François Sarrazin

François Sarrazin
Sorbonne Université | UPMC

34.69
 · 
Professor

About

91
Publications
19,460
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Introduction
Within a global interest in conservation biology and conservation ethics, my main focus is on the short and long term viability of translocated populations.

Publications

Publications (91)
Article
We agree with Hulme and Le Roux that invasive species speed up evolution. Although we did not explicitly list invasion in the spectrum of current evolutionary drivers in our Perspective, we classify it as an “alteration of interaction networks and coevolutionary networks” likely to generate
Article
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Most current conservation strategies focus on the immediate social, cultural, and economic values of ecological diversity, functions, and services (1). For example, the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (2) mostly addresses the utilitarian management of biodiversity from local to global scales. However, besides urgen...
Article
We are grateful for the interesting and constructive comments on our article and largely agree with the points raised by the three commenters. If we intend to improve reintroduction biology, the challenge is to overcome the idiosyncratic trajectory of each reintroduced population to understand the basic processes that favour or reduce the conservat...
Article
Despite recent efforts to develop the science of reintroduction biology, there is still no general and broadly accepted definition of reintroduction success. We investigate this issue based on the postulates (1) that successful reintroduction programs should produce viable populations and (2) that reliable assessments of ultimate success require th...
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Reintroductions offer a powerful tool to reverse adverse anthropogenic impacts on biodiversity by restoring extirpated populations within the indigenous range of species. Reintroductions have become popular and have been increasingly used over the last decades. However, this species-centred conservation approach has been criticized for being taxono...
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One of the main factors limiting the acceptance of large carnivores is livestock depredation. Reducing damages on livestock requires understanding how depredation varies in space and time. The conservation of the brown bear (Ursus arctos) population in the Pyrenees offers a relevant study case to illustrate this issue, with a minimum population siz...
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Diclofenac (NSAID) for veterinary use, the same that previously reduced south Asian Gyps vulture populations by nearly 99% in the late 1990s, was approved in Spain in 2013 for cattle, swine and horses. We assessed its availability and the potential exposure to European Griffon Gyps fulvus, Cinereous Aegypius monachus, Egyptian Neophron percnopterus...
Article
Reintroductions offer a powerful tool for reversing the effects of species extirpation and have been increasingly used over recent decades. However, this species-centered conservation approach has been criticized for its strong biases toward charismatic birds and mammals. Here, we investigated whether reintroduced species can be representative of t...
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The habitat suitability index, which reflects spatial variability in species occurrence probability, has been shown to exhibit various contrasting relationships with local demographic performances (survival, productivity) in several species. One proposed explanation for these discrepancies is that the link between the habitat suitability index and...
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The field of biodiversity conservation has recently been criticised as relying on a fixist view of the living world, in which existing species constitute the targets of conservation efforts and simultaneously static states of reference, which is in apparent disagreement with evolutionary dynamics. Here, we argue that the ethical and theoretical fra...
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Natural selection theory suggests that mobile animals trade off time, energy and risk costs with food, safety and other pay-offs obtained by movement. We examined how birds make movement decisions by integrating aspects of flight biomechanics, movement ecology and behaviour in a hierarchical framework investigating flight track variation across sev...
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Alors que le développement des innovations biotechnologiques permet à l’Homme de façonner le vivant à sa main, les impacts négatifs des activités humaines sur la biodiversité à court et long termes n’ont jamais été d’une telle ampleur. Il est urgent de replacer les innovations biotechnologiques dans une perspective évolutive de notre rapport au viv...
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De-extinction, the process of resurrecting extinct species, is in an early stage of scientific implementation. However, its potential to contribute effectively to biodiversity conservation remains unexplored, especially from an evolutionary perspective. 2.We review and discuss the application of the existing evolutionary conservation framework to p...
Research
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These Guidelines are designed to be applicable to the full spectrum of conservation translocations. They are based on principle rather than example. Throughout the Guidelines there are references to accompanying Annexes that give further detail.
