Frank D. Belschak

Frank D. Belschak
University of Amsterdam | UVA

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58
Publications
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3,185
Citations

Publications

Publications (58)
Article
Full-text available
The dual-process theory is a significant theory in both organizational theory and social psychology and two conjectures about this theory are considered in this manuscript; the default-interventionist vs. parallel-competitive account. Our research goal is to empirically investigate these two views. In concrete terms, by using event-related potentia...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates the relationship between leaders’ neuroticism and their evaluation of the desirability of followers’ proactive behaviour. We argue that leaders high in neuroticism are likely to evaluate follower proactivity as less desirable and that this relationship is amplified when followers are low in conscientiousness and agreeablenes...
Article
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Machiavellian (Mach) leaders’ tendency to engage in hostile, abusive behavior is destructive for followers and organizations. Yet, previous studies suggest that Machs do not always show negative leader behaviors such as abusive supervision. Drawing on trait activation theory, we propose that the manifestation of Mach trait-relevant behavior depends...
Article
Large‐scale, long‐term change initiatives take time to unfold, which can be a source of uncertainty and strain. Investigating the initial 19 months of a large‐scale change, we argue that during these stages employees’ change‐related beliefs become more negative over time, which negatively affects their work engagement and, ultimately, increases the...
Article
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Machiavellians are often seen as manipulative people who contribute negatively to teams and ventures. However, recent work has shown that Machiavellians can also cooperate and act in pro-social ways in a team context. Thus, some aspects of Machiavellianism might be conducive for teams and team members’ intentions to start a business venture. Most s...
Article
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Proactive people take initiative when others do not and persist in improving their environment or themselves. Although scholars assume that how we feel influences how proactive we are, there is no experimental research yet to support this. This experiment therefore tests whether positive and negative affect influence proactive behavior and addition...
Article
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Analyzing data on 2,057 healthy subjects in the Dutch Lifelines database we explore the relationship between immune system responses, thyroid hormone functioning and people’s mood that is expected to be moderated by social support. We focus (1) on the innate immune system cell count: monocytes, eosinophil granulocytes, basophilic granulocytes, neut...
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We investigate the involvement of Working Memory Capacity (WMC, the cognitive resource necessary for controlled elaborate thinking) in voice behavior (speaking up with suggestions, problems, and opinions to change the organization). While scholars assume voice requires elaborate thinking, some empirical evidence suggests voice might be more automat...
Data
Supplementary materials dual pathways to voice quality. (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
Machiavellians are manipulative and deceitful individuals willing to utilize any strategy or behavior needed to attain their goals. This study explores what occurs when Machiavellian employees have a Machiavellian leader with the same negative, manipulative disposition. We argue that Machiavellian employees have a negative worldview and are likely...
Article
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A person’s ability to form relationships and seek and attain social status affects their chances of survival. We study how anxious and avoidant-attachment styles and subsequent winning or losing affects the testosterone (T) levels of team members playing two status contests. The first is a management game played by teams striving to earn the most p...
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We investigate the relationship between facial attractiveness and athletic prowess. We study the connection between subjective facial attractiveness (measured on a 5-point scale of judged facial attractiveness) and athletes by gender and age of respondents. Five age classes were investigated in Studies 1–5: preadolescents (average age: 8.85 years:...
Article
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Machiavellians can be characterized as goal-driven people who are willing to use all possible means to achieve their ends, and employees scoring high on Machiavellianism are thus predisposed to engage in unethical and organizationally undesirable behaviors. We propose that leadership can help to manage such employees in a way that reduces undesirab...
Article
Self-promotion is a form of impression management aiming to present to others a positive image of oneself by emphasizing one’s strengths, contributions, or accomplishments. In the workplace, self-promotion is often targeted at leaders, with employees trying to show a positive image and impress their leader. Self-promotion does not always impress ob...
Preprint
Full-text available
Proactive people take initiative when others do not and persist in improving their environment or themselves. Although scholars assume that how we feel influences how proactive we are, there is no experimental research yet to support this. This experiment therefore tests whether positive and negative affect influence proactive behavior and addition...
Article
Full-text available
Narcissistic leaders are self-absorbed and hold beliefs of entitlement and superiority. Their aggressive tendencies in the face of criticism and inclinations to validate their self-worth by derogating others may lead others to perceive them as being abusive. Here, we test the relationship between leader narcissism and followers’ perceptions of abus...
Preprint
We investigate the involvement of Working Memory Capacity (WMC, the cognitive resource necessary for controlled elaborate thinking) in voice behavior (speaking up with suggestions, problems, and opinions to change the organization). While scholars assume voice requires elaborate thinking, some empirical evidence suggests voice might be more automat...
Preprint
Full-text available
Extrinsic motivation is assumed to be detrimental to creativity. The goal of the present paper, is to investigate a possible underlying mechanism: distraction by extrinsic rewards for tasks that compete with creativity. In organizations, creativity is often not an employees’ primary task. Creativity is self-initiated (proactive), and competes with...
