Frank Sill Torres

Frank Sill Torres
German Aerospace Center (DLR) | DLR · Institute for the Protection of Maritime Infrastructures

Dr.Ing.

About

167
Publications
19,228
Reads
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880
Citations
Citations since 2017
103 Research Items
742 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
Introduction
Frank Sill Torres currently works at the Institute for the Protection of maritime Infrastructures, German Aerospace Center (DLR). Frank does research in Resilience Engineering and maritime Safety and Security.
Additional affiliations
June 2019 - January 2022
German Aerospace Center (DLR)
Position
  • Head of Department
October 2018 - February 2019
University of Duisburg-Essen
Position
  • Lecturer
October 2018 - present
Universität Bremen
Position
  • Lecturer
Description
  • Co-lecturer of the course "RAuES - Computer architectures and Embedded Systems"

Publications

Publications (167)
Article
Full-text available
Offshore wind energy (OWE) production is a crucial element for increasing the amount of renewable energy. Consequently, one can observe a strong and constant rise of the OWE industry, turning it to an important contributor of national energy provision. This trend, however, is accompanied by increasing pressure on the reliability, safety, and securi...
Conference Paper
The second European Workshop on Maritime Systems Resilience and Security (MARESEC) was dedicated to the research on Resilience, Security, Technology and related Ethical, Legal, and Social Aspects (ELSA) in the context of Maritime Systems, including but not restricted to (Offshore/Onshore) Infrastructures, Navigation and Shipping and Autonomous Syst...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Using hydrogen fuel may help to decarbonize maritime transportation. This paper presents an estimate for the mass of hydrogen that would be needed to power the current fleet of crew transport vessels used for maintaining the German offshore wind farms. The estimate is based on a calculation of the marine diesel oil consumption of the current fleet....
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The topic of this contribution is the investigation in quantitative terms of Offshore Wind Farm (OWF) disturbances due to cyber-attacks, physical attacks and natural causes leading to high-impact low-probability events. The impact of these disturbances was quantified with simulation models of OWFs and identified as service interruption and damage....
Article
Full-text available
Motivated by the transition to renewable energies in the context of ongoing climate change, offshore wind energy is of rising importance for the energy provision on national and international level. This trend, though, puts pressure on the safety and security community to provide appropriate analyses and solutions in regard to safety and security t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The European Commission (EC) has proposed a new directive on critical entities resilience. The aim is to enhance the protection and to unify the approaches in different member states. The stated novelty of this directive lies in the thought that protecting the infrastructure is not sufficient. Therefore, it is necessary to reinforce the resilience...
Article
Full-text available
The International Maritime Organization (IMO) established new strategies that could lead to a significant reduction in the carbon footprint of the shipping sector to address global warming. A major factor in achieving this goal is transitioning to renewable fuels. This implies a challenge, as not only ship-innovative solutions but also a complete l...
Article
Full-text available
Progressing digitalization and networking of systems and organizations representing Critical Infrastructures opens promising new potentials and opportunities, which on the downside, are accompanied by rising complexity and increasingly opaque interdependencies. The consequently increasing lack of knowledge leads to uncertainties affecting risk asse...
Conference Paper
Offshore wind farms in the German North and Baltic Seas have a key role to play in the context of the shift towards renewable energy and in securing electricity supplies in the future. At the same time, however, shipping routes in the North and Baltic Seas are among the busiest in the world, wind farms are increasingly being operated unmanned and c...
Article
In face of the high complexity of modern systems and the increasing reliance on technology, the strategies and methods to evaluate the integrity of systems and the information they provide are of great importance. The use of sensors to provide important information in various applications has become ubiquitous, which puts more pressure on the accur...
Article
The Symposium on Integrated Circuits and Systems Design (SBCCI) is an international forum dedicated to Integrated Circuits and Systems Design, Test and Electronic Design Automation (EDA), held annually in Brazil. The SBCCI has established itself as an important international forum for the presentation of advanced research results on leading-edge as...
