Frank Dickmann

Frank Dickmann
Ruhr-Universität Bochum | RUB · Arbeitsbereich Geomatik

Professor

About

145
Publications
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1,067
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Publications

Publications (145)
Article
Full-text available
Map information, especially volunteered geographic information (VGI) is prone to spatial inaccuracies. Due to their use as spatial reference points, spatially inaccurate landmark representations in maps might affect the ability to match maps to the represented 3D space and might compromise self-localization and orientation. Based on a map matching...
Article
Full-text available
Modern Virtual Reality (VR) applications often use artificial locomotion to allow users to travel distances within VR space that exceed the available space used to transfer real-world and real-time motion into the virtual environment. The locomotion speed is usually not fixed and can be selected dynamically by the user. Due to motion adaptation eff...
Article
Full-text available
Augmented reality (AR) is playing an increasingly important role in a variety of everyday application scenarios. Users are not completely disconnected from the current sensory influences of reality. They are merely confronted with additional virtual objects that are projected into reality. This allows users to obtain additional spatial information,...
Article
Full-text available
Mental representations of geographic space are based on knowledge of spatial elements and the spatial relation between these elements. Acquiring such mental representations of space requires assessing distances between pairs of spatial elements. In virtual reality (VR) applications, locomotion techniques based on real-world movement are constrained...
Article
Full-text available
Modern game engines like Unity allow users to create realistic 3D environments containing terrains as well as natural and artificial objects easily and swiftly. In addition, recent advances of game engine capabilities enable effortless implementation of virtual reality (VR) compatibility. 3D environments created with VR compatibility can be experie...
Article
Full-text available
Landmarks, salient spatial elements, are often argued to play an important role in the formation of mental representations of space. They are likely to be perceived due to their salience and they can be used as spatial reference points to memorize the locations of other spatial elements. In maps, landmarks are often represented as pictograms. Simil...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the paper is to elaborate on and evaluate a multiperspective cartographic visualization of the spatial behavior of pedestrians in urban space. The detailed objective is to indicate the level of usefulness of the proposed visualization methods for analyzing and interpreting the following features: track shape (trajectory geometry), topogr...
Book
Contents 1. Reconstruction of historical landscapes using maps . 7 2. Project regions . 13 2.1. Ruhr Area . 13 2.2. Upper Silesian Industrial District . 17 3. Cartographic sources . 20 4. A spatial analysis of the cultural landscape between 1830, 1890, and today 34 4.1. Creation of a reference map . 35 4.2. Preparations for the digital analysis of...
Article
Digital maps are known as reliable media for communicating spatial information. People use maps to make themselves familiar with new environments and to form cognitive representations of spatial configurations and additional semantic information that are coupled with locational information. Since the mid-1990s, cartographers have explored auditory...
Article
Full-text available
Recent advances in augmented reality (AR) technology enable the projection of holograms to a fixed location in 3D space. This renders new possibilities for influencing peoples’ spatial perception and to address cognitive limitations as structural distortions in cognitive representations of space. The study presented in this paper investigated wheth...
Article
Full-text available
In the era of smartphones, route-planning and navigation is supported by freely and globally available web mapping services, such as OpenStreetMap or Google Maps. These services provide digital maps, as well as route planning functions that visually highlight the suggested route in the map. Additionally, such digital maps contain landmark pictogram...
Chapter
Für das Verständnis der Entstehung und auch für die Einschätzung der künftigen Entwicklung von Landschaften sind hinreichende Kenntnisse über die räum-zeitliche Dynamiken, die zur Veränderung von Landschaften führen, entscheidend. Für die Dokumentation landschaftsbezogener Prozesse und für ihre effiziente Weitergabe werden oft Karten oder kartenver...
Chapter
The Sea has attracted researchers from various disciplines over centuries. To administer and manage maritime shipping, people have traditionally relied on paper maps. Thanks to modern web technologies, cartographic expert libraries programmed in JavaScript (leaflet.js) and freely available spatial data sets, modern sea cartography can lead to inter...
