Frank M Gresham

Frank M Gresham
Louisiana State University | LSU · College of Humanities & Social Sciences

Ph.D.

About

134
Publications
58,511
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
8,404
Citations

Publications

Publications (134)
Article
Effective mental health services require accurate assessment of psychosocial impairments linked to mental health concerns. Youth who experience these impairments do so within and across various contexts (e.g., school, home). Youth may display symptoms of mental health concerns without co-occurring impairments, and vice versa. Yet, nearly all impair...
Article
Full-text available
Psychosocial functioning plays a key role in students’ wellbeing and performance inside and outside of school. As such, techniques designed to measure and improve psychosocial functioning factor prominently in school-based service delivery and research. Given that the different contexts (e.g., school, home, community) in which students exist vary i...
Article
This study described the development of the Social Skills Improvement System Social Emotional Learning Edition Rating Forms (SSIS SEL RF) for teachers, parents, and students. This new multirater assessment is a reconfiguration of the SSIS Rating Scales items inspired by the CASEL Social Emotional Competency framework. The internal structure and sco...
Article
The authors examined the cross-informant consistency and level of agreement of ratings on the Social Skills Improvement System (SSIS) Bullying Subscale. They explored the effectiveness of using this set of multi-informant (i.e., teacher, parent, and student) social skills rating scales with an established record of yielding reliable and valid score...
Article
Universal screening serves to identify students at risk for emotional and behavioral difficulties while their behavior is still amenable to treatment. However, there are few universal screeners available for middle school students who may be at heightened risk for developing emotional and behavioral difficulties due to major academic and social cha...
Article
This study examines the agreement across informant pairs of teachers, parents, and students regarding the students’ social-emotional learning (SEL) competencies. Two student subsamples representative of the social skills improvement system (SSIS) SEL edition rating forms national standardization sample were examined: first, 168 students (3rd to 12t...
Article
School psychologists who experience challenges delivering face-to-face consultation may utilize videoconferencing to facilitate their consultation activities. Videoconferencing has been found to be an effective method of service delivery in related fields and emerging research suggests that it may be effective for providing teacher training and sup...
Article
The concept of treatment integrity is an essential component to data-based decision making within a response-to-intervention model. Although treatment integrity is a topic receiving increased attention in the school-based intervention literature, relatively few studies have been conducted regarding the technical adequacy of treatment integrity asse...
Article
The concept of treatment integrity is an essential component to data-based decision making within a response-to-intervention model. Although treatment integrity is a topic receiving increased attention in the school-based intervention literature, relatively few studies have been conducted regarding the technical adequacy of treatment integrity asse...
Article
Check-In/Check-Out (CICO) is a moderately effective Tier 2 intervention often used to address attention-maintained problem behaviors in schools. Recent studies on CICO have demonstrated the effectiveness of the intervention when combined with social skills training and when utilizing students' peers as interventionists. Using a concurrent multiple...
Article
School-based behavioral consultation with classroom teachers is one of the primary ways school psychologists deliver intervention services to students. The present study aimed to evaluate the acceptability of videoconferencing (VC) with teachers as an alternative medium of consultative communication. Specifically, problem identification interviews...
Article
Full-text available
Research has been unsuccessful at revealing an analogue to curriculumbased measurement in the area of progress monitoring for social behavior. As a result, there is a need to develop change-sensitive, technically adequate, feasible progress monitoring tools for social behavior that represent general outcome measures of performance. The purpose of t...
Article
The present study investigated the effectiveness of peer-mediated check-in/check-out (CICO) on the internalizing behaviors of elementary school students. A nonconcurrent multiple-baseline design across participants was utilized to evaluate the intervention's effectiveness for 3 students in 1st and 2nd grade. Two 5th grade students were trained to i...
Article
When Congress passed the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act in 2004 (IDEIA 2004), local educational agencies (LEA) were permitted to use a Response-to-Intervention (RtI) approach for identifying children with possible learning disabilities for special education. Furthermore, IDEIA 2004 no longer required LEAs to establish an IQ...
Article
Functional assessments were conducted to identify the variables maintaining disruptive behavior in eight, typically developing fifth-grade students enrolled in general education classrooms. Participants whose behavior was found to be functionally related to either task-avoidance or attention-seeking were randomly assigned to a treatment strategy th...
