Frank Glaw

Frank Glaw
Zoologische Staatssammlung München · Department of Herpetology

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511
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Publications

Publications (511)
Article
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The taxonomic status of the strabomantid frog species Pristimantis nebulosus (Henle, 1992), originating from the southern Cordillera Azul in central Peru, is investigated based on examination of the holotype and its comparison with freshly collected topotypic material. Following current standards, we provide a redescription of the holotype. It is i...
Article
Madagascar is home to 370 native amphibian and 420 native reptile species with an extraordinary high endemism rate of approx. 98%. Less than half (39%) of Madagascar’s amphibian and less than a third (32%) of Madagascar’s reptile species are currently evaluated as threatened by the IUCN (2021). We investigated for which threatened endemic Malagasy...
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The Madagascan endemic subfamily Cophylinae in the family Microhylidae, is an example of a taxonomic group for which much is still to be discovered. Indeed, the cophyline frogs present a large portion of Madagascar’s cryptic and microendemic amphibian diversity, yet they remain understudied. A new red-bellied species of the microhylid frog genus St...
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The subgenus Laurentomantis in the genus Gephyromantis contains some of the least known amphibian species of Madagascar. The six currently valid nominal species are rainforest frogs known from few individuals, hampering a full understanding of the species diversity of the clade. We assembled data on specimens collected during field surveys over the...
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The study of diamond frogs (genus Rhombophryne, endemic to Madagascar) has been historically hampered by the paucity of available specimens, because of their low detectability in the field. Over the last 10 years, 13 new taxa have been described, and 20 named species are currently recognized. Nevertheless, undescribed diversity within the genus is...
Article
Major historical landscape changes have left significant signatures on species diversification. However, how these changes have affected the build-up and maintenance of Amazonia’s megadiversity continues to be debated. Here, we addressed this issue by focusing on the evolutionary history of a pan-Amazonian toad genus that has diversified throughout...
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The stump-toed frogs of the Madagascar-endemic genus Stumpffia are mostly diminutive in size, but there is one group of comparatively large frogs within the genus, which we herein refer to as the Stumpffia hara species group. Each of the four known members of this species group is endemic to a single location of deciduous dry forest with exposed ka...
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Mantellid frogs of the Madagascar-endemic Gephyromantis plicifer complex consist of three nominal species (G. luteus, G. plicifer and G. sculpturatus) as well as several genetically divergent lineages (candidate species), but uncertainties surround the identity of the name-bearing types of all three established nomina. We applied laboratory techniq...
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We report anti-predator behavior of an individual of Cruziohyla craspedopus found at Panguana, Departamento Huánuco, Peru. It constitutes the first record of the species for this private protected area and central Peru.
Article
The 71 currently known species of dwarf geckos of the genus Lygodactylus are a clade of biogeographic interest due to their occurrence in continental Africa, Madagascar, and South America. Furthermore, because many species are morphologically cryptic, our knowledge of species-level diversity within this genus is incomplete, as indicated by numerous...
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New genetic, bioacoustic and morphological data on green-coloured Boophis treefrogs from eastern Madagascar reveal an additional level of cryptic diversity in these frogs. Two candidate species, Boophis sp. Ca36 and Ca37, are closely related to each other and to B. sandrae, with uncorrected pairwise distances in the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene as l...
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We studied the status of toads of the genus Rhinella collected in the southern Cordillera Azul, central Peru. Molecular analysis of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene revealed them to be members of the recently proposed Rhinella festae species group, and sister to R. lilyrodriguezae, a species known from northern areas of the Cordillera Azul. The new...
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Our knowledge of the conservation status of reptiles, the most diverse class of terrestrial vertebrates, has improved dramatically over the past decade, but still lags behind that of the other tetrapod groups. Here, we conduct the first comprehensive evaluation (~92% of the world's ~1714 described species) of the conservation 1 Joint senior authors...
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Based on 1031 samples of grass snakes from Central Europe, we examine the recently reported occurrence of the southern subspecies of the barred grass snake (Natrix helvetica sicula) in southern Bavaria, Germany. Using 13 microsatellite loci and mtDNA coding for the cytb gene and the partial ND4 gene plus adjacent tRNAs, we show that N. h. sicula is...
Article
The genus Scaphiophryne (Anura: Microhylidae) contains at least nine species that, together with their probable sister genus Paradoxophyla, form the Madagascar-endemic subfamily Scaphiophryninae. Scaphiophryne are robust burrowing frogs with explosive breeding behavior and are characterized by a unique larval morphology, being intermediate between...
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The Paroedura bastardi clade, a subgroup of the Madagascan gecko genus Paroedura, currently comprises four nominal species: P. bastardi, supposedly widely distributed in southern and western Madagascar, P. ibityensis, a montane endemic, and P. tanjaka and P. neglecta, both restricted to the central west region of the island. Previous work has shown...
Article
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The Paroedura bastardi clade, a subgroup of the Madagascan gecko genus Paroedura , currently comprises four nominal species: P. bastardi , supposedly widely distributed in southern and western Madagascar, P. ibityensis , a montane endemic, and P. tanjaka and P. neglecta , both restricted to the central west region of the island. Previous work has s...