Presentation
From a technical perspective, resilience focuses on the ability of a system to anticipate and to resist external and internal disruptions and disturbances as well as to recover and to learn from such events. This view led to a new paradigm, i.e. away from the classical design criteria fail-safe towards safe-to-fail systems. The former emphasizes th...
Conference Paper
This paper presents an approach to generate synthetic wind speed and wave height series for maritime environments with a four-dimensional copula using the Copulas Python library. The intended use of the approach is to generate weather data for maritime infrastructure operations modeling. For example, the ability to built and maintain offshore wind...
Conference Paper
Laser-assisted side-channel analysis techniques, such as optical probing (OP), have been shown to pose a severe threat to secure hardware. While several countermeasures have been proposed in the literature, they can either be bypassed by an attacker or require a modification in the transistor's fabrication process, which is costly and complex. In t...
Chapter
Since logic networks are usually obtained by conventional logic synthesis approaches, they are optimized with respect to abstract or conventional cost metrics such as the number of gates, area, depth, etc. However, these do not apply to FCN circuit layouts in the same way. Final FCN costs highly depend on the utilized clocking scheme and the networ...
Chapter
In this chapter, the intractability of the placement and routing problems in FCN is taken as a justification for the application of formal methods. An exact algorithm for placement and routing of FCN circuit layouts based on Smt solving is presented. Henceforth, the generation of minimal layouts, in terms of area, from given logic network specifica...
Chapter
In an effort to establish this book as a stand-alone work, this chapter introduces important fundamentals and notations necessary for the comprehension of the included concepts. Boolean calculus, logic representations, and data structures form the basis for considerations throughout all the remaining chapters. Additionally, the satisfiability probl...
Chapter
This chapter summarizes the presented concepts and algorithms of this book and draws a conclusion. The significance of the provided research findings is classified and a glimpse into a possible future of the field is given.
Book
This book discusses the main tasks of Design Automation for Field-coupled Nanocomputing (FCN) technologies, in order to enable large-scale composition of elementary building blocks, that obtain correct systems from given function specifications. To this end, a holistic design flow is described, which covers exact and scalable placement & routing, o...
Chapter
Decades of theoretical investigation led to the consolidation of knowledge in the area of physical design for CMOS circuitry. This chapter provides a first step toward a similar comprehensive theoretical understanding in the FCN domain. Therefore, the placement and routing problem is formally defined in two variants; once as a decision problem and...
Chapter
In this chapter, an extensible open-source framework for design automation of FCN circuit layouts is presented that is publicly available. The fiction framework was developed alongside the research for this book. The presented algorithms are implemented within the said framework to support open research and to make all claims reproducible. To facil...
Chapter
Since conventional methods used for the verification of CMOS circuitry do not apply to the FCN domain due to signal synchronization differences, a novel technique is introduced in this chapter. It enhances said conventional methods to adapt them to FCN circuit layouts. As a representative verification problem, equivalence checking is examined. Via...
Chapter
While an exact algorithm for placement and routing generates solutions of optimum quality in terms of the circuit layout area, its scalability is inherently limited by the problem’s intractability. In this chapter, limiting factors of the problem domain and existing algorithms are identified, which are providing the base for an approximation via ut...
Chapter
Signal synchronization in FCN is one of the most fundamental differences compared to CMOS technologies. To this end, a detailed investigation in this chapter reveals that certain synchronization restrictions are, in fact, not mandatory but mere optional constraints of valid combinational and sequential FCN circuit layouts. A methodology for driving...
Conference Paper
Platforms in the offshore wind energy industry are of particular importance for the uninterrupted functioning of the power grid due to their increasing relevance for the security of supply. Therefore, they require an increased level of protection. The paper presents an attempt for a probabilistic threat modeling and assessment based on a Functional...
Conference Paper
The climate change challenges a variety of aspects in our society. One spect is the energy production and the composition of the energy mix. Through the last years the amount of offshore wind farms has increased as well as the structure of the electricity producing infrastructure has changed from a more centralized (power plant oriented) to a more...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, cooperative autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) have been deployed in application areas such as surveillance and protection of maritime infrastructures for inspection and monitoring purposes. These cooperative methodologies require wireless transmission of data between the different AUVs operating in the underwater environment. Communic...
