Frank C Hawthorne

Frank C Hawthorne
University of Manitoba | UMN · Department of Geological Sciences

B.Sc., A.R.S.M., Ph.D.

About

1,205
Publications
215,983
Reads
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28,252
Citations
Citations since 2017
216 Research Items
9385 Citations
201720182019202020212022202305001,0001,500
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201720182019202020212022202305001,0001,500
201720182019202020212022202305001,0001,500
Introduction
My long-term research program uses crystal-structure determination and refinement in conjunction with many forms of spectroscopy and microbeam analysis to characterize minerals at the atomic level, and to develop theoretical approaches that combine graph theory, bond-valence theory, and the moments approach to the electronic-energy density-of-states to interpret topological aspects of crystal structures, to understanding mineral stability and the behaviour of minerals in geological processes.
Additional affiliations
August 2018 - August 2019
University of Manitoba
Position
  • Professor Emeritus
Description
  • Post-doctoral Fellow (1973-1975) to Distinguished Professor (1997 to present) + Tier I Canada Research Chair (2001-2015).
September 1973 - September 2018
University of Manitoba
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Description
  • Introductory Mineralogy Advanced Mineralogy Morphological and Optical Crystallography Introductory Petrology Introductory Geology X-ray Crystallography Instrumental Methods
Education
September 1968 - September 1973
McMaster University
Field of study
  • Geology
October 1964 - July 1968
Royal School of Mines
Field of study
  • Pure Geology
October 1964 - July 1968
Imperial College London
Field of study
  • Pure Geology

Publications

Publications (1,205)
Article
Full-text available
Hydrogen plays an extremely important role in the structure and chemistry of the oxide and oxysalt minerals. The characteristics of this role can be profitably analyzed in a simple and intuitive fashion using bond-valence theory. For any crystal structure, the As components of the structural unit, (OH)
Article
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In the last 25 years, there have been major advances in our knowledge of both long-range and short-range order of both cations and anions. Experimental procedures for characterizing order and chemical composition of amphiboles have made major strides, and we now see widespread use of SREF, SIMS and infrared spectroscopy. In the future, we need to f...
Article
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Complex crystal structures may be classified according to the way all the primary coordination polyhedra (cation polyhedra as well as oxyanions) are joined together. The linkage of polyhedra to form clusters is considered in terms of graph theory. The treatment given is potentially useful in the classification of structures containing clusters of d...
Preprint
Full-text available
Nickelalumite, ideally NiAl 4 (SO 4 )(OH) 12 (H 2 O) 3 , is a newly approved mineral from the Batken region, Kyrgyzstan, where it occurs in the Kara-Tangi and Kara-Chagyr uranium deposits. It is found in the zone of hydrothermal alteration of U–V-bearing carbon-rich silicified schists, in association with quartz, calcite, alumohydrocalcite, allopha...
Article
Full-text available
Uvite, CaMg3(Al5Mg)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH), is a new mineral of the tourmaline supergroup. It occurs in the Facciatoia quarry, San Piero in Campo, Elba Island, Italy (42°45′04.55″N, 10°12′50.89″E) at the centre of a narrow (2–3 cm wide) vein composed of aggregates of dark brown to black tourmaline, penetrating (magnesite + dolomite)-rich hydrotherm...
Article
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The new trioctahedral mica garmite, CsLiMg2(Si4O10)F2, a Cs analogue of tainiolite was found in an essentially quartz rock in the Darai-Piyoz alkaline massif, Rasht district (formerly Garm district), Central Tajikistan, and named after discovery locality. It is closely associated with Mn-bearing pectolite, aegirine, Sr-enriched fluorite, quartz, da...
Article
Full-text available
The crystal structure of magnussonite, ideally Mn2+18[As3+6(Mn1+x)O18]2[(H2O, Clx, ) (H2O, )]2, from Långban, Sweden, was refined to an R1-index of 1.19 % and the structure proposed by Moore and Araki (1979) is confirmed. Magnussonite has a densely packed structure of (Mnφn) polyhedra, φ = (O2−, H2O, Cl−), and (As3+O3) triangular pyramids that is...