Chapter
Students who miss significant amounts of school are at risk for developing a myriad of difficulties that leave them unfit for a successful life. Despite evidence for these phenomena, students are continuing to miss school at an increasingly high rate. This chapter focuses on the assessment and treatment of school refusers, with a focus on those mis...
Article
This manuscript describes a research project designed to examine the relative effectiveness of a two non-function-based interventions (differential reinforcement of other behavior and self- monitoring) for decreasing problem behavior in a general education classroom for three students whose problem behaviors were hypothesized to be functionally rel...
Article
Social skills play an important role in young children’s successes in and outside of school. For two decades, educators have used the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS; Gresham & Elliott, 1990) as a tool for describing children’s social behaviors and for planning interventions to improve social skills. Although widely used, some researchers have cr...
Article
I was favorably impressed with the breadth, scope, and quality of the articles in this miniseries that dealt with the various as-pects and correlates of social behavioral func-tioning as well as assessment and intervention considerations. Each of these articles dealt with a unique aspect of social behavioral func-tioning in children and youth and e...
Article
Full-text available
The Flynn Effect is a well-established psychometric fact documenting substantial increases in measured intelligence test performance over time. Flynn's (1984) review of the literature established that Americans gain approximately 0.3 points per year or 3 points per decade in measured intelligence. The accurate assessment and interpretation of intel...
Article
Full-text available
This study compared the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS; Gresham & Elliott, 1990) with the revision of the SSRS, now called the Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales (SSIS-RS; Gresham & Elliott, 2008), across three raters (teacher, parent, and student) for elementary- and secondary-aged students. A detailed comparison of these two instru...
Article
Full-text available
Base rate information is important in clinical assessment because one cannot know how unusual or typical a phenomenon is without first knowing its base rate in the population. This study empirically determined the base rates of social skills acquisition and performance deficits, social skills strengths, and problem behaviors using a nationally repr...
Article
Full-text available
One of the most consistent findings in rating scale research with children and adolescents is the modest agreement among different informants' ratings. The present study systematically explored patterns of agreement among teachers, parents/caregivers, and students in domains of social skills and problem behaviors using the Social Skills Improvement...
Article
Hurricane Katrina forced thousands of children in and around New Orleans to cope with life-altering circumstances. The Kidcope, a checklist designed to assess coping in pediatric populations, has been used to evaluate children after disasters. Research has demonstrated the importance of considering the role of cultural factors in the development an...
Article
This special series on treatment integrity is a timely and salient contribution to the fields of intervention science in general and school psychology in particular. Theoretical and em-pirical developments regarding the concept of treatment integrity have lagged behind ad-vances in the development, delivery, and val-idation of evidence-based interv...
Article
So-called Atkins cases refer to individuals who have been sentenced to death for capital crimes who claim that the death penalty constitutes “cruel and unusual punishment” under the Eighth Amendment. Psychological testimony is influential because this testimony strikes at the very core issue in these cases; namely, whether or not the individual is...
Article
Full-text available
Secondary students with or at risk for emotional and/or behavioral disorders (EBD) can be characterized as having severe deficits in social competence. Moreover, as students transition into the secondary grades, social competence takes on increased complexity and importance. Social skills training (SST) represents a class of interventions routinely...
Article
Full-text available
The term intervention validity refers to the extent to which assessment results can be used to guide the selection of interventions and evaluation of outcomes. In this article, the authors review the defining attributes of rating scales that distinguish them from other assessment tools, assumptions regarding the use of rating scales to measure chil...
Article
Full-text available
We reviewed all school-based experimental studies with individuals 0 to 18 years published in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA) between 1991 and 2005. A total of 142 articles (152 studies) that met review criteria were included. Nearly all (95%) of these experiments provided an operational definition of the independent variable, but o...
Article
Disruptive behavior patterns are particularly challenging for parents, teachers, and peers as these behaviors often interfere with classroom instruction, frequently lead to academic underachievement, and are associated with social skills acquisition and performance deficits. Children who exhibit a combination of hyperactivity–impulsivity–inattentio...