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Reply to Watson: "Science without conscience is nothing but ruin to the soul" • François Sarrazin, Professor Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, CNRS, CESCO, UMR 7204, 75005 Paris, France • Other Contributors: o Jane Lecomte, Professor 17 March 2016 We sincerely thank Paul Watson for his enthusiasm for o...
Article
Although senescence has been described for various fitness components in a wide range of animal species, few studies have studied senescence in long-lived species, and little is known about its interactions with environmental variation. Using a 32 year capture-mark-recapture dataset on the griffon vulture Gyps fulvus, we examined the demographic pa...
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Measuring the costs of soaring, gliding and flapping flight in raptors is challenging, but essential for understanding their ecology. Among raptors, vultures are scavengers that have evolved highly efficient soaring-gliding flight techniques to minimize energy costs to find unpredictable food resources. Using electrocardiogram, GPS and acceleromete...
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Feeding stations are commonly used to sustain conservation programs of scavengers but their impact on behaviour is still debated. They increase the temporal and spatial predictability of food resources while scavengers have supposedly evolved to search for unpredictable resources. In the Grands Causses (France), a reintroduced population of Griffon...
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The Near Threatened Eurasian black vulture Aegypius monachus is considered highly threatened in Europe, and the species was reintroduced in France between 1992 and 2004. A total of 53 individuals were released, using two methods: immatures were released from large aviaries at the reintroduction site after a stay of several months (the aviary method...
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Defining habitat selection features and predicting the distribution of species are important for conservation management, and habitat suitability models can provide the statistical framework linking environmental variables to occurrence locations. However, the reliability of such models is restricted for datasets that have limited presence data, wh...
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Capsule Young Griffon Vultures Gyps fulvus suffer intense competition from elders at feeding sites and this reduces their intake rate.Aims To explore the costs and benefits of feeding in groups in Griffon VulturesMethods In a French population of individually marked vultures, we studied by video the dynamics of feeding events and the difference in...
Article
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Capsule Young vultures have better access to food resources at supplementary feeding sites where carcasses are fewer and less predictable, and placed further from colonies.Aims To investigate the impact of the management of supplementary feeding sites on foraging and feeding behaviour in Griffon Vultures Gyps fulvus.Methods With focal and scan samp...
Article
1. In many European countries, private companies are in charge of livestock carcass disposal. In agro-pastoral systems, however, scavengers such as vultures provide an alternative ecological service for disposing of carcasses. 2. By combining interviews with farmers and ecological data from the Grands Causses region (southern France), we developed...
Chapter
IntroductionIs dispersal and habitat selection behaviour considered in translocation programmes?Critical problems associated with dispersal in translocation programmesCritical factors formanaging post-release dispersal of reintroduced individualsIntegrating dispersal and habitat selection behaviour into the pre-release phaseConclusion Acknowledgeme...
Book
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Ce manuel, déjà bien connu en anglais, présente d’une manière synthétique et accessible les fondements et applications de la biologie de la conservation, une discipline qui associe les concepts de l'écologie et de l'évolution afin de répondre aux enjeux de la crise actuelle de la biodiversité. La biologie de la conservation est une discipline qui...
Data
Short-lived establishment failure probabilities of translocated population for two social behaviours and two release methods. (Legend and simulations are similar to Figure 2 with respect to in demographic parameters according the life-cycle). (TIF)
Data
Short-lived species establishment failure and extinction probabilities of translocated and remnant populations for conspecific attraction. (Legend and simulations are similar to Figure 3 with respect to differences in demographic parameters according the life-cycle). (TIF)
Article
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Animal translocations are human-induced colonizations that can represent opportunities to contribute to the knowledge on the behavioral and demographic processes involved in the establishment of animal populations. Habitat selection behaviors, such as social cueing, have strong implications on dispersal and affect the establishment success of trans...
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Griffon Vultures Gyps fulvus are notoriously difficult to age precisely, given their delayed maturity and large inter-individual variation. However assessing the age of young individuals can be important for studies dealing with behaviour, population dynamics and conservation. Using a large sample of individually marked Griffon Vultures of known ag...
