Frank Cuozzo

Frank Cuozzo
University of North Dakota | UND · Department of Anthropology

About

101
Publications
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1,634
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2005 - present
University of North Dakota
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (101)
Article
South Africa’s extensive linear infrastructure network (which includes roads and power lines) is severely impacting the country’s historically recognised five primate species: greater or thick-tailed bushbaby ( Otolemur crassicaudatus ), southern lesser bushbaby ( Galago moholi ), chacma baboon ( Papio ursinus ), vervet monkey ( Chlorocebus pygeryt...
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As global non-human primate populations show dramatic declines due to climate change, land transformation and other anthropogenic stressors, it has become imperative to study physiological responses to environmental change in order to understand primate adaptability and enhance species conservation strategies. We examined the effects of seasonality...
Article
To date, there have been few published reports of Caracal spp. (or other non-domestic carnivores) preying upon nocturnal strepsirrhine primates anywhere in continental Africa. However, in South Africa, most studies of caracal diet have been conducted outside of the known geographic range of South Africa’s nocturnal primates. Here we report Otolemur...
Article
The habitats of Galago moholi are suspected to be largely fragmented, while the species is thought to be expanding further into the southernmost fringe of its range, as well as into human settlements. To date, no intraspecific molecular genetic studies have been published on G. moholi. Here we estimate the genetic diversity and connectivity of popu...
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Madagascar's ring‐tailed lemurs (Lemur catta ) are experiencing rapid population declines due to ongoing habitat loss and fragmentation, as well as increasing exploitation for bushmeat and the illegal pet trade. Despite being the focus of extensive and ongoing behavioral studies, there is comparatively little known about the genetic population stru...
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Madagascar does not have native wild felid species; however, distinct populations of free-ranging “forest cats” of unknown species are known throughout the island, including at Ankarafantsika National Park, Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve, Makira Natural Park and the Masoala peninsula. Malagasy “forest cats” are commonly considered invasive lemur pre...
Article
Greater bushbabies, strepsirrhine primates, that are distributed across central, eastern and southern Africa, with northern and eastern South Africa representing the species' most southerly distribution. Greater bushbabies are habitat specialists whose naturally fragmented habitats are getting even more fragmented due to anthropogenic activities. C...
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Documenting the natural diversity of eukaryotic organisms in the nonhuman primate (NHP) gut is important for understanding the evolution of the mammalian gut microbiome, its role in digestion, health and disease, and the consequences of anthropogenic change on primate biology and conservation. Despite the ecological significance of gut-associated e...
Article
Over the past decade several studies have reported that the gut microbiomes of mammals with similar dietary niches exhibit similar compositional and functional traits. However, these studies rely heavily on samples from captive individuals and often confound host phylogeny, gut morphology, and diet. To more explicitly test the influence of host die...
Article
The health of 44 wild ring-tailed lemurs ( Lemur catta) at the Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve was assessed across three age classes: <5 yr (young), 5-9 yr (adult), and ≥10 yr (old). Hematology and biochemistry tests were performed manually (leukocyte count and differential, packed cell volume, total protein) and using a point-of-care analyzer (hemat...
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Leprosy is caused by the bacterial pathogens Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis. Apart from humans, animals such as nine-banded armadillos in the Americas and red squirrels in the British Isles are naturally infected with M. leprae. Natural leprosy has also been reported in certain nonhuman primates, but it is not known whether the...
Data
Maximum parsimony tree of M. leprae strains. M. lepromatosis was used as an outgroup to root the tree (branch truncated for clarity). Bootstrap support estimated from 1,000 replicates is given next to each internal branch. The five M. leprae branches are highlighted. The nonhuman primate M. leprae genomes sequenced in this study are marked in red....
Data
Case details of the three nonhuman primates with leprosy included in this study. (XLSX)
Data
List of positions in the M. leprae reference genome excluded from phylogenetic analyses. (TXT)
Data
Map showing the geographic ranges of chimpanzees (Red) and sooty mangabeys (Blue) in Africa. The overlap between the two species’ ranges is shown in purple. The map was generated using RStudio. (TIFF)
Data
Summary of SNPs found in the nonhuman primate M. leprae strains. (XLSX)
Data
Neighbor joining tree of M. leprae strains. M. lepromatosis was used as an outgroup to root the tree (branch truncated for clarity). Bootstrap support estimated from 1,000 replicates is given next to each internal branch. The five M. leprae branches are highlighted. The nonhuman primate M. leprae genomes sequenced in this study are denoted in red....
Article
Madagascar is known for its hypervariable climate with periodic droughts and cyclones, but little is known of the impact of such events on lemur physiology. We examined the effects of sequential weather periods, drought, normal, cyclone and post-cyclone, on hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) and body weight in wild ring-tailed lemurs, Lemur catta (...
