Frank Biocca

Frank Biocca
Syracuse University | SU · Graduate School

Ph.D., University of Wisconsin - Madison

About

155
Publications
166,509
Reads
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13,959
Citations

Publications

Publications (155)
Preprint
Our objective was to focus on linkages between the process of learning and memory and the placement of objects within an array of targets in a virtual workspace. Participants were instructed to place virtual objects serially within a three-dimensional target array. One phase presented each target sequentially, and required participants to make time...
Preprint
Full-text available
Distributed systems technologies supporting 3D visualization and social collaboration will be increasing in frequency and type over time. An emerging type of head-mounted display referred to as the head-mounted projection display (HMPD) was recently developed that only requires ultralight optics (i.e., less than 8 g per eye) that enables immersive...
Chapter
Today, Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) are the new communication tools readily available to consumers. Because of the increasing availability of AR and VR, communication and neuroscience researchers are showing increasing interest in the use of VR systems for studies in collaboration, communication, and basic neuroscience. Beyond re...
Chapter
We present an experimental study evaluating the effectiveness of immersive virtual reality games (combined with stationary cycling) on health-related physical activity in comparison to stationary cycling with the same game in a non-immersive (2D) setting. In the experiment, participants were asked to play a cycling video game with a stationary bike...
Article
This study investigates how different interface modality features of online dating sites, such as location-awareness cues and modality of profiles, affect the sense of social presence of a prospective date. We also examined how various user behaviors aimed at reducing uncertainty about online interactions affect social presence perceptions and are...
Article
Purpose-The purpose of this paper is to analyze user behavior toward multi-screen services by employing neural networks to predict overall customer satisfaction and to prioritize the factors that influence customer intentions. Design/methodology/approach-Multi-screen experiences require a new approach incorporating multiple methods. A proposed mult...
Article
The “quantified self” movement and wearable devices with health monitoring and activity tracking functions are experiencing increased popularity, as they allow users to become more aware of their health-related behavior. This paper describes the user experience of the quantified self as examined through multiple methods. First, we surveyed people’s...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
How do participants respond to and prefer either a common voice agent that follows them across platforms or a community of specialist agents connected to specific hardware platform. This study examines users’ gender as it relates to preference for voice-control system (VCS). The participants experiences a VCS agent that followed them across platfor...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study examines the superior effect of spatialized projection mapping, also known as spatialized augmented reality or three-dimensional projection mapping, compared to projection on the screen. Specifically, to examine the effect of this modality, other variables are limited, such as sound effects or any other contents. The stimuli have little...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the synergy effect of digital video advertising through television, mobile TV, and the Internet on general outcomes of advertising effectiveness. In a 3 (paired media conditions for ad repetition) × 2 (product involvement) mixed factorial design, we examined empirical outcomes of the cross-media synergy effect. The results show...
Article
The sense of presence in simulated environments, be it fragile and fleeting or sometimes deep and traumatizing, is the construct used to describe, measure, and sometimes evaluate and design and optimize systems that provide that ability. We spend more and more time in simulated realities provided by the systems that occupy our walls as screens or p...
Book
Highlights key research currently being undertaken within the field of telepresence, providing the most detailed account of the field to date, advancing our understanding of a fundamental property of all media - the illusion of presence; the sense of "being there" inside a virtual environment, with actual or virtual others. This collection has been...
Conference Paper
This study aims to improve laundry experiences by designing user- friendly washing machines that are different from the existing small-sized domestic appliances. Recently, single households with members aged 20-30 have been identified as prominent consumers. Small-sized domestic appliances have been launched to satisfy their requirements. However,...
Article
Does the delivery platform for a health behavior game contribute to its effectiveness? With the growing popularity of interactive video games that combine physical exercise with gameplay, known as “exergames,” there has been a burgeoning interest in their impact on users’ exercise attitudes and behavioral outcomes. This study examines how the level...
Conference Paper
Mediated experience increasingly involves some representation of ourselves, so-called avatars. Avatars are used to facilitate the interaction with others in social media or are integrated as part of interfaces, used for interacting with 3D spatial environments and objects in games and simulations. These avatars vary in the degree to which they are...