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Blind snakes (Typhlopidae) are an enigmatic group of small burrowing snakes whose anatomy, phylogenetics, and biodiversity remain poorly known. Madatyphlops comorensis (Boulenger, 1889), endemic to the Comoros Archipelago in the Western Indian Ocean, is one of many species whose phylogenetic placement and generic assignment is unclear. We used DNA...
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Evolutionary reduction of adult body size (miniaturization) has profound consequences for organismal biology and is an important subject of evolutionary research. Based on two individuals we describe a new, extremely miniaturized chameleon, which may be the world’s smallest reptile species. The male holotype of Brookesia nana sp. nov. has a snout–v...
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Biofluorescence is widespread in the natural world, but only recently discovered in terrestrial vertebrates. Here, we report on the discovery of iridophore-based, neon-green flourescence in the gecko Pachydactylus rangei , localised to the skin around the eyes and along the flanks. The maximum emission of the fluorescence is at a wavelength of 516...
Article
The northern part of Madagascar is well known for its high species diversity and endemism. Exceptional species richness is related to the existence of large forest blocks and mountain complexes. These areas shelter a diverse variety of habitats occupied by a wide diversity of species, including leaf-tailed geckos of the genus Uroplatus. Based on mo...
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Taxonomic progress is often hindered by intrinsic factors, such as morphologically cryptic species that require a broad suite of methods to distinguish, and extrinsic factors, such as uncertainties in the allocation of scientific names to species. These uncertainties can be due to a wide variety of factors, including old and poorly preserved type s...
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The chameleon Furcifer voeltzkowi (Boettger, 1893) from northwestern Madagascar was considered to be a synonym of Furcifer rhinoceratus for many decades and was resurrected only recently based on studies of the morphology and osteology of a few male specimens, which were collected more than 100 years ago. However, basic data on this species remain...
Article
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Zoologists have widely acknowledged the utility of classification systems for characterising variation in anuran egg and clutch types, tadpole morphotypes, embryonic and tadpole development, amplexus types and reproductive modes. These classification systems have facilitated unambiguous communication between researchers, often working in completely...
Article
Aim We investigate the spatiotemporal context of the diversification of Allobates, a widespread genus of Amazonian frogs with high species diversity particularly in western Amazonia. We tested if that diversity originated in situ or through repeated dispersals from other Amazonian areas and if this diversification took place during or after the Peb...
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In the present study, we investigate the larval development and metamorphic changes of the skeleton of the small, West African pipid frog Pseudhymenochirus merlini Chabanaud, 1920 for the first time. Specimens were cleared and differentially stained for bone and cartilage and the presence or absence of individual bony elements was recorded. Pseudhy...
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The genus Gephyromantis belongs to the species-rich family Mantellidae and is currently divided in six subgenera. Among these is the subgenus Phylacomantis, which currently includes four described species: Gephyromantis pseudoasper , G. corvus , G. azzurrae , and G. atsingy . The latter three species are distributed in western Madagascar, and two o...
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We describe a new species of arboreal microhylid frog, genus Platypelis , from northeastern Madagascar and report the expansion of distribution ranges of two other species. Platypelis laetussp. nov. is small to medium-sized (24.3–25.6 mm snout-vent length) compared to other Platypelis , exhibits a greenish colored throat and was found in bamboo for...
Article
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Madagascar's endemic ground‐dwelling leaf chameleons (Brookesiinae: Brookesia Gray, 1865 + Palleon Glaw, et al., Salamandra, 2013, 49, pp. 237–238) form the sister taxon to all other chameleons (i.e., the Chamaeleoninae). They possess a limited ability of color change, a rather dull coloration, and a nonprehensile tail assisting locomotion in the l...
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The subgenus Mantidactylus is a group of frogs endemic to Madagascar, including the largest anuran species on the island. Although these frogs are common and widely distributed, their taxonomy remains unclear. Two species are currently recognised, M. grandidieri and M. guttulatus, with another available name, Rana pigra, considered to be a synonym...
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We studied the genetic variability of Platypelis species (Anura: Microhylidae) with red flash marks from Madagascar based on mitochon-drial (16S rRNA) and nuclear (RAG1) genes. Our molecular phylogenetic results suggest that the red colour evolved independently in the Platypelis barbouri complex and P. milloti and confirm the validity of a long-kno...
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Natural history collections are leading successful large-scale projects of specimen digitization (images, metadata, DNA barcodes), transforming taxonomy into a big data science. Yet, little effort has been directed towards safeguarding and subsequently mobilizing the considerable amount of original data generated during the process of naming 15-20,...
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La liste taxinomique de référence est établie pour les Amphibiens et les Sauropsides non aviens (= « Reptiles ») de Mayotte, département français et région d'outre-mer dans l'océan Indien. Elle tient compte des publications les plus récentes sur l'herpétofaune de la région. À côté du nom scientifique zoologique, un nom scientifique français est joi...