Conference Paper
Muon tomography represents a new and promising imaging technique, making use of ambient high-energy cosmic ray muons to generate images of three-dimensional volumes. The technique predominantly combines measurements of the Coulomb scattering of muons with sophisticated analysis methods to estimate the composition of objects and their distribution w...
Conference Paper
This work discusses the maintenance of Offshore Wind Farms in the context of resilience. Therefore, the relation between the system response to disruptions due to severe weather conditions and redundancy of operating vessels is analyzed. The study is executed using an appropriate simulation model, which employs reported component failures rates and...
Conference Paper
The knowledge about the responses to hazardous events is of importance throughout the whole life cycle of a complex system, regardless whether during design or operation phases. These responses also allow to draw conclusions about the resilience of the system. Consequently, there is a need for an extensive consideration of all possible hazardous ev...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Risk monitoring is a fundamental part of risk management that allows detecting changes that might affect the risk consequences and their likelihood. To be effective, the process requires storing the risk information into a so-called risk register. This paper presents an implementation that is realized in form of a relational database. We present th...
Article
Full-text available
Offshore wind farms (OWFs) are important infrastructure which provide an alternative and clean means of energy production worldwide. The offshore wind industry has been continuously growing. Over the years, however, it has become evident that OWFs are facing a variety of safety and security challenges. If not addressed, these issues may hinder thei...
Conference Paper
Trustworthiness is an important aspect for systems for IoT application, especially when it comes to solutions in the domains of security or privacy. Integrated circuits are an essential element of IoT systems, and thus, an attractive target. Therefore, one has to assure over the complete design and fabrication cycle, that no harmful changes have be...
Article
The evolution of computer algorithms and micro-architectures continuously leads to novel applications and solutions that explore modern computers’ potential. A drawback of this development is the rising complexity of hardware-oriented tests during software development. This paper proposes Hambug, a method to support developers during software testi...
Conference Paper
As a result of the ongoing commitment to climate protection in more and more countries and the corresponding expansion of renewable energies, the importance of renewables for the security of electricity supply is increasing. Wind energy generated in offshore wind farms already accounts for a significant share of the energy mix and will continue to...
Presentation
Die Session widmete sich dem Thema 'Maritime Sicherheit und das Lagebild der Zukunft' von drei verschiedenen Seiten: (1) Technisch und gesellschaftliche Fragestellungen, (2) Einsetzbarkeit und Akzeptanz, sowie (3) Rechtliche Herausforderungen.
Article
Full-text available
Collision avoidance is one of the main tasks on board ships to ensure safety at sea. To comply with this requirement, the direct ship environment, which is often modelled as the ship’s domain, has to be kept free of other vessels and objects. This paper addresses the question to which extent inaccuracies in position (P), navigation (N), and timing...
Conference Paper
The field of computer hardware stands at the verge of a revolution driven by recent breakthroughs in emerging nanodevices. 'Nano Security' is a new Priority Program recently approved by DFG, the German Research Council. This initial-stage project initiative at the crossroads of nano-electronics and hardware-oriented security includes 11 projects wi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Complex interconnected systems have high demands on meaningful analysis of the impact of failures on the actual service provision. This includes the study of obvious and high probable events, but also failures that are difficult to anticipate, e.g. due to cascading effects or combined events. This work introduces a framework for failure analysis th...
Conference Paper
The SBC/SBMicro/IEEE/ACM Symposium on Integrated Circuits and Systems Design (SBCCI) is an international forum dedicated to Integrated Circuits and Systems Design, Test and Electronic Design Automation (EDA), held annually in Brazil. The SBCCI has established itself as an important international forum for the presentation of advanced research resul...