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The Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus) is considered to be socially monogamous. However, extra-pair fertilizations are suspected due to observations of extra-pair copulations in some populations. We performed parentage studies based on ten polymorphic microsatellite markers in two reintroduced colonies of Griffon Vulture. Out of 40 genotyped chicks, we...
Article
Long term conservation of ecosystem services requires a deep understanding of their basic processes and the development of tools to assess the effects of human practices on their efficiency. As an example of recy-cling service, we focus on the consumption of livestock carcasses by obligate scavengers, taking the case of vultures which face a dramat...
Conference Paper
Scavenger raptors have always provided men with an essential service by eliminating carrions, and reducing sanitary risks related to it. In the 20th century, vulture populations declined worldwide, in parallel of modifications of pastoral practices and persecutions. In southern France (Grands Causses area), griffon vultures Gyps fulvus were reintro...
Article
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Foraging individuals may use either personal information derived from their own previous experience or social information obtained vicariously. When resources are unpredictable, personal information may be of little use, as illustrated by Gyps vultures that historically rely on unpredictable carrion and social foraging strategies. But human activit...
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It would be much easier to assess the effectiveness of different reintroduction methods, and so improve the success of reintroductions, if there was greater standardization in documentation of the methods and outcomes. We suggest a series of standards for documenting and monitoring the methods and out-comes associated with reintroduction projects f...
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In the context of attested global changes, accurate estimation of whether climatic fluctuations impact on population demographic parameters is needed for adequate management, especially for migratory species. We present a capture–recapture analysis linking survival rates of the vulnerable Lesser Kestrel (Falco naumanni) to annual rainfalls in the S...
Article
Vultures, the only vertebrate obligate scavengers, are currently facing a dramatic worldwide decline with over half of vulture species now classified as threatened. To address this widespread decline, the use of feeding stations has been widely advocated in recovery programs. However, providing food that is more predictable in time and space than n...
Article
Animal movement and habitat selection behavior are important considerations in ecology, and remain a major issue for successful animal reintroductions. However, simple rules are often used to model movement or focus only on intrinsic environmental cues, neglecting recent insights in behavioral ecology on habitat selection processes. In particular,...
Conference Paper
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Previously widely distributed across Eurasia, the lesser kestrel Falco naumanni suffered a dramatic decline throughout its historical distribution range during the last few decades. Interestingly, the causes of the decline of this predominantly insectivorous falcon are still not well established, even though numerous studies have investigated the...
Article
Summary 1. Reintroductions are commonly used for re-establishing self-sustainable populations in formerly inhabited areas. Reintroductions are expensive, and thus, it is worth performing a thorough demo- graphic analysis of current and likely future population trajectories to guide strategic decisions on release policy. 2. Bearded vultures Gypaetus...
Article
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The success of reintroduction programs greatly depends on the amount of mortality and dispersal of the released individuals. Although local environmental pressures are likely to play an important role in these processes, they have rarely been investigated because of the lack of spatial replicates of reintroduction. In the present study, we analyzed...
Article
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It is generally considered that limiting the loss of genetic diversity in reintroduced populations is essential to optimize the chances of success of population restoration. Indeed, to counter founder effect in a reintroduced population we should maximize the genetic variability within the founding group but also take into account networks of natur...
Article
By definition, restoration projects involve small populations, which are subject to demographic, genetic, and environmental stochasticities. Besides its fundamental interest for ecology, the integration of these stochastic factors in population viability models is required to make such models more realistic. In this paper, we report previous attemp...
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In small populations of monogamous species sex ratio bias and sex-skewed demographic traits could lead to higher extinction probabilities than in other mating systems. Therefore a knowledge of bias in sex ratio, mortality and movement would be useful to determine the optimal strategy for sampling founders prior to reintroduction. We used molecular...