Article
Since their introduction in 1929, Pauling’s five rules have been used by scientists from many disciplines to rationalize and predict stable arrangements of atoms and coordination polyhedra in crystalline solids; amorphous materials such as silicate glasses and melts; nanomaterials, poorly crystalline solids; aqueous cation and anion complexes; and...
Article
Bortolanite (IMA 2021–040a), ideally Ca2(Ca1.5Zr0.5)Na(NaCa)Ti(Si2O7)2(FO)F2, is a rinkite-group (seidozerite supergroup) TS-block mineral from Poços de Caldas massif, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Associated minerals are götzenite, nepheline, alkali feldspar, aegirine, natrolite, analcime, and manganoan pectolite. Bortolanite shows complex compositional z...
Article
Protocaseyite, [Al4(OH)6(H2O)12][V10O28]·8H2O, is a new mineral (IMA 2020-090) occurring in low-temperature, post-mining, secondary mineral assemblages at the Burro mine, Slick Rock district, San Miguel County, Colorado, USA. Crystals of protocaseyite are saffron-yellow, thick blades, with pale orange-yellow streak, vitreous luster, brittle tenacit...
Article
Hydrogen (δ2H) and oxygen (δ18O) stable isotopes are used to trace fluid sources, metals, and contaminants in the environment and Earth's subsurface. Tourmaline-supergroup minerals provide an opportunity to quantify both δ2H and δ18O from the same grain using in situ analytical techniques (e.g., Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry – SIMS). These minera...
Article
Selivanovaite, ideally NaFe3+Ti4(Si2O7)2O4(H2O)4, is a murmanite-group (seidozerite supergroup) TS-block mineral from the Lovozero massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia. The crystal structure of selivanovaite was refined in space group C, a 10.524(6), b 13.815(6), c 12.213(14) Å, α 99.74(6), β 107.45(8), γ 90.15(10)°, V 1666.8(26) Å3, R1 = 21.40%. The pre...
Article
Full-text available
Bridgesite-(Ce), (IMA2019-034), was discovered at Tynebottom Mine, Cumbria, UK. It occurs as thin (1–2 μm) translucent blue crystals with a lath-like to acicular habit, aggregated into thin crusts and is associated mainly with brochantite, malachite, serpierite, devilline, gypsum, aragonite, jarosite, pyrite, lanthanite-(Ce) and undifferentiated ir...
Article
Shkatulkalite, ideally Na5TiNb2(Si2O7)2O3F(H2O)7, is a lamprophyllite-group (seidozerite supergroup) TS-block mineral from the Lovozero massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia. The crystal structure of shkatulkalite was refined as triclinic, space group P, a 5.464(1), b 7.161(1), c 15.573(1) Å, α 90.00(3), β 95.75(3), γ 90.00(3)°, V 606.3(4) Å3, R1 = 7.26%....
Article
Full-text available
Chain, ribbon and tube silicates are based on one-dimensional polymerizations of (TO4)n− tetrahedra, where T = Si⁴⁺ plus P⁵⁺ , V⁵⁺ , As⁵⁺ , Al³⁺ , Fe³⁺ and B³⁺ . Such polymerizations may be represented by infinite graphs (designated chain graphs) in which vertices represent tetrahedra and edges represent linkages between tetrahedra. The valence-sum...
Article
The decavanadate isopolyanion, [V10O28]6–, is a constituent of pascoite-family vanadate minerals and synthetic materials, and both protonated, [HxV10O28](6–x)–, and mixed-valence, [V4+xV5+10–x)O28](6+x)–, varieties have been described. Here we analyze the interaction between the interstitial complex and the decavanadate structural unit using the pr...
