Frank Flemisch

Frank Flemisch
Fraunhofer Institute for Communication, Information Processing and Ergonomics FKIE | FKIE · balanced Human Systems Integration

Prof. Dr.-Ing.

About

188
Publications
39,734
Reads
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2,424
Citations
Introduction
Skills and Expertise
Additional affiliations
August 2011 - present
RWTH Aachen University / Fraunhofer FKIE Wachtberg b. Bonn
Position
  • System ergonomics / Human Systems Integration
Description
  • Double position as full professor at RWTH Aachen university and branch head of a Fraunhofer research branch
July 2011 - May 2021
Fraunhofer Institute for Communication, Information Processing and Ergonomics FKIE
Position
  • Branch head
June 2004 - July 2011
DLR German Aerospace Lab
Position
  • System ergonomics and design of assistance and automation

Publications

Publications (188)
Chapter
Full-text available
Progress in sensors, computer power and increasing connectivity allow to build and operate more and more powerful assistance and automation systems, e.g., whereas other problems occur due to this process e.g. in human-machine-interaction. In the field of robotics the metaphor of an uncanny valley is known, where robots showing high, however not per...
Article
Full-text available
This article provides a general ergonomic framework of cooperative guidance and control for vehicles with an emphasis on the cooperation between a human and a highly automated vehicle. In the twenty-first century, mobility and automation technologies are increasingly fused. In the sky, highly automated aircraft are flying with a high safety record....
Technical Report
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Good design is not free of form. It does not necessarily happen through a mere sampling of technologies packaged together, through pure analysis, or just by following procedures. Good design begins with inspiration and a vision, a mental image of the end product, which can sometimes be described with a design metaphor. A successful example from the...
Article
Progress enables the creation of more automated and intelligent machines with increasing abilities that open up new roles between humans and machines. Only with a proper design for the resulting cooperative human–machine systems, these advances will make our lives easier, safer and enjoyable rather than harder and miserable. Starting from examples...
Chapter
In this chapter, the authors focus on the design and evaluation of industrial cyber‐physical systems that will be interacting or even cooperating with a human operator. Since they are dealing with systems dedicated to Industry 4.0, these human operators are called Operators 4.0. The designer must thus identify the tasks and sub‐tasks of the human o...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Mehr und mehr Arbeitswelten werden mit Extended Reality (XR) als Überbegriff für virtuelle oder augmentierte Realitäten (VR, AR) exploriert, gestaltet und überprüft. Während bisher vor allem der visuelle und der akustische Kanal dominierten, bildet Tangible XR auch die haptische Interaktion nach, womit die virtuellen oder augmentierten Welten begre...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
New technologies offer new potentials to tackle everyday challenges, but this has only a chance to become true if technology is intelligently integrated with humans, organizations and environment. A good balance between different stakeholders and tension fields is one of the most challenging research questions of Human Systems Integration. Especial...
Article
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Since the start of industrialization, machine capabilities have increased in such a way that human control of processes has evolved from simple (with mechanization) to cognitive (with computerization), and even emotional (with semi/full automation). The processes have also evolved from simple to complicated, and now complex systems, in the emerging...
Conference Paper
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With increasing capabilities of technology, e.g. machines or AI, paradigms and concepts for an intelligent integration of humans, technology, organization and the environment become even more important. In nature, a long term integration of two or more agents is often describes as symbiosis. This paper sketches a concept of human technology symbios...
Chapter
Full-text available
Automated driving puts severe challenges on the design and testing of automotive user interfaces. In partially automated driving, the driver is still responsible for the vehicle control, but is strongly supported by technology. In highly automated driving, the driver can give control to the automation for a certain time and can get control back e.g...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Agile product development makes it possible to react flexibly to changing customer requirements. In this context, user and expert assessments, explorations and tests are very important, since customer requirements can often be easier identified by testing a first product or a prototype. Due to complex and long development processes, the development...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The drive towards highly automated vehicles is continuing to gain traction, however when bridging the gap from SAE level 2 automated vehicles to highly automated level 4 vehicles, there is a phase that will require temporary takeovers by a human driver. One approach is that a tele-operator is taking over the full control over the vehicle, which req...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Advances in operator state monitoring and enhanced capabilities of automated vehicle systems will enable conditionally and highly automated vehicle systems (SAE level 3 and 4) in the near future. Possible transitions of control between driver and automation including handovers of the dynamic driving task to the driver will pose particular challenge...
Conference Paper
The Wizard-of-Oz (WoZ) paradigm is an established method in human factors research to investigate the interaction between human and new technology. In particular for automated cars this method is a useful and safe technique to collect data, simulate and investigate how autonomous, Artificial Intelligence (AI)-driven systems should be designed for o...