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Madagascar's biota is characterized by a high degree of microendemism at different taxonomic levels, but how colonization and in-situ speciation contribute to the assembly of local species communities has rarely been studied in this island. Here we analyze the phylogenetic relationships of riparian frogs of the Mantidactylus ambreensis species comp...
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Based on a large number of specimens and genetic samples, we revise the chameleons of the phenetic Calumma nasutum species group using an integrative taxonomic approach including external and hemipenial morphology, osteology, and sequences of a mitochondrial (ND2) and a nuclear gene (c-mos). After more than 180 years of taxonomic uncertainty, the e...
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We present information on primary type specimens for 13,282 species and subspecies of reptiles compiled in the Reptile Database, that is, holotypes, neotypes, lectotypes, and syntypes. These represent 99.4% of all 13,361 currently recognized taxa (11,050 species and 2311 subspecies). Type specimens of 653 taxa (4.9%) are either lost or not located,...
Article
Previous studies on leaf-tailed geckos of the genus Uroplatus identified a lineage from the Ankarana karst massif in northern Madagascar as genetically highly divergent, but only fragmentary information was available on these geckos. Here, we provide an integrative analysis based on molecular and morphological data, including a newly collected spec...
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Taxonomy is the cornerstone of extinction risk assessments. Currently, the IUCN Red List treats species complexes either under a single overarching species name—resulting in an unhelpfully broad circumscription and underestimated threat assessment that does not apply to any one species lineage—or omits them altogether—resulting in the omission of s...
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Phelsuma guttata and Paroedura gracilis are two species of geckos endemic to lowland and mid-elevation rainforests of the northern half of Madagascar's rainforest band. To test for concordant phylogeographic patterns in the two species and to assess intraspecific phylogeny and genetic diversity, we sequenced DNA from two mitochondrial genes (16S an...
Article
We describe a new frog species of the Spinomantis bertini species complex based on congruent genetic evidence from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences as well as minor morphological differences. A molecular phylogeny derived from the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene revealed that Spinomantis mirus sp. nov. is sister to a clade containing the other t...
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We describe a new species of arboreal microhylid frog from northern Madagascar. The new species is assigned to the genus Cophyla based on molecular phylogeny and morphological similarities to other species of this genus. Molecular phylogenetic analysis resolved Cophyla fortuna sp. nov. as closely related to C. noromalalae. However, the two species...
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We describe a new species of arboreal narrow-mouthed frog, genus Platypelis, from Ambodivoangy near Maroantsetra in northeastern Madagascar. The new species, Platypelis ando sp. nov., is characterised by small body size (under 19 mm), a generally rather slender body, yellowish finger and toe tips, and a dark brown dorsal chevron. Its advertisement...
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We describe the new gecko species Paroedura neglecta sp. n. from the Tsingy de Bemaraha National Park in western Madagascar, belonging to the P. bastardi/tanjaka clade. The species in this clade are characterized by three light dorsal crossbands on the dorsum of juveniles and subadults whereas all other Paroedura species have four such bands. The n...
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Stump-toed frogs (genus Stumpffia Boettger, 1881) are a diverse group of small-bodied frogs endemic to Mada-gascar. Seven species of this genus occur on Marojejy, a steep massif in northeastern Madagascar. Here we examine the ele-vational distribution, phylogenetic position, biogeographic origin, and genetic differentiation of this Stumpffia assemb...
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Previous genetic studies of frogs from Mayotte Island (a French Overseas Department in the Comoros Archipelago) in the Western Indian Ocean have provided evidence for oceanic dispersal in amphibians, which is a rare phenomenon due to the osmotic intolerance of amphibians to saline water. Using an integrative approach including morphological, bioaco...
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Achrioptera is a taxon of extremely large and exceptionally colorful stick insects endemic to Madagascar and the Comoros Archipelago. We studied the phylogenetic position of the Achriopterini, comprising the genera Achrioptera and Glawiana, based on a multigene phylogeny and concluded that it is a sister group to other Madagascan phasmids (Anisacan...
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Miniaturised frogs form a fascinating but poorly understood amphibian ecomorph and have been exceptionally prone to taxonomic underestimation. The subfamily Cophylinae (family Microhylidae), endemic to Madagascar, has a particularly large diversity of miniaturised species which have historically been attributed to the single genus Stumpffia largely...
Data
GenBank accession numbers for 3’ 16S rRNA sequences used in this study to calculate uncorrected pairwise distances. Numbers in red are those newly produced in this study. (XLSX)
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We describe a new species of dwarf chameleon from the Brookesia minima species group. Brookesia tedi sp. n. occurs above 1300 m above sea level on the Marojejy massif in northeastern Madagascar. It is genetically sister to B. peyrierasi, a species occurring in lowlands around the Baie de Antongil, but is genetically strongly divergent from that spe...
Article
First genetic record, distribution and south-alpine origin of the barred grass snake (Natrix helvetica spp.) in Bavaria. Based on the results of genetic studies, Kindler et al. (2017) elevated the barred grass snake (Natrix natrix helvetica) to species status. According to this paper, two mitochondrial lineages of grass snake (Natrix natrix) occur...