Conference Paper
The first European Workshop on Maritime Systems Resilience and Security (MARESEC) was dedicated to the research on Resilience, Security, Technology and related Ethical, Legal, and Social Aspects (ELSA) in the context of Maritime Systems, including but not restricted to (Offshore/Onshore) Infrastructures, Navigation and Shipping and Autonomous Syste...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Offshore Wind Farms (OWFs) have rising importance for energy provision of many regions worldwide. However, their harsh environment leads to considerably higher failure rates and degradation compared to its onshore counterparts. Consequently, OWFs require well-established maintenance processes in order to provide required operational availability of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Bearing in mind their exposed position and the rising importance for power provision, Offshore Wind Farms (OWFs) are facing a multitude of safety and also security threats. This leads to growing interest in methods for real-time and long-term assessment of the safety and security state of this type of infrastructure. Following this observation, we...
Article
Coarse Grain Reconfigurable Architectures (CGRAs) are an emerging hybrid computational architecture that has the parallel customization benefits of low-level logic devices such as FPGAs and ASICs, while the relative coarseness of these architectures makes CGRAs easier to design for, which is more similar to the traditional processor. In the process...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The offshore wind industry experience a rising importance for the worldwide energy production, which is accompanied by increasing amount of wind turbines and Offshore Wind Farms (OWFs). However, due to its harsh environment and its role for energy provision, OWFs are confronted with several threats that are impacting its safety and security. Conseq...
Article
Early detection of technical errors in medical examinations, especially in remote locations, is of utmost importance in order to avoid invalid measurements that would require costly and time consuming repetitions. This paper proposes a highly efficient method for the identification of an erroneous inversion of the measuring electrodes during a mult...
Article
Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA) is an emerging nanotechnology with remarkable performance and energy efficiency. Computation and information transfer in QCA are based on field forces rather than electric currents. As a consequence, new strategies are required for design automation approaches in order to cope with the arising challenges. One of...
Article
Full-text available
The ability of an infrastructure to be resistant against hazards or to accommodate and recover from hazard-induced destructions and disturbances is characterized as resilience. Usually, infrastructures are engineered socio-technical systems or systems-of-systems. Jackson and Ferris consider the use of finite state machine (FSM) modelling as a suita...
Chapter
Over the last years with the fast technology enhancement, integrated circuit (IC) companies tend to outsource phases of their production chains in order to reduce time-to-market and development costs. Despite the outsourcing benefits through the world, serious security concerns today affect all phases of IC-design flows. Malicious third-party suppl...
Chapter
The increasing amount of noise sources in current systems requires a detailed analysis of noise susceptibility of integrated circuits. This is all the more important for analog sensors measuring substrate effects. This chapter presents the investigation of the noise tolerance of Body Built-In Current Sensors that enable the detection of radiation i...
Chapter
This chapter presents strategies for improving the characteristics of Body Built-In Current Sensors (BBICS). First, the concept of the modular BBICS (mBBICS) is discussed. Its principal characteristic is the separation of the sensing part of the sensor, called head, and the circuitry for generation of the flag, called tail. This division enables hi...
Article
Full-text available
This paper discusses the application of resilience engineering principles by shipborne navigation systems. As a technological system, the ship navigation system comprises all the communication and navigation equipment required to operate a ship. If examined as a socio-technological system, one has to additionally consider the use of the ship naviga...
Article
Near zero-energy computing describes the concept of executing logic operations below the (kBT ln 2) energy limit. Landauer discussed that it is impossible to break this limit as long as the computations are performed in the conventional, non-reversible way. But even if reversible computations were performed, the basic energy needed for operating ci...
Article
Full-text available
As Machine Learning applications increase the demand for optimised implementations in both embedded and high-end processing platforms, the industry and research community have been responding with different approaches to implement these solutions. This work presents approximations to arithmetic operations and mathematical functions that, associated...
Presentation
The presentation discusses the application of resilience engineering principles by shipside navigation systems and their effectiveness taking into account their mutual dependencies. Within this context the ship navigation system is considered as technological system (without human in the loop) as well as socio-technical system (with human in the lo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Critical infrastructures are essential lifelines for a wellfunctioning society, the competitiveness of the economy, and the social prosperity. One of the basic technological infrastructures of the global trade is the maritime transportation system with its wide range of sub-systems and their components as e.g. provided services and involved actors....