Article
Shakhdaraite-(Y), ideally ScYNb2O8, is a new mineral from the Leskhozovskaya miarolitic granitic pegmatite at the Shakhdara River, southwestern Pamir (Tajikistan). Shakhdaraite-(Y) occurs mainly as grains from 10 to 150 μm in size in a near-miarolitic pegmatite complex in association with quartz, albite, pyrochlore-microlite, fersmite, and an unnam...
Article
Gunterite was originally assigned the ideal formula Na4[H2V10O28]·22H2O. More detailed bond-valence analysis brought into question the presence of a protonated decavanadate anion, which led to the reexamination of the mineral. Infrared spectroscopy confirmed the absence of NH4. Reinterpretation of the original crystal structure data and new electro...
Article
Ferro-papikeite, ideally NaFe22+(Fe32+Al2)(Si5Al3)O22(OH)2, is a new mineral of the amphibole supergroup from the Filipstad Municipality, Värmland County, Central Sweden, where it occurs in a medium-grade felsic metavolcanic rock. Ferro-papikeite is pale brown with a translucent luster, has a colorless to very pale-brown streak, and shows no fluore...
Article
The crystal structure of dixenite, ideally Cu+Fe3+Mn142+(As5+O4)(As3+O3)5(SiO4)2(OH)6, from Långban, Sweden, was refined to an R1-index of 1.58%, and the structure proposed by Araki and Moore (1981) was confirmed and details elucidated. The structure, crystallizing in space group R3 with a = 8.2204(3) and c = 37.485(3) Å, consists of layers of (Mn2...
Article
Mineral species that contain the decavanadate isopolyanion [V10O28]6–, including its protonated and mixed-valence variants, constitute the pascoite family of minerals. Within the pascoite family, the isostructural minerals pascoite and magnesiopascoite form the pascoite group and the isostructural minerals lasalite and ammoniolasalite form the lasa...
Article
The crystal structure of perraultite from the Oktyabr'skii massif, Donetsk region, Ukraine (bafertisite group, seidozerite supergroup), ideally NaBaMn4Ti2(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2F, Z = 4, was refined in space group C to R1 = 2.08% on the basis of 4839 unique reflections [Fo > 4σFo]; a = 10.741(6), b = 13.841(8), c = 11.079(6) Å, α = 108.174(6), β = 99.186(6...
Article
Full-text available
An endmember formula must be: (1) conformable with the crystal structure of the mineral, (2) electroneutral (i.e., not carry a net electric charge), and (3) irreducible [i.e., not capable of being factored into components that have the same bond topology (atomic arrangement) as that of the original formula]. The stoichiometry of an endmember formul...
Article
Full-text available
A systematic study of alluaudite, hagendorfite, and varulite was done using single-crystal X-ray diffraction, powder diffraction, and electron probe microanalysis of samples from 12 separate localities. The crystal structures of the representative alluaudite and hagendorfite samples were refined to R1 indices of 3.7 and 1.8%, respectively, using a...
Article
Full-text available
The structure hierarchy hypothesis states that structures may be ordered hierarchically according to the polymerization of coordination polyhedra of higher bond-valence, and such hierarchies are useful in understanding the general compositional, structural, and paragenetic variations within the structural group of interest. Here we develop a struct...
Article
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Infinite chains of edge-sharing octahedra occur as fundamental building blocks (FBBs) in the structures of several hundred mineral species. Such chains consist of a backbone of octahedra to which decorating polyhedra may be attached. The general, stoichiometric formula of such chains may be written as c[MATxФz] where M is any octahedrally coordinat...
Article
Full-text available
Ontology deals with questions concerning what things exist, and how such things may be associated according to similarities and differences and related within a hierarchy. Ontology provides a rigorous way to develop a general definition of a mineral species. Properties may be divided into two principal groups: an intrinsic property is characteristi...