Article
This study examined differences between teacher and parent ratings of social skills in a sample of adolescent students (n = 33) previously identified in the elementary grades as at risk for academic or behavioral concerns, or both. Findings suggest a core of 4 classroom behavioral expectations for social competence consistent across elementary and...
Article
Full-text available
This article provides an analysis of the current knowledge base of social skills training (SST) with students with, or at risk for, Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (EBD). This knowledge base is evaluated with respect to issues regarding construct, internal, external, and social validity of the SST literature. Research syntheses investigating con...
Article
A cohort of 2nd-grade students provided comparisons of academic and social competence based on school retention/promotion decisions. Sample groups were (a) retained, (b) at risk for retention, (c) special education, and (d) promoted. Findings suggested most children with academic deficiencies are identified by schools early and are sorted into educ...
Article
In this article, the authors introduce the construct of treatment integrity and illustrate the importance of treatment integrity as it relates to school-based intervention. Specifically, the authors address the following questions: What is treatment integrity? Why is it important to assess treatment integrity? How can treatment integrity be assesse...
Article
Full-text available
The Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Amendments of 1997 mandate the use of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) and positive behavioral supports and interventions for students with disabilities. Although much progress has been made in our understanding of functional analysis over the past 15 years, the extent to which these find...
Article
This study examined the impact of three levels of treatment integrity on students'' responding on mathematics tasks. Instruction was provided separately for addition and subtraction to six second-grade students who were referred due to poor performance with these operations. The treatment consisted of a computer delivered delayed prompt to use a co...
Article
Research has identified a comorbid group of children who have both antisocial and attention problems. Many of these children demonstrate the most deleterious features of both conditions (e.g., aggression and academic underachievement) and experience the most negative outcomes, including school failure, drug and alcohol abuse, and delinquency in ado...
Article
Full-text available
The research community recently has identified a group of children who exhibit behaviors characterized by hyperactivity-impulsivity-inattention (HIA) and conduct problems (CP). This group has been referred to as fledgling psychopaths (FP or HIA + CP). Although researchers and practitioners alike recognize the need for early intervention, there is l...
Article
Social competence deficits are characteristic of students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD), given that one criterion specified in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act include the inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers. Social skills can be defined as specific behaviors...
Article
Recently, researchers have focused on a group of children and youth who are at high risk for developing a lifelong pernicious pattern of antisocial and delinquent behavior.These children exhibit a behavior pattern characterized by hyperactivity-impulsivity-inattention coupled with conduct problems such as fighting, stealing, truancy, noncompliance,...
Article
Groups of third-grade children who had high or low social and academic self-concepts that were either consistent with or discrepant from external indices of social and academic competence were contrasted on a variety of measures in social and academic domains using multiple assessment methods. Children whose social or academic self-concepts that ex...
Article
Groups of third-grade children who had high or low social and academic self-concepts that were either consistent with or discrepant from external indices of social and academic competence were contrasted on a variety of measures in social and academic domains using multiple assessment methods. Children whose social or academic self-concepts that ex...
Article
Autism is a developmental disorder whose behavioral characteristics range on a continuum from mild to severe. Autism is typically not diagnosed prior to age 2 to 3 years and the prognosis for this pervasive developmental disorder is poor. Although there is no documented "cure" for autism, research suggests that it can be managed effectively using c...
Article
The MTA experience provides several lessons that may have clinical relevance. First, the MTA study identified six key instruments (see Table 1) that clinicians may want to use, but even on these instruments discrepancies in parent and teacher sources should be expected. We believe that unnoticed or unresolved discrepancies may be important factors...
Article
Three groups of third-grade students classified as either Externalizers (n = 30), Internalizers (n = 55) or Controls (n = 96) were contrasted on 19 measures in social and academic domains using multivariate analyses. Based on these analyses, a series of descriptive discriminant function analyses were undertaken to determine the best predictors of E...
Article
In order to examine the congruence of three paradigms that classify children as learning disabled, a sample of 76 students was divided according to their ranking based on three separate sets of criteria. The initial sample was randomly selected from second-, third-, and fourth-grade students who had been referred by their classroom teacher to a Stu...