Article
With recent increases in single-person households, single households with 20-30 year old members have been identified as prominent consumers. While small-sized domestic appliances have been released to meet their requirements, they ordinarily only provide usability provision on a smaller scale. Further, one of these consumers' major anxieties-laund...
Article
Given the importance of software in today's world, the development of software systems is a key activity that requires complex management scenarios. This article explores the implications of hard decisions in the context of software development projects ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Progressive embodiment and the subsequent enhancement of presence have been important goals of VR researchers and designers for some time (Biocca, 1997). Consequently, researchers frequently explore the relationship between increasing embodiment and presence yet rarely emphasize the ties between their work and other work on embodiment. More specifi...
Article
With the general aggression model and presence (i.e., sense of "being there") theory as frameworks, this study investigates the effects of violence cues (blood and screams of pain) and players' individual differences in aggression (trait aggression) on brand logo memory and on attitude change in a violent first-person shooter game (Half-Life 2). Ph...
Article
This study investigated whether sensory realism cues in violent games – blood color (red vs. blue), screams of pain (on vs. off), and player perspective (first-person vs. third-person) – affect players’ physiological arousal (i.e., skin conductance levels), spatial presence (i.e., sense of being physically “there”), and state aggression in a popula...
Conference Paper
Although various types of electronic mobility aids for visually impaired persons have been developed as alternatives to the conventional white cane, users still have much doubt on the effectiveness and usability of these newly introduced aids. To identify ways to improve usability and effectiveness of electronic cane, a task performance study was c...
Article
Despite the massive body of research on the effect of media and entertainment on children's development, especially through computer that clearly stands as the most interactive and appealing medium not only between children but also among people, the ...
Article
This paper presents the propensities of preference for Human Robot Interaction (HRI) according to different personalities and facial expressions of humans and robots. This study is based on two types of personalities: extroverted and introverted. According to the personality, the facial expressions are distinguished to express extroversion and intr...
Article
Using a modified first-person shooter game, Counter Strike 2, this study tested (1) if the Yerkes–Dodson law could be applied to the relationship between physiological arousal (skin conductance) and brand memory in the new interactive technology setting; (2) if central and familiar ads are better recognized; and (3) if there are any interaction eff...
Conference Paper
This paper describes how “WPT tools”, a web-based planning and writing supporting system, help English Second Language (ESL) learners planning and writing. This study consists of three stages. At the First stage, the difficulty of writing for L1 (Native Language) and L2 (Foreign Language) and the importance of planning were analyzed using related r...
Article
This chapter presents data from the HomeNetToo project, an in-depth study that examines use of computers and the Internet over 16 months among 140 children and their parents. The sample population was primarily lower income and African American. There was churn in Internet use among the children in the study, with 8 per cent stopping Internet use e...
Article
Full-text available
Virtual reality (VR) environments are increasingly being used by neuroscientists to simulate natural events and social interactions. VR creates interactive, multimodal sensory stimuli that offer unique advantages over other approaches to neuroscientific research and applications. VR's compatibility with imaging technologies such as functional MRI a...
Article
With the general aggression model and presence (i.e., sense of "being there") theory as frameworks, this study investigates the effects of violence cues (blood and screams of pain) and players' individual differences in aggression (trait aggression) on brand logo memory and on attitude change in a violent first-person shooter game (Half-Life 2). Ph...
Conference Paper
A 2 (gun replica vs. mouse) x 2 (experience in real gun vs. no experience in real gun) between-subjects experiment was conducted to examine the effects of realistic controller and real-life exposure to gun on violent video game players' perceived degree of presence and state of aggression. The present study found that participants who played a viol...
Article
This study examines the users' experiences with three-dimensional (3D) virtual environments to investigate the areas of development as a learning application. For the investigation, the modified technology acceptance model (TAM) is used with constructs from expectation-confirmation theory (ECT). Users' responses to questions about cognitive percept...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined if realistic cues of violence - blood color (red), sound cues (screams of pain), and perspective (first-person) - influence user arousal, feeling of presence, and their memory for the game events and positions with personal experience of games. The relationship between arousal and presence was also analyzed with their effects on...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Patients in the early stages of dementia are often subject to a variety of dangerous symptoms and behaviors including depression, wandering, and aggression. These conditions severely influence both quality of life and the degree of caretaker intervention that is necessary. Non-pharmacological interventions can alleviate these symptoms in some cases...