Article
Raman spectra were recorded for a set of synthetic amphiboles, Na(NaCa)(Mg5–xCox)Si8O22(OH)2 with x = 0–5, that have been previously characterized by Rietveld structure refinement and infrared spectroscopy in the principal OH-stretching region. The chemical compositions derived from the intensities of the O-H stretching Raman peaks are in accord wi...
Article
The classification and nomenclature of mineral species is regulated by the Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature and Classification of the International Mineralogical Association (IMACNMNC). This mineral species classification is necessary for Earth Sciences, as minerals constitute most planetary and interstellar materials. Hazen (2019) has prop...
Article
It is commonly accepted that the calculation of the proportions of endmember constituents in garnet is dependent on the particular sequence of calculating the amounts of the endmembers, and this belief has been used to justify avoiding the use of endmembers in the definition of a mineral species. Calculating the amounts of endmember constituents to...
Article
Full-text available
Unpolarized FTIR and Raman spectra were collected in the regions 4000–4600 cm–1 (NIR) and 100–4000 cm–1 from previously synthesized and characterized amphiboles in the systems richterite–fluoro-richterite, potassic-richterite–potassic-fluoro-richterite, rubidium-richterite–rubidium-fluoro-richterite, and potassic-richterite–deuterated potassic-rich...
Article
Here we report electron-microprobe data and unit-cell parameters for jinshajiangite, ideally NaBaFe 2þ 4 Ti 2 (Si 2 O 7) 2 O 2 (OH) 2 F, from a new locality: the Oktyabr'skii massif in the coastal area of the Azov Sea, Donetsk region, Ukraine. Chemical analysis by electron microprobe gave Nb 2 O 5 1.59, ZrO 2 0.61, TiO 2 17.07, SiO 2 27.60, Al 2 O...
Article
Full-text available
Bond-length distributions for ions bonded to oxygen: results for the transition metals and quantification of the factors underlying bond-length variation in inorganic solids Bond-length distributions are examined for 63 transition metal ions bonded to O 2À in 147 configurations, for 7522 coordination polyhedra and 41 488 bond distances, providing b...
Article
Badakhshanite-(Y), ideally Y2Mn4Al(Si2B7BeO24), is a tetrahedral sheet-structure mineral found in the Dorozhny (Road) miarolitic granitic pegmatite within the Kukurt pegmatite field 45 km E of Murghab, Eastern Pamir, Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast, Tajikistan. Badakhshanite-(Y) occurs in medium- to coarse-grained non-graphic albite-microcline-q...
Article
Full-text available
A structure hierarchy is developed for chain-, ribbon-and tube-silicate based on the connectedness of one-dimensional polymer-isations of (TO 4) n− tetrahedra, where T = Si 4+ plus P 5+ , V 5+ , As 5+ , Al 3+ , Fe 3+ , B 3+ , Be 2+ , Zn 2+ and Mg 2+. Such polymerisations are described by a geometrical repeat unit (with n g tetrahedra) and a topolog...
Article
A structure hierarchy is developed for chain-ribbon-tube silicate minerals based on the connectedness of one-dimensional polymerisations of (TO4)n– tetrahedra, where T = Si4+ plus P5+, V5+, As5+, Al3+, Fe3+, B3+, Be2+, Zn2+ and Mg2+. Such polymerisations are described by a geometrical repeat unit (with ng tetrahedra) and a topological repeat unit (...
Article
Full-text available
Two-dimensional nets may be used to generate the stoichiometry and structure of single-layer and double-layer sheet-silicate minerals. Many sheet-silicate minerals are based on the 3-connected plane one or two representative structures. Many complicated sheet-silicate minerals are based on sheets of 2-, 3-and 4-connected tetrahedra that may be deve...
Article
Full-text available
The crystal structure of a mineral may be divided into two parts: (1) the structural unit, an array of high-bond-valence polyhedra that is usually anionic in character, and (2) the interstitial complex, an array of large low-valence cations, simple anions and (H 2 O) groups that is usually cationic in character. Interstitial complexes link the stru...