Article
Intraspecific competitive behaviours were studied in a reintroduced population of Griffon Vultures Gyps fulvus in order to describe the pattern of competition between ages and sexes, assess the effect of reintroduction on competitive behaviour, and study the potential consequences of food management on competition. There was no evidence for a diffe...
Article
Despite strong empirical evidence of the harmful effects of inbreeding on fecundity, spontaneous recessive deleterious mutations are generally considered as acting on survival only in evolutionary models and population viability analyses. In this study, we modelled a species with separate sexes to assess the effect of selection on fecundity in smal...
Article
The restoration of Griffon Vulture populations has been particularly efficient in Southern France where a natural population in the Pyrenees (Ossau Valley) and five reintroduction programmes (Causses, Navacelles, Baronnies, Verdon and Vercors) have been monitored over the last decades. This monitoring based on marked individuals and breeding pairs...
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We developed an interactive management model for wild and captive populations of the ploughshare tortoise or angonoka, Geochelone yniphora. Interactive management is based on the translocation of individuals between wild and captive populations to simulate a metapopulation. Demographic parameters of one captive and two wild populations of this rare...
Article
Most studies using demographic PVA models in a context of species restoration have concluded that rather than the rate of introduction, the total number of individuals released had the most important significant influence on the chance of success. In this article we use a genetic simulation model including deleterious and adaptive alleles to assess...
Article
We integrated genetics and demography into population modeling in the context of species restorations, in which both the origin of released individuals and the management strategy may influence the success of introduction. Through an explicit individual-based simulation approach, we investigated the effects of the age of released individuals by exp...
Article
Summary • At regional scales, dispersal is known to prevent metapopulation extinction by buffering stochastic processes. Theory predicts that connectivity, through density-dependent dispersal rates, should spatially homogenize population density and synchronize local population dynamics in the long term. However, empirical evidence for the effect o...
Article
We propose an original approach to model the effect of the initial spatial distribution of a reintroduced metapopulation (one-patch release versus multi-patch release) on local adaptation. Genetic and demographic processes are considered to investigate how the different patterns of adaptation resulting from initial conditions affect metapopulation...
Article
Kendall and Fox (2002) examined the effect of varia-tion among individuals on expected survival in rela-tion to the strength of demographic stochasticity.They concluded that if such variation among individu-als exists, then existing population viability analysis(PVA) models may overestimate the variance due todemographic stochasticity in survival....
Article
We model a large population that is subject to successive short bottlenecks, in order to investigate the impact of different extents of immigration on the change in genetic load and on viability. A first simple genetic model uncovers the opposite effects of immigration on fitness according to the type of deleterious mutations considered: immigratio...
Article
We develop a stochastic model of population viability which explicitly links demography and genetics in order to examine the consequences for extinction dynamics of different levels of heritable fitness variance within a population. We particularly focus on situations in which a local small population is artificially built with individuals that wer...
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We radio monitored a hunted, sexually segregated grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population and an unhunted, unsegregated population for demographics and constructed a stage- and age-classified matrix model to test for the effects of adult male mortality and resulting sexual segregation on population growth and persistence. Population parameters in the...
Article
Analysis of population viability of Little Owl (Athene noctua) in the Northern Vosges natural park (north-eastern France). Three small populations of Little Owl (Alsacebossue, Piémont-alsacien, and Pays-de-Bitche) were monitored in the Northern Vosges area from 1984 to 1999. The total population size varied from 19 pairs in 1987 to 9 pairs in 1992,...
Article
1. Bird populations can be efficiently managed only if the demographic mechanisms that cause change are correctly understood. Here we illustrate the demographic variables causing decline among grey partridge Perdix perdix populations in France by comparing populations that show contrasting trends. The analysis combined a field survey at 10 contrast...
Article
Reintroductions are often used for reestablishment of animal populations. The choice of age-class of released individuals, however, is often arbitrary or based on expediency. We developed a demographic model that predicts the relative efficiency of releasing juveniles or adults for a given life cycle. The model accounts for possible reduction of su...