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Across species, diversity at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is critical to individual disease resistance and, hence, to population health; however, MHC diversity can be reduced in small, fragmented, or isolated populations. Given the need for comparative studies of functional genetic diversity, we investigated whether MHC diversity diff...
Chapter
Teeth are central to the study of nonhuman primates, as they provide an accurate record of an individual's growth and development, and their interactions with the environment throughout one's life. Teeth are also common in the primate fossil record, thus providing a window into how fossil primates lived their lives. With the development of a modern...
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In group-living species with male dominance hierarchies where receptive periods of females do not overlap, high male reproductive skew would be predicted. However, the existence of female multiple mating and alternative male mating strategies can call into question single-male monopolization of paternity in groups. Ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta)...
Article
The gut microbiota contributes to host health by maintaining homeostasis, increasing digestive efficiency, and facilitating the development of the immune system. The composition of the gut microbiota can change dramatically within and between individuals of a species as a result of diet, age, or habitat. Therefore, understanding the factors determi...
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Background Across species, diversity at the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is critical to disease resistance and population health; however, use of MHC diversity to quantify the genetic health of populations has been hampered by the extreme variation found in MHC genes. Next generation sequencing (NGS) technology generates sufficient data t...
Chapter
The study of non-human primate teeth has a long history in anthropology, vertebrate paleontology, and mammalian biology. Much of the earlier work on primate teeth focused on their role in understanding the evolution of the human dentition. With the development of intensive field primatology in the 1960s, the ability to understand primate teeth in t...
Article
Determining the proximate causes of tooth wear remains a major focus of dental study. Here we compare the diets of three ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) populations and examine how different dietary components may contribute to patterns of wear-related tooth shape. Casts were made from dental impressions collected between 2003 and 2010 from lemurs...
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Lemur catta has traditionally been considered a species with male-biased dispersal; however, occasional female dispersal occurs. Using molecular data, we evaluated dispersal patterns in 2 L. catta populations in southwestern Madagascar: Tsimanampesotse National Park (TNP) and Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve (BMSR). We also investigated the genetic di...
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Ring-tailed lemurs have been studied intensively in the Parcel 1 gallery forest of Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve. Here, we report on lemur groups in a mixture of deciduous dry forest and spiny forest just 5 km to the west. Compared to Parcel 1, Parcel 2 (P2) has a lower density of Tamarindus indica , a major dietary plant species for gallery forest...
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For over 50 years, ring-tailed lemurs have been studied continuously in the wild. As one of the most long-studied primate species, the length and breadth of their study is comparable to research on Japanese macaques, baboons and chimpanzees. They are also one of the most broadly observed of all primates, with comprehensive research conducted on the...
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The Ankilitelo cave site, Madagascar, contains a large collection of extant and recently extinct subfossil lemurs including the extant taxa Lemur catta and Eulemur rufi-frons , which today are rarely found in sympatry. Dates for this assemblage range from 300 to 13,000 BP, though known dates for extinct primate specimens range between ∼ 500 and ∼ 6...
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Coat and body mass status provide a potential noninvasive way to assess primate health status as well as the effects of seasonality, resource use and reproductive state. Coat and body condition were scored visually for 36 wild Lemur catta at the Bezà Maha-faly Special Reserve, Madagascar, from July 2012 to March 2013. Coat quality generally increas...
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The health of 36 wild, free-ranging ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) at the Bezà Ma-hafaly Special Reserve was assessed across 2 habitats of varied human impact: a reserve riverine gallery forest, and a degraded mixed dry deciduous and Alluaudia-dominated spiny forest. While there were no statistically significant differences in leukocyte count or...
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The ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) is a group-living strepsirrhine primate endemic to Madagascar that faces considerable predation pressure from aerial and terrestrial predators. This species engages in mobbing and vigilance behavior in response to predators , and has referential alarm vocalizations. Because L. catta is female dominant, less is kn...
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Lemur catta has traditionally been considered a species with male-biased dispersal; however, occasional female dispersal occurs. Using molecular data, we evaluated dispersal patterns in 2 L. catta populations in southwestern Madagascar: Tsimanampeso-tse National Park (TNP) and Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve (BMSR). We also investigated the genetic d...
Article
Genetic variability among captive and wild ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) was assessed using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data. A 529 bp segment of mtDNA was sequenced and 9 microsatellite loci were genotyped for 286 ring-tailed lemurs. Samples were obtained from the well-studied L. catta population at the Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve and from...
Article
Ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) at the Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve (BMSR), Madagascar display a high frequency of individuals with notable and sometimes extreme tooth wear. Adult lemurs display a range of tooth wear even among individuals of the same age, but we do not know at what age this variation first appears. This study's goal was to deter...
Data
Scientists at the University of Colorado and the University of Toliara, Madagascar have discovered that some ring-tailed lemurs in Madagascar regularly retire to limestone chambers for their nightly snoozes, the first evidence of the consistent daily use of the same caves and crevices for sleeping among wild lemurs.