Chapter
Agile processes demand for increasing flexibility in product development and shorter development periods. Especially when it comes to product assessments, products have to run through a complex and often expensive development cycle before first user tests can be conducted. We are developing a method where a tangible XR (EXtended Reality) is used fo...
Preprint
Full-text available
This overview article describes the design and use space of integrating humans and cyber-physical systems in Industry 4.0, with special regards to the interplay of analysis, design and evaluation methods and phases. Starting with an introduction into the challenges of Industry 4.0 and an overview on existing methods of system design, the design and...
Chapter
Full-text available
A gaze based interface was used as the basis for a interaction system supporting a remote operator of a ground reconnaissance robot when classifying objects previously identified by a software. Using the gaze point as a cursor, a pre-selection of the object in the sightline is made, allowing the user to effect the symbol via a haptic interface. An...
Chapter
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This contribution presents a concept that allows to steer partially and highly automated vehicles with maneuver-based gestures on a haptic device like a steering wheel, sidestick etc. Maneuver-based driving aims to shift driver’s tasks from the direct vehicle control (control layer) onto maneuvers (guidance layer) and allows the driver to interact...
Chapter
Full-text available
With the increasing intelligence and power of machines, an intelligent integration of these machines with people, organizations and the environment becomes ever more crucial. This results in a number of tension fields, for both scientists and practitioner: Being too critical or analytical without sufficient synthesis and constructiveness will slow...
Chapter
With the purpose of facilitating a balanced Human Systems Integration of complex vision systems for military use and aid to ensure compliance with the expectations of new systems, a methodology for the integration of tangible VR and simulation was established. The methodology incorporates the requirements of stakeholders and users, which are define...
Article
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Im Verbundprojekt Vorreiter entwickelt das Institut für Arbeitswissenschaft (IAW) der RWTH Aachen University gemeinsam mit Partnern intuitive Bedienkonzepte zur Kooperation und Interaktion mit teil- und hochautomatisierten Fahrzeugen. Dabei werden neben Lenkgesten auch Interaktionen mit innovativen Bedienelementen untersucht. Aufgabe des IAW ist di...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Human-Machine Systems are right at the intersection of biosphere and technosphere and therefore profit from both nature/life sciences and technical sciences. When machines become more intelligent, e.g. with automation or AI, different intents and conflicts between humans and machines will occur and have to be resolved. Examples for conflicts in the...
Article
Full-text available
While full automation of road vehicles remains a future goal, shared-control and semiautonomous driving--involving transitions of control between the human and the machine--are more feasible objectives in the near term. These alternative driving modes will benefit from new research toward novel steering control devices, more suitably where machine...
Chapter
Full-text available
Automated driving is dramatically changing the way we perceive and control cars and lorries. In partially automated driving, the driver is still responsible for the vehicle control, but is strongly supported. In highly automated driving, the driver can give control and responsibility to the automation for a certain time and can get control back, e....
Conference Paper
Human-machine cooperation (HMC) is often still rigid and unintuitive. However, with more ability transferred to machines, the need for intuitive cooperation rises. To achieve this, new concepts need to arise and be implemented for machines to get a better understanding of their cooperation partner and to be able to act as expected. This includes ad...
Chapter
Situational awareness is a crucial aspect for the survivability of combat vehicles and soldiers in the battlefield, as well as for the prevention of fratricide and collateral damage. Optical, radio and acoustic sensors for monitoring the battlefield can significantly increase situational awareness by providing further information to the crew. Howev...
Chapter
Human-machine cooperation (HMC) is often still rigid and unintuitive. However, with more ability transferred to machines, the need for intuitive cooperation rises. To achieve this, new concepts need to arise and be implemented for machines to get a better understanding of their cooperation partner and to be able to act as expected. This includes ad...
Article
Full-text available
Following the successful digitalisation of tasks within the aviation domain, this development has now also reached road-based vehicles and is quickly progressing in the form of computer-based, assisted and automated driving. As these systems are becoming increasingly more complex and intelligent, design and interaction patterns can be an effective...
Article
The eight papers in this special issue focus on agent and system transparency in human-machine systems. The concept of transparency is investigated in a variety of contexts of human agent interaction—from a single robot to multiple heterogeneous agents and swarms. Two studies examine the effects of individual and cultural differences and, based on...
Article
Full-text available
The integration of ethics into the day-to-day work of research and innovation (R&I) is an important but difficult challenge. However, with the Aachen method for identification, classification and risk analysis of innovation-based problems (AMICAI) an approach from an engineering perspective is presented that enables the integration of ethical, lega...