Chapter
The free availability of powerful game engines, such as Unreal Engine 4 (UE4), has revolutionized the possibilities of 3D visualization. These engines include, amongst many other features, a simulation of a realistic physical system. Their early versions are often associated with first-person shooter games, and there are many more application scena...
Article
Full-text available
Modern hardware and software innovations in the field of virtual reality (VR), such as VR headsets and accessible game engines, allow cartographers to create 3D environments which can be experienced from the ego perspective in real time and with a simulated illusion of physical presence (immersion) in the virtual representation. The new immersive e...
Article
Full-text available
Augmented reality (AR), the extension of the real physical world with holographic objects provides numerous ways to influence how people perceive and interact with geographic space. Such holographic elements may for example improve orientation, navigation, and the mental representations of space generated through interaction with the environment. A...
Article
Full-text available
Reading spatial information from topographic maps to form mental representations that guide spatial orientation and navigation is a rather complex cognitive process. Perceptual and knowledge-driven processes interact to support the map reader in building these mental representations. The resulting cognitive maps are not one-to-one mappings of the s...
Article
Full-text available
When people use maps to plan and memorize a route, they commonly look for landmark representations in the form of pictograms that can be used as reference points for orientation (Anacta et al., 2017; Bestgen et al., 2016; Steck & Mallot, 2000). During navigation, matching the positions of landmark pictograms with the positions of the represented ob...
Chapter
Der Begriff Landschaft ist im amtlichen Geoinformationswesen der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (BRD) durch Standards definiert, die aus den praktischen Erfordernissen der Landesvermessung abgeleitet werden. Um den gesetzlichen Auftrag der Landesvermessung umzusetzen, enthält das Digitale Landschaftsmodell (Basis-DLM) eine Auswahl kategorisierter Objek...
Article
Full-text available
Zu Beginn des 19. Jahrhunderts zeigte sich die Landschaft in Deutschland und Polen in einem Zustand, der sich seit dem Mittelalter nur wenig verändert hatte. Erst die einsetzende Industrialisierung führte zu einer massiven Umgestaltung der Kulturlandschaft, die charakteristische räumliche Strukturen in den industriellen Zentren des Ruhrgebietes und...
Article
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Square Grid Cells Improve the Accuracy of Distance Estimations in Topographic Maps
Article
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Since the mid-1990s, sound has been discussed and used in multimedia cartography. There are four main variants of auditory map elements that have been established in the theory and practice of audiovisual cartography, i.e. abstract sounds/abstract sound sequences, speech, music and, especially, audiorealistic sequences representing so-called “sound...
Article
Full-text available
The increasing importance of cognitively oriented visualization in cartography implies the use of modern approaches of experimental user studies. Such experiments are usually standardized, and researchers try to avoid confounding factors as much as possible. Therefore, modern experimental studies are based on digital, software-based methods and tec...
Article
Landmarks, objects in the environment used for orientation, navigation and the formation of cognitive maps are often represented in maps as pictograms. In order to support these tasks effectively and efficiently, landmark pictograms also need to be salient, as the map user needs to identify and process them quickly and easily. Two additional releva...
Article
Seit jeher besteht eine enge Beziehung zwischen Geographie und Kartographie, gilt doch die Karte als das zentrale Darstellungsmittel bzw. gar als Säule geographischen Wissens. Ähnlich wie die Geographie unterlag auch die Kartographie, 1949 von der UNESCO als selbstständige Wissenschaft anerkannt, in den vergangenen 70 Jahren verschiedenen Paradigme...
Article
Full-text available
Map-based navigation is a diverse task that stands in contradiction to the goal of completeness of web mapping services. As each navigation task is different, it also requires and can dispense with different map information to support effective and efficient wayfinding. Task-oriented reduction of the elements displayed in a map may therefore suppor...
Article
Map legends are key elements of thematic maps and cartographic communication. The question of how to style map legends is a topic which has often been addressed by cartographic academics and practitioners. Nevertheless, the question of where to position a map legend has only hardly been discussed. Principles of cognitive sciences allow the assumpti...
Article
The omnipresence of orientation, wayfinding and navigation tasks in everyday life calls for high-quality cartographic media that help people to solve their tasks in the best possible way. Modern maps should not only consider modern visualization techniques and design approaches but also knowledge on the map user’s cognitive processing. Previous stu...