Article
Children showing a comorbid behavior pattern of hyperactivity-impulsivity-inattention and conduct problems (HIA + CP) were contrasted to children having only an internalizing and externalizing behavior pattern (I + E) and matched controls. Children displaying the HIA + CP behavior pattern were at greater risk on a number of outcome measures in soci...
Article
In a recent article in the American Psychologist, Detterman and Thompson (1997) not only claimed that there is nothing special about special education, but also contended that a primary emphasis on cognitive abilities is needed in order to improve the effectiveness of instruction of children with disabilities. In this article we analyze their criti...
Conference Paper
During the past two decades, the field of special education has become politicized and fragmented as a result of internal strife and turf battles among professionals. Special education often is perceived by professionals in other fields as strife ridden, expensive, litigious, consumed with legislative mandates and court orders, and ineffective. The...
Article
Investigated the degree to which school study teams (SSTs) considered and used results from traditional psychoeducational measures in determining eligibility or ineligibility for special education. Research definitions based on authoritative criteria were used to define 3 groups of students: 47 learning disabled students, 43 students with mild ment...
Article
Students referred by general education teachers to school study teams (SSTs) were evaluated for learning disabilities (LD) eligibility. We classified children as LD on the basis of a WISC-III Full Scale IQ of 82 or higher and a 22-point discrepancy between IQ and any WRAT-R achievement score. Research decisions were then contrasted with actual scho...
Article
What constitutes an appropriate diagnostic workup for children with emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD) varies in both school and clinic settings. Current definitions of EBD suggest that a symptom checklist should be required, but there is some disagreement about what constitutes a functional impairment and what role out-of-school assessments s...
Article
A comprehensive report to the National Institute of Health on the diagnosis, etiology, epidemiology, and treatment of autism indicated that early intervention has the potential of being an effective intervention (Bristol et al., 1996). In spite of this positive outlook, several research and methodological questions remain regarding time of treatmen...
Article
An ethnically stratified sample of 150 children referred to school study teams (SSTs) were administered the WISC-III and WRAT-R and assigned by research criteria reflecting the State of California criteria as having mental retardation, a learning disability, or neither disability (ineligible). When the WISC-III IQs were compared, the Hispanic subje...
Article
Full-text available
In an attempt to identify the earliest, most efficient, and most accurate predictors of emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD), characteristics of 155 third-graders at risk for EBD were examined. Students categorized as high-risk experienced higher rates of peer rejection and poor social skills and exhibited hyperactivity and defiant behaviors. F...
Article
An ethnically stratified sample of 150 children referred to School Study Teams (SSTs) were administered the WISC-III and the WRAT-R, and assigned by research criteria to one of three groups: (a) students with mental retardation, (b) students with borderline intelligence, and (c) students with average intelligence. One third of the referred White st...
Chapter
As a specialty, behavioral assessment is relatively new in the broad field of psychological assessment. In 1979, two new journals devoted exclusively to behavioral assessment were published: Behavioral Assessment (by the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy), edited by Rosemary Nelson, and Journal of Behavioral Assessment (now Journal of...
Chapter
Documenting and evaluating the efficacy of procedures to change behavior is a hallmark of behavior therapy and applied behavior analysis. Psychologists trained in behaviorally oriented programs are taught to empirically evaluate their treatments and make treatment decisions based on empirical data. This is not to say that all behavior therapists fu...
Chapter
There are many issues facing behavior analysts/ therapists that will undoubtedly influence the way the science of behavior change is practiced with children, adolescents, and their families and teachers. Some of these issues arise from advancements in the science itself (e.g., functional assessment/ analysis, methods to improve treatment integrity)...
Book
The genesis of this book occurred several years ago provide readers with not only the "what to do" of child behavior therapy, but the "how to do it" as in Seattle on the veranda of a Chilean cafe overlook­ well. Each of the chapters guides the reader through ing Pikes Place Market during a National Associa­ tion of School Psychologists conference....
Article
Empirical research examining the social competence and affective functioning of children with mild disabilities was reviewed. Mild-disability groups included children variously classified as having specific learning disabilities, mild mental retardation, behavior disorders, and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Social competence was concept...