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the Hybrid Scalable-Minimized-Butterfly-Fat-Tree (H-SMBFT) topology for on-chip communication. Main aspects of this work are the description of the architectural design and the characteristics as well as a comparative analysis against two established indirect topologies namely Butterfly-Fat-Tree (BFT) and Scalable-Minimized-Butt...
Chapter
This chapter discusses aspects of the integration of Body Built-In Current Sensors (BBICS) into digital integrated circuit systems. The first challenge to be addressed is the automatic integration of the sensors in digital designs. The related flow is introduced and elaborated by means of an exemplary design. The second challenge to be addressed is...
Chapter
Integrated circuit (IC) system reliability, security, and power issues are highly associated and related to the operating frequency, voltage, and body bias level. Modern strategies of reliability, security, and power management that considers adaptive body biasing (ABB) are either able to reduce soft error rate by forward body biasing or increase i...
Chapter
In the context of reliable and secure integrated circuit (IC) system applications, this chapter generally discusses the effects of transient faults induced by environmental and intentional perturbation sources. The first section briefly analyzes the transient faults induced by environmental perturbation events during the IC lifetime, and the next s...
Chapter
Among hardware-level techniques for fault and error detection, the Body Built-In Current Sensors (BBICS) offer a compact and effective alternative for detecting single, short-duration, long-duration, and multiple (and simultaneous) transient faults. This kind of sensor combines the high fault detection effectiveness of costly fault-tolerance scheme...
Chapter
Transient faults might induce soft errors in integrated circuits. Typically, fault and error detection during the normal integrated circuit (IC) system operation is called concurrent error detection (CED). Several CED techniques have been proposed with the intent to design more reliable computing systems. These techniques mainly differ in their det...
Conference Paper
Within the last decades, tremendous research work has been carried out on the development of software-based algorithms to solve the Boolean Satisfiability Problem. These SAT-solvers have then been heavily orchestrated for addressing complex computational tasks like the verification of circuits. In this field, most of the applied techniques focused...
Article
Energy scalability of future digital systems is bounded by fundamental thermodynamic limits. Even worse, emerging technologies and process improvements, without reversible techniques, cannot solve this problem. Approaches like Field-Coupled Nanocomputing allow computations near the fundamental energy limits. However, there is a demand for strategie...
Preprint
As a class of emerging post-CMOS technologies, Field-coupled Nanocomputing (FCN) devices promise computation with tremendously low energy dissipation. Even though ground breaking advances in several physical implementations like Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA) or Nanomagnet Logic (NML) have been made in the last couple of years, design automati...
Article
Field-coupled Nanocomputing (FCN) technologies provide an alternative to conventional CMOS-based computation technologies and are characterized by intriguingly low-energy dissipation. Accordingly, their design received significant attention in the recent past. FCN circuit implementations like Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA) or Nanomagnet Logic...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Field-coupled Nanocomputing (FCN) technologies are considered as a solution to overcome physical boundaries of conventional CMOS approaches. But despite ground breaking advances regarding their physical implementation as e.g. Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA), Nanomagnet Logic (NML), and many more, there is an unsettling lack of methods for la...
Book
This book provides readers with insight into an alternative approach for enhancing the reliability, security, and low power features of integrated circuit designs, related to transient faults, hardware Trojans, and power consumption. The authors explain how the addition of integrated sensors enables the detection of ionizing particles and how this...
Preprint
Energy dissipation has become a crucial aspect for the further development of computing technologies. Despite the good progress that has been achieved in this regard, there is a fundamental thermodynamic limit (known as Landauer's limit) that will never be broken by conventional technologies as long as the computations are performed in the conventi...
Article
Total Ionizing Dose (TID) effects are an essential concern for integrated devices that are operating in space environment. We present in this work an extensive study of TID effects in Deep-Submicron and Nanoscale CMOS technologies. Principal aspects are the changes of the transistors I-V characteristics due to TID effects, the variation of the thre...