Article
In sozialkonstruktivistischen Ansätzen der Landschaftsforschung wird „Landschaft“ nicht als „objektiv“ gegeben gefasst: Das Wissen darüber, was „Landschaft“ sei und welchen Deutungen und (Be)Wertungen sie unterliegt, ist aus dieser Perspektive das Ergebnis „sedimentierter Erfahrungen“, die sich weniger in unmittelbarer Konfrontationmit den physisch...
Article
Full-text available
Church territorial planning in Germany is increasingly recognizing the advantages of cartographic visualizations and tools for digital analyses. This particularly takes effect in the case of reorganizations of administrative boundaries, but also in the practical work of dioceses based on them. By linking geodata with factual data (socio-economic da...
Article
Full-text available
In approaches of social constructivist landscape research, “landscape” is not addressed in an objective way. From this perspective, the knowledge of landscape itself, its meaning, evaluation and assessment are the result of “sedimented experiences”. These experiences are hardly based on the direct confrontation with physical elements, they are rath...
Article
In various every day contexts, maps are used as media supporting orientation, wayfinding, and navigation tasks. To create highly accurate and reliable maps, cartographers must be aware of cognitive effects that occur when people process map information. Interdisciplinary research from cognitive psychologists showed that map graphics lead to spatial...
Article
Die Digitalisierung der Spieleindustrie ermöglichte die Entwicklung komplexer multimedialer Spielwelten, die auf animierten und interaktiven kartographischen Darstellungsformen beru-hen. In der Video- und Computerspieleindustrie etablierten sich, v.a. seit den ausgehenden 1980er Jahren, mehrere verschiedene Varianten an Karten, die charakteristisch...
Article
The digitization of the game industry has made it possible to develop complex multimedia game worlds that are based on animated and interactive cartographic media. Since the 1980s, a variety of maps has been used in video and computer games. Each of them has their own characteristic functions. Furthermore, neighbouring disciplines of cartography, e...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, hardware and software innovations in the computer and video game industries have established affordable Virtual Reality (VR) systems as mass media products. Modern VR headsets, such as HTC Vive and Oculus Rift, are used to play games at home, while being part of VR landscapes and control them with natural body movements transported...
Article
Church territorial planning in Germany is increasingly recognizing the advantages of cartographic visualizations and tools for digital analyses. This particularly takes effect in the case of reorganizations of administrative boundaries, but also in the practical work of dioceses based on them. By linking geodata with factual data (socio-economic da...
Book
Karten spielen nicht nur eine große Rolle in zahlreichen Wissenschaftsdisziplinen, auch in vielen Bereichen des täglichen Lebens werden Karten als Informationsmedien immer wichtiger. Durch die digitale Technik hat die Nutzung und Herstellung von Karten einen enormen Schub erfahren. Die Entwicklung der digitalen Kartentechnik schreitet seit Jahren s...
Article
Full-text available
Knowing the correct location of a specific object learned from a (topographic) map is fundamental for orientation and navigation tasks. Spatial reference systems, such as coordinates or cardinal directions, are helpful tools for any geometric localization of positions that aims to be as exact as possible. Considering modern visualization techniques...
Data
Anonymized raw data of 36 participants. (SAV)
Data
Anonymized raw data of 32 participants. (SAV)
Article
The video game industry revolutionized the game market from the 1970s onwards. Stationary video game machines, such as "coin-ops" and, later, consoles for home entertainment made it possible to experience and interact with new virtual environments. Based on technical innovations, early video games already included different graphic and auditory eff...
Article
Estimating distances is a basic example of how to use spatial information represented in maps. Estimating a dis-tance correctly is highly important for a proper orientation and navigation performance. As graphical support measures, most maps are provided with scale bars. It is known that distances between two locations are over-estimated if barrier...
Article
Findings of empirical studies of spatial memory using maps are direct responses to the successful transfer and processing of map information. The memory performance of map users is an important indication of the quality of a map design. Studies of spatial memory have mainly relied on recall performances, but maps can be used in various ways dependi...