Article
The Fergusons’ response to our review of the social and affective characteristics of children with mild disabilities was nonresponsive to the purpose and scope of our review of the empirical literature, as well as to the conclusions we drew from it. Their rebuttal on ways of knowing is typical of a constructivist perspective on the field of disabil...
Article
Discusses qualifying students with high-incidence disabilities as eligible for special education. Examines relationships between authoritative definitions of disabilities, federal and state regulations, assessments conducted that are designed to measure the criteria in the regulations, and the use of assessment data in assigning children to disabil...
Article
The Early Intervention Project (EIP) is a discrete-trial treatment program for young, high-functioning children with autism that claims to provide recovery of normal functioning in almost one half of the cases and lead to substantial improvements in an additional 42% of cases. Many school districts across the country are being asked and sued by par...
Article
The Smith and Lovaas (1997) rebuttal to our article (Gresham & MacMillan, 1997) is defensive, factually inaccurate, and often trivial in its attempts to distract readers from the more important issues of methodological rigor and experimental validity. Smith and Lovaas inaccurately claim that the EIP studies incorporated all six features outlined by...
Article
The discriminant validity of teacher judgments in differentiating various groups of students who were at-risk for learning difficulties based on their referral to School Study Teams (SSTs) was assessed. 240 students in Grades 2, 3, and 4 (aged 7–12 yrs) participated. Three groups of Ss defined as Learning Disabled (LD), Low-IQ, and Low Achievement...
Article
Children identified with learning disabilities (LD), low achievement (LA), or mild mental retardation (MMR) were contrasted on 41 measures of ability, academic achievement, social skills, problem behavior, academic engaged time, perceptual-motor skills, and school history. Both multivariate, univariate, and meta-analytic comparisons among the three...
Article
A sample of 150 children referred to Student Study Teams was assessed with a psychometric battery. Behavioral and academic ratings were obtained from teachers. Forty-three children scored at or below 75 on the WISC-III. We examined schools' subsequent classification decisions to ascertain how schools dealt with low-IQ students with academic and beh...
Article
Compared low (LR), moderate (MR), and high risk (HR) groups of 136 students in Grades 2 ( n = 41), 3 ( n = 50), and 4 ( n = 45) on cognitive/academic functioning, social competence, and problem behavior. Risk status was based on a 33-item checklist known as the Critical Events Index (Walker & Severson, 1990), a measure of behavioral pinpoints havin...
Article
In the present investigation, 150 children in Grades 2 through 4 who had been recommended for prereferral interventions were compared on a number of cognitive/achievement and behavioral scales in order to test whether those children referred differed as a function of ethnicity and/or gender. Of interest was the hypothesis that the behaviors that pr...
Article
Conditional probability methods (positive predictive power, negative predictive power, sensitivity, and specificity) were employed to differentiate children judged by teachers as belonging to Social Competence (SC) or Low Social Competence (LSC) groups using the Social Skills Rating System-Teacher (Gresham & Elliott, 1990). Social skills functioned...
Article
This edited volume (see record 1993-98383-000 ) attempts to integrate behavioral and pharmacological approaches in the treatment of psychological disorders in children. The editors maintain that the examination of these two broad approaches to treatment in the same volume will provide readers with information concerning the extent of progress made...
Article
This article examines the concept of mild mental retardation - and the confusion surrounding its etiology, diagnosis, and educational "treatment." The authors conclude that mild mental retardation, unlike more severe forms of mental retardation - or even specific learning disabilities - should be redefined in contextual terms: a person's relative d...
Article
It is argued that educational treatments of children with disabilities should be empirically validated. From this perspective the current press for full inclusion is examined against empirical evidence bearing on the major assertions of advocates for full inclusion. Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) are among the most difficult...
Article
We reiterated our earlier concerns (MacMillan et al., 1993) regarding the 1992 AAMR definition of mental retardation and replied to a defense of the definition (Reiss, 1994). Our major point here is that definitional precision should not be sacrificed to advance a particular ideological position. The result of such a compromise is a definition lack...
Article
The 1992 definition of mental retardation written by the American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR) represents a radical departure from definitions of R. Heber (1961) and H. Grossman (1983). Levels of mental retardation (mild, moderate, severe, and profound) have been eliminated and replaced with intensities of needed supports to facilitate...