Chapter
Full-text available
One of the crucial tasks for integrating humans, technical systems and organizations (Human Systems Integration HSI) is the proper design of cooperation and interaction in the socio-cyber-physical system with human interaction resources and modalities. While at the beginning of the 21st century, the visual and acoustic resource seemed to be dominan...
Chapter
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Dieser VDI-Bericht ist ausschließlich als PDF-Dokument erschienen! Inhalt Akzeptanz: Erstkontakt mit autonomem Fahren Automation ohne Unsicherheit: Vorstellung des Förderprojekts AutoAkzept zur Erhöhung der Akzeptanz automatisierten Fahrens 1 U. Drewitz, K. Ihme, M. Oehl, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft und Raumfahrt (DLR), Braunschweig; F. Schrödel, R....
Article
Full-text available
Over the last centuries, we have experienced scientific, technological, and societal progress that enabled the creation of intelligent-assisted and automated machines with increasing abilities and that require a conscious distribution of roles and control between humans and machines. Machines can be more than either fully automated or manually cont...
Article
Full-text available
Current technological achievements and trends show that in a not too far future vehicles will become able to drive with highest levels of automation in different environments all over the world. Until then still many questions need to be solved. Such questions are how to get the driver back into the loop when problematic situations happen that the...
Article
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Humans sometimes struggle when making decisions, because what they want to do in a specific moment can differ from what they feel they should do in general. This phenomenon can also be found in situations of human–machine interaction. In order to support humans in making decisions about their behavior, a new form of support is proposed, which is es...
Article
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To introduce this special issue of shared and cooperative control, we will look into history of tools in cooperation between humans and aim to unify the plethora of related concepts and definitions that have been proposed in recent years, such as shared control, human–machine cooperation and cooperative guidance and control. Concretely, we provide...
Article
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Currently, car manufacturers, suppliers, and IT companies are surpassing each other with ambitious plans regarding their driving automation technology. However, even the most optimistic announcements grant that, for a certain time, a human driver cannot be replaced in all driving situations. Hence, human drivers will still be a part of future traff...
Conference Paper
Due to more and more recent technologies, better simulations can be developed, which can create a greater fusion between the real and virtual world and thus, also generate a higher degree of immersion. Higher levels of immersion can provide meaningful and realistic results and faster integration and assessment of new concepts (e.g. design-concepts)...
Article
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In 2019, autonomy and autonomous cars are still heavily debated and investigated, but might be at the peak point of public attention, which might ramp down in the next years without diminishing the need to develop safe autonomous capabilities. Thinking beyond autonomy, the research and development paradigm of human autonomy teaming, here cooperativ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Automated driving is one of the most discussed disruptive technologies of this decade. It promises to increase drivers' safety and comfort, improve traffic flow, and lower fuel consumption. This has a significant impact on our everyday life and mobility behavior. Beyond the passengers of the vehicle, it also impacts others, for example by lowering...
Chapter
Arbitration becomes necessary when two interacting actors have different goals. Movement is one of the most prominent examples for arbitration. Many situations when arbitration is necessary are repetitive problems. One way to design arbitration processes in a structured manner is to structure them as interaction patterns that considers the user’s p...
Chapter
When it comes to integrating humans, technical systems and organizations, the interplay of constructive and critical methods and tools is crucial for making the process and product of HSI really intelligent. This becomes even more important, when HSI is applied to the development of artificial cognitive systems, automation and autonomous systems e....
Chapter
Full-text available
While automation in human–machine systems can increase safety and comfort, the 2016 lethal crash of an automated vehicle demonstrates that automation is not without its risk. Indeed, accidents from the air traffic domain also demonstrate that cooperation between human and machine is crucial and interaction design must be devoted great care. Therefo...
Article
Robotic assistants will play an important role in future space exploration activities. In order to provide an optimal human-robot cooperation and interaction, the interface between user and machine requires an intuitive design. In this paper an interface evaluation methodology is presented as the synthesis of existing approaches in space projects a...
Conference Paper
Die stetig zunehmende Automation geht mit einer Verbesserung der technischen Zuverlässigkeit einher und ermöglicht eine manöverbasierte Fahrzeugführung, bei der ein Fahrzeug Stabilisierungsaufgaben und Manöver sicher ausgeführt. Die Manöver können dabei durch Menschen initiiert, abgebrochen oder übersteuert werden. Basierend auf der Designmetapher...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Highly automated vehicles require users to take over control when they reach the limits of the automation. These control transitions can lead to hazardous accidents if the human and automation do not have a consistent mental model of the abilities, authorities, and responsibilities of each other. In this workshop, we aim to apply existing knowledge...