Article
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We study sales presentation anxiety (SPA) using multilevel analysis of a quasi-natural field experiment: the final exam of an executive training course where sales professionals (n = 128) compete in teams to present an account plan to a critical audience who then ask questions and evaluate their performance. The best team is announced the winner of...
Article
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This study aims to investigate the role of daily vitality as an energy-based mechanism through which sleep quantity and quality relate to proactive behavior. In addition, we propose that daily self-efficacy forms a contingency condition in that self-efficacy facilitates the translation of vitality into proactive behavior. We conducted a 7-day diary...
Article
We investigate and compare how salespersons within an independent-based culture (the Netherlands) and an interdependent-based culture (the Philippines) experience and self-regulate pride that is evoked through praise and recognition by their managers. This self-regulation differentially influences behavior toward customers (through adaptive resourc...
Article
This study explores the role of work engagement as an affective–motivational mechanism through which transformational leadership may relate to proactive behaviour. In line with a resource-based approach (Hobfoll, 1989), we hypothesize that employees only invest resources provided through work engagement into proactivity when job strain is low. Unde...
Article
Machiavellians are said to be manipulative people who reduce the social capital of the organization. Yet some authors note that Machiavellians are also highly adaptive individuals who are able to contribute, cooperate, and use pro-social strategies when it is advantageous to them. Here we study whether transformational leader behavior can stimulate...
Article
Testosterone, a steroid hormone, affects the ability of the prefrontal cortex to regulate the limbic system and therefore has been implicated in a wide range of social behaviors such as facing status challenges, aggression and dominance. Here we use a team-based status game to examine factors that determine the postgame testosterone (T) levels of p...
Article
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This study investigates the relationship between outcome responsibility and employees' well-being in terms of emotional exhaustion. Outcome responsibility is a job demand implying that employees' decisions at work have high material and/or nonmaterial consequences. Previous research indicates that outcome responsibility can have both positive and n...
Article
Over the last decades, research in teams has debated the effects of conflict on team performance. Specifically the empirical evidence on the theoretically positive effects of task conflict has been inconclusive. We argue for a broader definition of team performance to gain better understanding of the effects of conflict in teams. With this study we...
Article
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We took EEG recordings to measure task-free resting-state cortical brain activity in 35 participants under two conditions, alone (A) or together (T). We also investigated whether psychological attachment styles shape human cortical activity differently in these two settings. The results indicate that social context matters and that participants' co...
Article
How employees spend their work time can have important consequences for organizations. Although some research has examined the relationship between human resource management (HRM) and employee absence, we know less about whether HRM also affects employees’ time allocation at work. This study examines the role of perceived HRM and psychological proc...
Article
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We study theory of mind (ToM) and empathic underpinnings of Machiavellianism by use of functional magnetic resonance imaging, where account managers are used as participants in 3 studies. Study 1 finds evidence for activation of the medial prefrontal cortex, left and right temporo-parietal junction, and left and right precuneus regions; all five re...
Article
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Performance appraisals are widely used as an HR instrument. This study among 332 police officers examines the effects of performance appraisals from a behavioral ethics perspective. A mediation model relating justice perceptions of police officers’ last performance appraisal to their work affect, perceived supervisor and organizational support and,...
Article
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Leaders who express an ethical identity are proposed to affect followers’ attitudes and work behaviors. In two multi-source studies, we first test a model suggesting that work engagement acts as a mediator in the relationships between ethical leadership and employee initiative (a form of organizational citizenship behavior) as well as counterproduc...
Article
Two multisource studies address the interactive effects of personal and contextual variables on employees' proactive behavior. In line with previous work, we find positive main effects of transformational leadership, role breadth self-efficacy, and job autonomy on employee proactive behavior (personal initiative in Study 1 and prosocial proactive b...
Article
This study explores how account managers—employees who operate as entrepreneurial customer boundary spanners—obtain intrafirm knowledge (organizational and expertise knowledge) from diverse colleagues so as to develop tailor-made solutions for their customers. Access to intrafirm knowledge is obtained through two independent knowledge-based exchang...
Article
Emotional wisdom is defined as a set of seven dimensions of basic skills and meta-narratives concerning how to regulate emotions within specific domains in such a way that the individual's and firm's well-being are tied together. Using operationalizations of emotional wisdom for salespersons from a wide range of industries (Study 1) and in automoti...
Article
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In most modern workplaces it is not enough for employees to react and adapt to changes in their environment; rather, they need to plan ahead and prepare for potential threats and dangers in the future by taking the initiative today. Research has shown that in general, engaging in proactive behaviour comes with beneficial results. But sometimes empl...
Article
