comments on earlier drafts of this paper. We thank seminar participants at the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago and...
Article
Wives' financial independence gained from their pension may increase the risk of marital dissolution, especially when wives are approaching retirement age (the older wives' independence hypothesis). Applying single and simultaneous equations probit models to data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we investigate the effect of wives' pension h...
Article
The research reported in this article provides the first direct experimental comparison between Event History Calendar (EHC; N = 309; 84.4 percent response rate) and standardized state-of-the-art question list (Q-list; N = 307; 84.1 percent response rate) interviewing methodologies. Respondents and 20 interviewers were randomly assigned to EHC and...
Article
The research reported in this article provides the first direct experimental comparison between Event History Calendar (EHC; N=309; 84.4 percent response rate) and standardized state-of-the-art question list (Q-list; N=307; 84.1 percent response rate) interviewing methodologies. Respondents and 20 interviewers were randomly assigned to EHC and Q-li...
Article
Full-text available
Given differences in public saving programs between Sweden and the United States, an examination of household private wealth accumulation in these two countries can be enlightening. In this paper we examine wealth inequality and mobility in Sweden and the United States over the past decade. We show that wealth inequality has been significantly grea...
Article
Introduction Americans have taken on significant amounts of debt -- both in the form of mortgage debt and credit card debt. Aggregate data show a rise in both credit card debt and mortgage debt during the 1990's. At the same time, household wealth at the upper end of the distribution has risen strongly. Microdata on families from the National Scien...
Article
Given differences in public saving programs between Sweden and the United States, an examination of household private wealth accumulation in these two countries can be enlightening. In this paper we examine wealth inequality and mobility in Sweden and the United States over the past decade. We show that wealth inequality has been significantly grea...
Article
Full-text available
In the United States, religious attendance rises sharply with education across individuals, but religious attendance declines sharply with education across denominations. This puzzle is explained if education both increases the returns to social connection and reduces the extent of religious belief, and if beliefs are closely linked to denomination...
Article
The general equilibrium analysis of many important labor market issues is very different in an economy that is open to international trade than an economy (like the US in the 1950s) in which trade is not very important. Despite the fact that individual national economies have become increasingly interdependent over the last few decades, labor econo...
Article
This paper deals with methodological issues that arise in measuring household wealth. Two prominent American household surveys—the PSID and SCF—rely on different methodological approaches to the measurement of household wealth. In particular, SCF oversamples high-income households and has a far more extensive set of questions. In the top one percen...
Article
The wage cost of time out of the labor force for childcare is important in order to understand the functioning of labor markets and for public policy. This paper reviews the literature and identifies several limitations. Using employment records of a large Swedish company over the period 1983-88, we demonstrate an alternative approach for estimatin...
Article
Empirical evaluation of the effect of school quality, or type and amount of resources per student, on adult earnings requires a conceptual framework. A model of the returns to schooling in a simple human capital growth context is extended to illustrate how factors such as consumption benefits of students, parental concern over equity between siblin...
Article
This section will offer a description of a particular data source that may be of interest to economists. The purpose is to describe what data are available from that source or in that subject area, what questions can be addressed because of the unique features of the data, and how an interested researcher can gain access to those data. Suggestions...
Article
Full-text available
Early childhood programs are usually viewed as a service that promotes children's development. In addition, these programs often serve a broader purpose of enabling mothers with young children to join the paid labor force. Therefore, government policies relating to the provision and use of child care programs reflect such economic and social factor...
Article
This paper is about a country which has enjoyed a comparative advantage in producing some good(s) and suddenly finds its trading partners increasing their productivity in producing precisely those same goods; e.g., the U.S. with its big lead in many kinds of manufacturing production in the 1950s and 1960s, and the rest of the world catching up in t...
Article
Full-text available
PIP 2nd only to Ireland in total fertility, Sweden has the highest total fertility (TFR) and female labor force participation rates (FLFPR) among European countries in the late 1980s and early 1990s. 1988 TFR and FLFPR were 1.96 and 80.1%, respectively. This paper considers the role of public policy in creating this unique trend, with particular fo...
Article
This paper utilizes data from a Swedish household survey for 1984 (the HUS data) in combination with data on public child care fees and spaces per child by community. We argue that the subsidy rate and availability of spaces determined by the political leaders of the community is to a large extent exogenous to the household. The joint out-of-home c...
Conference Paper
Using national time diary estimates it is calculated that annually about 750 billion dollars of time value is devoted to travel in the United States. IVHS systems would be effective in reducing this number as well as the long commutes that create it. Most research on travel time considers average commuting time. Yet a mean preserving reduction in t...
Article
The provision of subsidized child care may encourage women to participate in the paid labor force. This paper analyzes the effects of the price and availability of subsidized child care on labor force participation, using data from a Swedish household survey for 1984 in combination with data on public day care fees and spaces per child by community...
Article
In contrast to Leontief's remarks which were directed toward the entire field of economics, in this chapter it is shown that for the field of labor economics there has been a growth of new types of data, of econometric methods and practice tailored to hypothesis testing based on substantive and policy questions, and of papers with a theoretical sec...
Article
Considerable policy interest has developed in assessing the performance of employment and training programs, most notably the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act. (CETA) and the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA). This paper develops a production frontier model for the Employment Service and assesses the relative efficiency of the 51 State E...
Chapter
Experimental methods can be used to evaluate a wide range of economic hypotheses ranging from models of individual economic behavior to market processes. Given the rapid growth in models of market equilibrium and adjustment, such as signaling, rational expectations, statistical models of discrimination, and given the paucity of data on the particul...
Article
Time inputs to children are measured using data from the recent Time Use Survey conducted by the University of Michigan. We analyze time parents devote to their children, particularly in their preschool years, in an attempt to find out if there are social-class and education-of-wife differentials in this particular time use that may provide some in...
Article
This study analyzes the effects of right-wing extremism on the well-being of immigrants based on data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) for the years 1984 to 2006 merged with state-level information on election outcomes. The results show that the life satisfaction of immigrants is significantly reduced if right-wing extremism in the nativ...
Article
Discusses the insurance aspects of unemployment insurance (UI). Importance of the division of labor and specialization; Information on a UI model; Other features of the UI system. (Abstract copyright EBSCO.)
Article
Labor supply and demand behavior is examined under the assumption that the firm's technology depends on the simultaneous presence, during the workday, of two factors of production, either labor and capital or two types of labor differentiated by skill. If desired workdays differ, this leads to payment to both factors of a premium over their traditi...

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