Chapter
Full-text available
Virtual reality (VR) creates a sensory and psychological experience for users as an alternative to reality. More than just one technology, VR is an ever-growing set of tools and techniques that can be used to create the psychological sensation of being in an alternate space. Underpinning the techniques used to create compelling virtual environments...
Article
Full-text available
The Internet has the ability to serve as a more powerful medium than traditional print or broadcast media because consumers are able to interact with products in 3D multimedia environments, thus simulating a new form of experience—a virtual experience. However, very little research has explored the impact of this new type of experience, especially...
Article
Full-text available
SimDialog is a visual editor for dialog in computer games. This paper presents the design of SimDialog, illustrating how script writers and non-programmers can easily create dialog for video games with complex branching structures and dynamic response characteristics. The system creates dialog as a directed graph. This allows for play using the dia...
Article
Full-text available
In order to bridge interdisciplinary differences in Presence research and to establish connections between Presence and “older” concepts of psychology and communication, a theoretical model of the formation of Spatial Presence is proposed. It is applicable to the exposure to different media and intended to unify the existing efforts to develop a th...
Article
Full-text available
Knowledge of objects, situations, or locations in the environment can be pro- ductive, useful, or even life-critical for mobile augmented reality (AR) users. Users may need assistance with (1) dangers, obstacles, or situations requiring attention; (2) visual search; (3) task sequencing; and (4) spatial navigation. The omnidirectional attention funn...
Article
How does the changing representation of the body in virtual environments affect the mind? This article considers how virtual reality interfaces are evolving to embody the user progressively. The effect of embodiment on the sensation of physical presence, social presence, and self presence in virtual environments is discussed. The effect of avatar r...
Preprint
Full-text available
Our objective was to focus on linkages between the process of learning and memory and the placement of objects within an array of targets in a virtual workspace. Participants were instructed to place virtual objects serially within a three-dimensional target array. One phase presented each target sequentially, and required participants to make time...
Article
HomeNetToo is a longitudinal field study designed to examine the antecedents and consequences of home Internet use in low-income families (http://www.HomeNetToo.org). The study was done between December 2000 and June 2002. Among the consequences considered was children's academic performance. Participants were 140 children, mostly African American...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Knowledge of objects, situations, or locations in the environment may be productivity enhancing, generally useful, or even life-critical for mobile augmented reality (AR) users. Users may need assistance with: (1) dangers, obstacles, or situations requiring attention, (2) visual search, (3) task sequencing, and (4) spatial navigation. The omnidirec...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The attention funnel is a general purpose AR interface technique that interactively guides the attention of a user to any object, person, or place in space. The technique utilizes dynamic perceptual affordances to draw user attention "down" the funnel to the target location. Attention funnel can be used to cue objects completely out of sight includ...
Article
This research examined the effects of instructional set on Internet use by low-income adults during a 16-month longitudinal study. Participants (n = 117) received instructions that focused on either the Internet's communication tools or its information tools. Internet use was continuously and automatically recorded. Survey measures of computer and...
Article
Full-text available
Networked technologies supporting distributed D visualization and social collaboration will be increasing in frequency and type over time. An emerging type of head- mounted display referred to as the Head-Mounted Projection Display (HMPD) was recently developed to only require ultra-light optics (i.e. less than 8 g per eye) that enables immersive m...
Chapter
Full-text available
Online Consumer Psychology addresses many of the issues created by the Internet and goes beyond the topic of advertising and the Web to include topics such as customization, site design, word of mouth processes, and the study of consumer decision making while online. The theories and research methods help provide greater insight into the processes...
Article
Full-text available
During face-to-face collaboration people frequently monitor the other's facial expressions to determine their current state of attention, mood, and comprehension. Capturing a frontal view of the face of mobile users in multi-user collaborative environments has been a challenge for several years. A mobile social presence system is proposed that capt...
Article
HomeNetToo is a longitudinal field study designed to exam- ine home Internet use by low-income families in the United States. Participants were 140 children, mostly African Amer- ican, whose Internet use was continuously and automatically recorded for one year. This article focuses on relationships between children's main computer activities, acade...