Chapter
Full-text available
In automated driving, there is the risk that users must take over the vehicle guidance despite a potential lack of involvement in the driving task. This publication presents an initial model of control distribution between users and the automated system. In this model, the elements of the control distribution in automated driving are addressed toge...
Conference Paper
In recent years, advanced driver assistant systems (ADAS) and solutions for automated driving have been introduced by several automotive original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and suppliers. Currently, these types of automation are designed for partially automated driving, but the step towards higher levels of automation can be expected to be made...
Conference Paper
In cooperative automated driving, the task of lateral and longitudinal vehicle control can be shared by driver and automation. However, conflicting action intentions of the two partners could arise, which need to be resolved within limited time. This can be achieved through structured multimodal negotiation, called arbitration. In order to explore...
Conference Paper
The compromises encountered in the design of shielded and armored vehicles regarding the trade-offs between outside visibility and crew protection often result in the decrease of situational awareness. Drivers using busy roads face the challenge of maneuvering large vehicles, which, due to their safety requirements, have large blind spots that make...
Chapter
Full-text available
A concept for shared and cooperative guidance and control based on the H-Metaphor is developed, implemented and presented in this paper. In addition, a pilot study with a small user group conducted in a static driving simulator is discussed. The concept enables communication between an automated vehicle and the driver, who is requested to take over...
Chapter
This publication describes a systematic approach for behaviour adaptations of humans, based on interaction patterns as a fundamental way to design and describe human machine interaction, and on image schemas as the basic elements of the resulting interaction. The natural learning path since childhood involves getting knowledge by experience; it is...
Article
Zusammenfassung Die Verknüpfung von Automatisierung mit Vernetzung von Fahrzeugen weist in langfristiger Betrachtung eine kaum überschätzbare ökonomische, ökologische und gesellschaftliche Relevanz auf. In der langfristigen Vision wird die vernetzte Automatisierung unseren Straßenverkehr grundlegend verändern. Kooperatives Verhalten zwischen Verkeh...
Article
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung Fortschritte in der Automatisierungstechnik ermöglichen es technischen Systemen immer mehr Aufgaben zu übernehmen. Für die Gestaltung der Interaktion und Kooperation von Mensch und Maschine ist die Einschätzung des Menschen bzgl. der Fähigkeiten der Maschine sicherheitsrelevant. Das Uncanny Valley der Robotik beschreibt, wie Roboter...
Chapter
As vehicles become more and more intelligent and more and more technology to drive highly automated becomes affordable, concepts to integrate humans and these highly automated vehicles become an integral part of research and development. More functionality also increases the complexity to interact with such systems. Therefore, interaction concepts...
Chapter
While automated driving and advanced drivers’ assistant systems (ADAS) become increasingly widespread, the human machine interaction for these technologies gains in importance. In today’s traffic, some vehicles are capable of driving partially, conditionally or highly automated, at least in certain traffic situations, such as driving on developed h...
Book
These proceedings summarize the best papers in each research area represented at the 2016 Annual Meeting of the German Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, held at Institute of Industrial Engineering and Ergonomics of RWTH Aachen University from March 2-4. The meeting featured more than 200 presentations and 36 posters reflecting the diversity of...
Article
In the light of the ongoing developments towards more and more sophisticated driver assistant systems and the surge of higher automation levels in driving, new concepts are required. With the increase of automated vehicles, the cooperation between the automation system and the human driver becomes crucial. For this purpose, the application of share...
Conference Paper
As an introduction to the session of shared and cooperative control, this article will briefly look into the history, start with definitions and sketch a common framework of shared and cooperative control that sees the two phrases not as different concepts, but as different perspectives or foci on a common design space of shared intentionality, con...
Conference Paper
Shared Control, where the machine and the human share tasks and control the situation together, and its extension cooperative automation are promising approaches to overcome automation-induced problems, such as lack of situation awareness and degradation of skill. However, the design of Shared Controllers and/or cooperative human-machine systems sh...
Article
Over the last centuries we have experienced scientific, technological and societal progress that enabled the creation of intelligent assisted and automated machines with increasing abilities, and require a conscious distribution of roles and control between humans and machines. Machines can be more than either fully automated or manually controlled...
Article
In automated driving, the human driver and an automation form a joint human-machine system. In this system, each partner has her own individual cognitive as well as perceptual processes, which enable them to perform the complex task of driving. On different layers of the driving task, both, drivers and automation systems, assess the situation and d...