Article
Full-text available
The hyalotekite group has been approved by the Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature and Classification of the International Mineralogical Association (memorandum 57-SM/16). The general formula of the minerals of the hyalotekite group may be written as: A 2 B 2 M 2 [Si 8 T 4 O 28 ]W where A = Ba 2+ , Pb 2+ or K + ; B = Ba 2+ , Pb 2+ or K + ; M =...
Preprint
Bond-length distributions are examined for 63 transition-metal ions bonded to O2- in 147 configurations, for 7522 coordination polyhedra and 41,488 bond distances, providing baseline statistical knowledge of bond lengths for transi-tion metals bonded to O2-. A priori bond valences are calculated for 140 crystal structures containing 266 coordinatio...
Article
Fluorapophyllite-(Cs) (IMA 2018-108a), ideally CsCa 4 (Si 8 O 20)F(H 2 O) 8 , is an apophyllite-group mineral from the moraine of the Darai-Pioz glacier, Tien-Shan, Northern Tajikistan. Associated minerals are quartz, pectolite, baratovite, aegirine, leucosphenite, pyrochlore, neptunite, fluorapophyllite-(K), and reedmergnerite. Fluorapophyllite-(C...
Article
Here we report electron-microprobe data and unit-cell parameters for jinshajiangite, ideally NaBaFe2+4Ti2(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2F, from a new locality: the Oktyabr'skii massif in the coastal area of the Azov Sea, Donetsk region, Ukraine. Chemical analysis by electron microprobe gave Nb2O5 1.59, ZrO2 0.61, TiO2 17.07, SiO2 27.60, Al2O3 0.08, Fe2O3 2.04, FeO...
Article
Full-text available
The crystal structure of ilmajokite, a rare Na-K-Ba-Ce-titanosilicate from the Khibiny mountains, Kola peninsula, Russia, has been solved using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The crystal structure is based on a 3D titanosilicate framework consisting of trigonal prismatic titanosilicate (TPTS) clusters centered by Ce ³⁺ in [9]-coordination....
Article
Davidbrownite-(NH₄), (NH₄,K)₅ (V⁴⁺O)₂(C₂O₄)[PO_(2.75)(OH)_(1.25)]₄·3H₂O, is a new mineral species from the Rowley mine, Maricopa County, Arizona, USA. It occurs in an unusual bat-guano-related, post-mining assemblage of phases that include a variety of vanadates, phosphates, oxalates and chlorides, some containing NH⁴⁺. Other secondary minerals fou...
Article
Full-text available
Fluorapophyllite-(Cs) (IMA 2018-108a), ideally CsCa4(Si8O20)F(H2O)8, is an apophyllite-group mineral from the moraine of the Darai-Pioz glacier, Tien-Shan, Northern Tajikistan. Associated minerals are quartz, pectolite, baratovite, aegirine, leucosphenite, pyrochlore, neptunite, fluorapophyllite-(K), and reedmergnerite. Fluorapophyllite-(Cs) is a h...
Article
Full-text available
Lepageite, a new arsenite-antimonite mineral, was discovered in a granitic pegmatite hosted by serpentinites of the Szklary massif, Lower Silesia, southwest Poland. Lepageite is a primary mineral formed during injection of an evolved LCT-type melt related to anatectic processes within the metasedimentary-metavolcanic complex of the nearby Góry Sowi...
Poster
Full-text available
All chain, ribbon and tube arrangements of tetrahedra can be represented graphically by reducing (TO4)n- tetrahedra to vertices and linkages between those tetrahedra to edges. In this graphical representation, only the connectivity of vertices (tetrahedra) are preserved and no geometrical properties. Using the expression Gt = nt:(a-b-c-d), the topo...