Article
Full-text available
In 3 experiments, the authors investigated spatial updating in augmented reality environments. Participants learned locations of virtual objects on the physical floor. They were turned to appropriate facing directions while blindfolded before making pointing judgments (e.g., "Imagine you are facing X. Point to Y"). Experiments manipulated the angul...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Minimally obtrusive face capture is essential for applications in tele-conferencing, collaborative work, and mobile applications. Acquiring and coding video for such applications is a challenging problem, particularly for a mobile user. A pilot head-mounted display system (HMD) is shown that captures two side views of the face and generates in real...
Article
A survey was conducted to study the factors influencing the social impact of Internet use. The influence of greater Internet use on psychological well-being and social involvement in low-income adults and dependence on race and other factors was also analyzed. It was observed from the survey results that Internet use has no effect on the psychologi...
Article
Minimally obtrusive face capture is essential for applications in tele-conferencing,collaborative work, and mobile applications. Acquiring and coding video for such applications is a challenging problem, particularly for a mobile user. A pilot HMD system is shown that captures two side views of the face and generates in real-time a quality frontal...
Article
Full-text available
In augmented reality (AR) environments, users experience the physical environment and other users directly along with mediated virtual objects embedded in the environment. In immersive virtual reality (VR), users experience of a visual environment (and sometimes other senses) is completely mediated. The representation of user's body in virtual envi...
Chapter
Components and potential manufacturing applications of the teleportal augmented reality (AR) system are described. This teleportal system is designed to support applications such as distributed 3D design and work-team collaboration. The optomechanical design of an emerging type of AR head-mounted display (HMD), referred to as the Teleportal Head-Mo...
Chapter
Full-text available
Although there has been great speculation about the potential of augmented reality (AR) in manufacturing applications, there have been very few empirical studies that assess the effectiveness of the technology. This chapter describes an experiment that tested the relative effectiveness of AR instructions in computer-assisted assembly. The AR soluti...
Article
Full-text available
Through a series of studies designed to explore important aspects of virtual experience, a new type of product affordances - virtual affordances - is proposed and tested empirically. In addition, the existing geometric and material product taxonomy is extended to include mechanical products within the classification structure. Utilizing these new c...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Research on the effects of home Internet use on children's academic performance is virtually nonexistent. Although parents believe that having the Internet at home is important to their children's success in school, evidence linking access to success is lacking. In the HomeNetToo project we automatically recorded the actual Internet use of 130 chil...
Article
Full-text available
At a time of increased social usage of net and collaborative applications, a robust and detailed theory of social presence could contribute to our understanding of social behavior in mediated environments, allow researchers to predict and measure differences among media interfaces, and guide the design of new social environments and interfaces. A b...
Article
Full-text available
We report on an experiment that examined the inè uence of anthropomorphism and perceived agency on presence, copresence, and social presence in a virtual en- vironment. The experiment varied the level of anthropomorphism of the image of interactants: high anthropomorphism, low anthropomorphism, or no image. Per- ceived agency was manipulated by tel...
Article
HomeNetToo is a longitudinal field study to examine the antecedents and consequences of home Internet use in low-income families. Among the antecedents considered are attitudes about the Internet and their ability to predict Internet use. Participants in the project were 117 adults who completed attitude measures at pre-trial, 3 months, 9 months an...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Computer mediated environments present nowadays one of the key areas to the application and use of technology in work, leisure and education. It offers a number of opportunities to redesign the way we work, how we produce knowledge and collaborate with others. It also has some degree of influence in the way we manage information and perceive inform...
Article
This article identifies personal and situational factors that predicted Internet use during the first year of home Internet access by 123 adult participants who were primarily African American, female, never married and had annual household incomes of less than $15,000. In exchange for a home computer with Internet access from January 2001 till May...
Article
Relationships between personality, cognitive style and Internet use were examined in a longitudinal field study. Participants were low-income African American and European American adults residing in a mid-size urban community in the United States whose Internet use was automatically and continuously recorded for 6 months. Results indicated that ex...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the HomeNetToo project we designed user interfaces adapted to culturally influenced cognitive style and examined whether information presentations with adapted interfaces resulted in better learning and more favorable attitudes toward the information source and the interface. Participants were 161 low-income African Americans who resided in urba...