Article
Estimating distances is a basic example of how to use spatial information represented in maps. Estimating a distance correctly is highly important for a proper orientation and navigation performance. As graphical support-measures, most maps are provided with scale bars. It is known that distances between two locations are over-estimated if barriers...
Article
Estimating distances is a basic example of how to use spatial information represented in maps. Estimating a distance correctly is highly important for a proper orientation and navigation performance. As graphical support measures, most maps are provided with scale bars. It is known that distances between two locations are overestimated if barriers...
Article
In order to be successful in spatial orientation tasks, people need to recall locations and configurations of spatial objects from their memory. This understanding of geographic space often arises from experience with cartographic media representing topographic and topological information by graphic symbols. Learning spatial information from graphi...
Article
The construction and modulation of cognitive maps relies on spatial information. Their analysis is essential to understand the orientation and navigation behavior in humans. Empirical studies within the interdisciplinary cooperation of Professor Dickmann at Ruhr-University Bochum and Professor Kuchinke at the International Psychoanalytical Universi...
Article
Grid lines and visual detail in topographic maps support the encoding and recognition of object locations. Perception-based and knowledge-based functions are discussed to contribute to these effects, but little is known about how participants process such map elements. An eye-tracking study was conducted where participants were asked to learn objec...
Article
Mit der Entwicklung und Verbreitung erster Videospielsysteme für den Home-Entertainment-Bereich war es ab den ausgehenden 1970er-Jahren möglich, über TV-Geräte in neue virtuelle animierte Welten ‚einzutauchen‘. Die neuen technischen Möglichkeiten aufkommender Spielkonsolen, wie bspw. das 1990 veröffentlichte Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNE...
Article
From the late 1970s onwards, first video game consoles were developed and released for home entertainment. Gamers were invited to deal with new virtual environments using their own television sets. The new technical means of early game consoles, such as the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES, published in 1990), included different graphic an...
Article
A fast and accurate reading of maps is relevant for many human orientation, navigation and wayfinding tasks. Autostereoscopic displays can visualise depth illusions in True-3D and allow mapmakers to use the depth axis as an additional cartographic design parameter. This new design parameter has only hardly been considered in empirical investigation...
Article
In both research and planning, visualizations of time-geographic phenomena are of increasing importance, such as visualizations used for analyzing the spatial behaviour of tourists. Consequently, the requirements for proper ways of cartographic visualizations are also increasing. This paper concerns a cartographic form of presentation which is a 2D...
Article
In order to support a more intensive analysis of map contents in geography classes, the method “lebendige Karte” was developed and established in German educational geography. Here, pupils are given detailed scenarios of things people could do and experience in the area represented in a map. This method is especially suitable for the preparation of...
Article
Modern techniques of eye movement registration facilitate a deeper analysis of the processes of the map-based information transfer, which may enrich theory formation in cartography. “Heatmaps” are a specific tool for the visualisation of eye movement data. They support a fast and intuitive analysis of the map user’s viewing behaviour. In heatmaps,...
Article
An essential function of using cartographic media is the fostering of orientation in the environment. To perform successfully in orientation tasks, a most complete and accurate picture of the environment is needed. Maps are media used to transfer graphically represented survey knowledge into human spatial memory. Here, a cognitive map is formed,...
Article
In order to support a more intensive analysis of map contents in geography classes, the method “lebendige Karte” was developed and established in German educational geography. Here, pupils are given detailed scenarios of things people could do and experience in the area represented in a map. This method is especially suitable for the preparation of...
Article
An essential function of using cartographic media is the fostering of orientation in the environment. To perform successfully in orientation tasks, a most complete and accurate picture of the environment is needed. Maps are media used to transfer graphically represented survey knowledge into human spatial memory. Here, a cognitive map is formed, wh...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive representations of learned map information are subject to systematic distortion errors. Map elements that divide a map surface into regions, such as content-related linear symbols (e.g. streets, rivers, railway systems) or additional artificial layers (coordinate grids), provide an orientation pattern that can help users to reduce distort...