Article
Full-text available
The OH–F substitution in “synthetic Rb-richterite” has been investigated along the join Rb(NaCa)Mg5Si8O22(OH)2–Rb(NaCa)Mg5Si8O22(F)2. Syntheses were done by conventional hydrothermal techniques (Tuttle-type vessels) at 800 °C, 1 kbar P(H2O). SEM microscopy showed very high yields of acicular to prismatic amphibole crystals up to XF = F/(F + OH) = 0...
Article
Full-text available
Tamboite (x ¼ 3; y ¼ 2) and metatamboite (x ¼ 3; y ¼ 0), Fe 3þ 3 (SO 4)(Te 4þ O 3) 3 (Te 4þ O(OH) 2)(OH)(H 2 O) x {H 2 O} y , are new tellurite minerals from the Tambo mine, Coquimbo Province, Chile. The two minerals transform to each other reversibly with changes in ambient humidity. They occur as pale-yellow clusters of radiating fiber bundles on...
Article
Rinkite-(Y), ideally Na 2 Ca 4 YTi(Si 2 O 7) 2 OF 3 , is a new rinkite-group (seidozerite-supergroup) TS-block mineral from the Darai-Pioz alkaline massif, Tian-Shan mountains, Tajikistan. The mineral is of hydrothermal origin. It occurs as aggregates (up to 1.5 cm long) of acicular crystals 0.1-1.0 mm thick, and as separate elongated columnar, fla...
Article
Full-text available
Lepageite, a new arsenite-antimonite mineral, was discovered in a granitic pegmatite hosted by serpentinites of the Szklary massif, Lower Silesia, southwest Poland. Lepageite is a primary mineral formed during injection of an evolved LCT-type melt related to anatectic processes within the metasedimentary-metavolcanic complex of the nearby Góry Sowi...
Article
Potassic-jeanlouisite, ideally K(NaCa)(Mg 4 Ti)Si 8 O 22 O 2 , is the first characterised species of oxo amphibole related to the sodium–calcium group, and derives from potassic richterite via the coupled exchange C Mg –1W${\rm OH}_{{\rm \ndash 2}}^{\ndash}{} ^{\rm C}{\rm Ti}_1^{{\rm 4 +}} {} ^{\rm W}\!{\rm O}_2^{2\ndash} $ . The mineral and the mi...
Article
Full-text available
The high-temperature (HT) behaviour of lobanovite, K2Na(Fe2+4Mg2Na)Ti2(Si4O12)2O2(OH)4, was studied using in situ powder X-ray diffraction in the temperature range 25–1000°C and ex situ single-crystal X-ray diffraction of 17 crystals quenched from different temperatures. HT iron oxidation associated with de­hydroxy­lation starts at 450°C, similar t...
Article
Full-text available
Potassic-jeanlouisite, ideally K(NaCa)(Mg 4 Ti)Si 8 O 22 O 2 , is the first characterised species of oxo amphibole related to the sodium-calcium group, and derives from potassic richterite via the coupled exchange C Mg-1 W OH-2 C Ti 4+ 1 W O 2-2. The mineral and the mineral name were approved by the International Mineralogical Association Commissio...
Article
Full-text available
The crystal structure of polylithionite-1M from Darai-Pioz, (K 0.97 Na 0.03 Rb 0.01) R1.01 (Li 2.04 Al 0.84 Ti 4þ 0.09 Fe 3þ 0.03) R3.00 (Si 3.98 Al 0.02)O 10 [F 1.68 (OH) 0.33 ] R2 , a 5.1974(4), b 8.9753(6), c 10.0556(7)Å, b 100.454(1)8, V 461.30(6)Å 3 , space group C2, Z ¼ 2, was refined to R 1 ¼ 1.99% using MoKa X-radiation. In the space group...
Article
Confinement of water in sub-nanometer pores strongly alters its vibrational dynamics from that of bulk water. The effect of confinement can, furthermore, be finely tuned by small changes in the size and symmetry of the confining pore. Using inelastic neutron scattering (INS), we recently studied the dynamics of water confined in the channels of ber...