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Ring - tailed lemurs live in a range of habitats in southwestern Madagascar. To date, much of the knowledge of ring - tailed lemur ecology, biology and behavior come from riverine gallery forests sites. Recent years have seen an expansion of comprehensive research on this resilient species, including areas of limestone spiny forest along Madagascar...
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Cathemerality consists of discrete periods of activity during both the day and night. Though uncommon within Primates, cathemerality is prevalent in some lemur genera, such as Eulemur, Hapalemur, and Prolemur. Several researchers have also reported nighttime activity in Lemur catta, yet these lemurs are generally considered "strictly diurnal". We u...
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We thank Franzen et al. (2013) for their response to our paper (Sauther and Cuozzo 2012) in which we discuss the behavioral scenario leading to the ultimate demise of Darwinius massillae “Ida” as described in their previous publications (Franzen et al. 2011, 2012). However, we do take serious issue with several points in their response. We are curr...
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The comparative method is central to interpretations of Eocene primate palaeobiology. This method rests upon a thorough study of analogous living forms. With a rapidly increasing knowledge of such forms, most notably the Malagasy lemurs, our ability to advance the study of Eocene primate ecology, biology and behaviour far exceeds that of even just...
Chapter
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The Beza Mahafaly Project in southwestern Madagascar was founded in 1975. It was established as a collaborative effort among the University of Madagascar (now University of Antananarivo), Washington University, Yale University, and the local communities for long-term training and research, biodiversity conservation, and socioeconomic development. B...
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Ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) are among the best-known primates. Long-term study of their behavior, ecology and dentition at a single locality, the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar, has enabled a detailed understanding of their dental ecology. Patterns of dental pathology including tooth wear, tooth loss and abscessed canines correspond...
Article
Teeth are central for the study of ecology, as teeth are at the direct interface between an organism and its environment. Recent years have witnessed a rapid growth in the use of teeth to understand a broad range of topics in living and fossil primate biology. This in part reflects new techniques for assessing ways in which teeth respond to, and in...
Article
Teeth have long been used as indicators of primate ecology. Early work focused on the links between dental morphology, diet, and behavior, with more recent years emphasizing dental wear, microstructure, development, and biogeochemistry, to understand primate ecology. Our study of Lemur catta at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar, has rev...
Article
The common morphological metrics of size, shape, and enamel thickness of teeth are believed to reflect the functional requirements of a primate's diet. However, the mechanical and material properties of enamel also contribute to tooth function, yet are rarely studied. Substantial wear and tooth loss previously documented in Lemur catta at the Beza...
Article
Knowledge of dietary mechanical properties can be informative about physical consequences to consumers during ingestion and mastication. In this article, we examine how Tamarindus indica fruits can affect dental morphology in a population of ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) at Beza Mahafaly special reserve in southwestern Madagascar. Ring-tailed le...
Article
During mastication, foods are reduced into particles suitable for swallowing and digestion. Smaller particles possess a greater surface area per unit of volume on which digestive enzymes and bacteria may work than relatively larger particles, and are thus more readily digested. As dental morphology facilitates the breakdown of diets with specific m...
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Full text: http://www.ajol.info/index.php/mcd/article/view/79585/69866 Soft tissue injuries are rarely reported in wild primates as these heal fast, are not obvious, and are rapidly scavenged or decompose after death. An adult female ring - tailed lemur (Lemur catta) was found to have a chronic gastrointestinal fistula in Beza Mahafaly Special Rese...
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In light of historical and recent anthropogenic influences on Malagasy primate populations, in this study ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) samples from two sites in southwestern Madagascar, Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve (BMSR) and Tsimanampetsotsa National Park (TNP), were evaluated for the genetic signature of a population bottleneck. A total of 45...
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Wild ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) can be anesthetized with Telazol via blow dart, but improved techniques are needed so that each lemur is reliably induced with a single dart. Medetomidine-butorphanol (MB) is a good supplemental protocol to be administered once the lemurs are captured, but other protocols may provide longer periods of sedation...
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Telazol has been commonly used for field anesthesia of wild lemurs, including ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). Telazol alone provides good induction, but doesn't cause adequate muscle relaxation and sedation for collecting consistent somatic measurements and high-quality dental impressions that are sometimes needed. Variability in induction respon...
Article
Tooth wear is generally an age-related phenomenon, often assumed to occur at similar rates within populations of primates and other mammals, and has been suggested as a correlate of reduced offspring survival among wild lemurs. Few long-term wild studies have combined detailed study of primate behavior and ecology with dental analyses. Here, we pre...
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Lemuricola (Madoxyuris) bauchoti Chabaud, Brygoo et Petter, 1965 is redescribed from material collected from the ring-tailed lemur, Lemur catta, from the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve in Madagascar using the scanning electron microscope. This is a new host record and the first oxyurid reported from the ring-tailed lemur. Previously, records of each...