Article
Modern techniques of eye movement registration facilitate a deeper analysis of the processes of map-based information transfer, which may enrich theory formation in cartography. “Heatmaps” are a specific tool for the visualization of eye movement data. They support a fast and intuitive analysis of the map user’s viewing behaviour. In heatmaps, data...
Article
An essential function of using cartographic media is the fostering of orientation in the environment. To perform successfully in orientation tasks, a most complete and accurate picture of the environment is needed. Maps are media used to transfer graphically represented survey knowledge into human spatial memory. Here, a cognitive map is formed, wh...
Article
Full-text available
In both research and planning, visualizations of time-geographic phenomena are of increasing importance, such as visualizations used for analyzing the spatial behaviour of tourists. Consequently, the requirements for proper ways of cartographic visualizations are also increasing. This paper concerns a cartographic form of presentation which is a 2D...
Article
Full-text available
Research from the field of cognitive psychology provides evidence that cognitive representations of space based on maps or map-like sketches are subject to systematic distortion tendencies. These distortions influence the orientation capacity as they represent errors in spatial memory. Map grids are a traditional feature of map graphics that has ra...
Article
Untersuchungen der Kognitionspsychologie zeigen, dass der redundante Einsatz von geschriebenem und gesprochenem Text bessere Ergebnisse in Bezug auf die Behaltensleistung von kurzen Inhalten, die in multimedialen Anwendungen vermittelt werden, erzielen kann. Eine grundlegende empirische Untersuchung zur Übertragbarkeit dieser Erkenntnisse auf die a...
Article
Based on research from cognitive psychology, it is generally assumed that multimedia applications produce better results concerning memory performance when they employ written and spoken text redundantly in order to convey short pieces of information. Cartographic theory, however, still lacks empirical evidence that has shown whether these findings...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, True-3D representations such as lenticular visualization have entered the stage of analogue and, especially, digital cartography. The increase of 3D displays as products of mass media raises some fundamental questions about a new generation of 3D maps. Auto-stereoscopic displays allow cartographers to design 3D maps covering severa...
Article
Research from the field of cognitive psychology has demonstrated that mental representations based on the processing of map information are not randomly distorted. Distortions can be traced back to systematic and predictable influences. An overlaying construction of artificial grids helps to reduce distortions in the map reader’s processing of the...
Article
Due to demographic and social changes, socio-spatial developments have gained importance for the practical work in ecclesiastic administrations. Based on Geographic Information Systems, some German dioceses have started to address the existing planning and administration challenges. The effective introduction of the new methods not only requires a...
Article
Full-text available
To date, it has been shown that cognitive map representations based on cartographic visualisations are systematically distorted. The grid is a traditional element of map graphics that has rarely been considered in research on perception-based spatial distortions. Grids do not only support the map reader in finding coordinates or locations of object...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Traditionell vermittelt die Kartographie georäumliche Daten und Sachverhalte graphisch-visuell durch Karten. Mit der wachsenden Bedeutung digitaler Verfahren und dem Aufkommen von Multimedia in der Kartographie wird seit den 1990er Jahren vermehrt auch die akustische Dimension als kartographisches Gestaltungsmittel diskutiert. Unterschiedliche Ausp...
Article
Mit 3D-Gebäudemodellen steht ein Instrumentarium zur Verfügung, das städtebauliche Strukturen anschaulich vermittelt. Der Beitrag stellt Potenziale und Restriktionen heraus, die den Umgang mit 3D-Gebäudemodelle in der praktischen Planungsarbeit bestimmen. Ergebnisse einer Expertenbefragung machen deutlich, dass die Verwendung von dreidimensionalen...
Article
Digital 3D-models of buildings are used to illustrate urban planning scenarios in a realistic way. This paper presents the potentials and restrictions that determine the usage of 3D-models in city planning. The results of an expert survey indicate that 3D-models might offer benefits in city planning. Nevertheless, one should take a nuanced view whe...
Article
Digital 3D-models of buildings are used to illustrate urban planning scenarios in a realistic way. This paper presents the potentials and restrictions that determine the usage of 3D-models in city planning. The results of an expert survey indicate that 3D-models might offer benefits in city planning. Nevertheless, one should take a nuanced view whe...