The paper aims to further knowledge of proactive employee behaviour by exploring whether pro-organizational, prosocial, and pro-self focused proactive behaviour can be measured in an empirically distinct manner, and whether these types of proactive behaviour show differential relationships with other variables. Results of two multi- source studies...
Article
This article is an introduction to the Special Section entitled 'Exploring positive, negative and context-dependent aspects of proactive behaviours at work' which features in this issue of Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology is the property of...
Article
The present study examines the criteria used by economic laypeople (N = 380 German citizens) and economists (N = 80 professors or postgraduates in economics) in judging reform measures as illustrated by policies of governmental labor market intervention policies. Results reveal substantial differences between economists and laypeople. Most layperso...
Article
These studies examine employees' emotional reactions to performance feedback from their supervisors as well as subsequent effects on attitudes and (intentions to show) affect-driven work behaviors (counterproductive behavior, turnover, citizenship, and affective commitment). A pre-study (N = 72) illustrates that employees regularly receive performa...
Article
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Bullying is not a specific phenomenon of the school environment. Different forms of verbal victimisation and social manipulation are also common behaviors in internet chatrooms. The present study compares traditional bullying with chatroom bullying. A total of 1,700 pupils of different secondary schools (aged 10 to 19) participated and were asked a...
Article
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Bullying is not a phenomenon exclusive to the school environment. Pupils also become victims of verbal aggression (teasing, threats, insults, or harassment) in the context of internet chatrooms. The present study addresses the following questions: (1) How often does bullying occur in internet chatrooms? (2) Who are the victims of bullying in intern...
Article
Full-text available
Bullying is not a phenomenon exclusive to the school environment. Pupils also become victims of verbal aggression (teasing, threats, insults, or harassment) in the context of internet chatrooms. The present study addresses the following questions: (1) How often does bullying occur in internet chatrooms? (2) Who are the victims of bullying in intern...
Article
Die vorliegende Studie untersucht emotionale Reaktionen von Mitarbeitern auf positives versus negatives Leistungsfeedback von ihrem Vorgesetzten sowie daraus resultierende Handlungstendenzen. Der Fokus liegt auf Extra-Rollen-Verhalten (positiv: Organizational Citizenship Behaviors; negativ: Kontraproduktives Arbeitsverhalten, Kündigungsabsicht). Es...
Article
Using two samples of salespeople, the authors investigate how a combination of general mental ability (GMA) and specific skills and capabilities (social competence and thinking styles) enables salespeople to reach their sales goals. The study finds evidence for an interaction between GMA and social competence. When combined with high social compete...
Article
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Using two different samples of salespeople, the authors investigate how a combination of general mental ability (GMA) and specific skills and capabilities (social competence and thinking styles) allows salespeople to reach their sales goals. The study finds evidence for an interaction between GMA and social competence. If combined with high social...
Article
This paper reports two studies on the relationships between employees' personal initiative, affect and commitment. The results of Study 1 among 390 health care sector employees show that individuals' self-rated personal initiative is related to affect as well as affective commitment to four distinguishable foci, namely the organization, supervisor,...
Article
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The authors study how salespeople cope with social anxiety during customer contacts and find that two tactics, sale perseverance and task concentration, ultimately reduce dysfunctional protective actions. Both coping tactics, however, are differentially moderated by strength of felt physiological sensations and strength of negative expectations and...
Article
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What influence do the personal belief in a just world (i.e., the perception that one usually gets what one deserves) and different kinds of causal attributions have on adjustment to sexual violence? Using a sample of N = 62 victims of sexual aggression (mean age = 21.7) it was shown that respondents were better able to adjust to their experience of...
Article
Full-text available
Study 1 investigates the beneficial effects of experiencing pride. Pride was found to have two different effects. First, it increases salespersons’ performance-related motivations. Specifically, it promotes adaptive selling strategies, greater effort, and self-efficacy. Secondly, it positively affects organizational citizenship behaviors. Study 2...
Article
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We study how salespeople cope with sales call anxiety and find that two tactics ultimately reduce dysfunctional protective actions in selling interactions. That is, situation modification and attentional deployment both moderate the effects of felt physiological sensations and anxiety on protective actions.
Article
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We define emotional competence as a person’s domain-specific working model about how one can appropriately manage one’s emotions within interpersonal situations. Emotional competence is conceived as the integration of seven seemingly unrelated proficiencies: perspective taking, strategic self-presentation of emotions, helping targets of communi...
Article
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Research and development at the nanoscale requires a large degree of integration, from convergence of research disciplines in new fields of enquiry to new linkages between start-ups, regional actors and research facilities. Based on the analysis of two clusters in nanotechnologies (MESA+ (Twente) and other centres in The Netherlands and Minatec in...
Article
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It seldom happens that new firms, new industries, and new business systems need to be developed simultaneously. This, however, is the situation in transition economies such as China. Irrespective of product and technology used, incentives and governance structures need to be formulated that give business endeavours an organisational form. The survi...

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