Francois Van Schalkwyk

Francois Van Schalkwyk
Stellenbosch University | SUN · Centre for Research on Science and Technology (CREST)

Doctor of Philosophy

About

65
Publications
13,607
Reads
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335
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2012 - April 2020
African Minds Trust
Position
  • Editor
Description
  • Open access scholarly book publisher.
Education
January 2016 - December 2018
Stellenbosch University
Field of study
  • Science and technology studies
January 2008 - December 2010
University of the Western Cape
Field of study
  • Higher education studies
September 1996 - June 1997
University of Stirling
Field of study
  • Publishing studies

Publications

Publications (65)
Preprint
As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and government-imposed lockdowns, higher education institutions across the globe have had to change the way in which education is provided to millions of students. At the same time, concerns have been expressed that the pandemic may well deepen systemic socioeconomic vulnerabilities and societal divides, includi...
Preprint
Preprints have gained prominence in the dissemination of scientific findings. This development has been reinforced by the Covid-19 pandemic, which continues to require the rapid dissemination of new scientific information. However, since preprints usually have not undergone peer review, they lack the rigor of other scientific publications such as j...
Article
Full-text available
A quarter of a century after South Africa’s transition to democracy, the rhetoric of ‘transformation’ remains firmly ingrained in its higher education policy and discourse. In many of the reviews, reports, proposals, and frameworks on the transformation of the South African university system, one thing stands out: an oversupply of rhetoric and a de...
Article
Full-text available
Postdoctoral research fellows, commonly referred to as ‘postdocs’, are a relatively new type of knowledge worker in the South African higher education landscape. It is estimated that in 2020 there were 2 867 ‘postdocs’ in South African public universities. There is, however, no systematic and comprehensive data on the number of ‘postdocs’ or, for t...
Chapter
Africa is undergoing a remarkable period of transformation. Investment in the continent’s universities are among key measures identified to counter negative development scenarios. While there are encouraging indications of improvement in Africa’s scientific contribution, there is not always the political recognition that research universities are c...
Article
Full-text available
Preprints have gained prominence in the dissemination of scientific findings. This development has been reinforced by the COVID-19 pandemic, which continues to require the rapid dissemination of new scientific information. However, since preprints usually have not undergone peer review, they lack the rigour of other scientific publications such as...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic has provided an extraordinary test case for an analysis of the interrelations between policymakers and scientific experts faced with grave decisions and given the respective levels of trust they enjoy. The article provides a comparative analysis between three countries—Germany, the USA and South Africa (SA)—of the interrelatio...
Preprint
Full-text available
We model the growth of scientific literature related to COVID-19 and forecast the expected growth from 1 June 2021. Considering the significant scientific and financial efforts made by the research community to find solutions to end the COVID-19 pandemic, an unprecedented volume of scientific outputs is being produced. This questions the capacity o...
Research
Full-text available
This paper analyses data on the age structure of academic staff in public universities in South Africa. Various policy documents have expressed concern that the academic staff contingent in the country is ageing, while the postgraduate pipeline is not adequate to allow for the full replacement of those who exist the system through retirement or nat...
Article
Full-text available
This paper analyses data on the age structure of academic staff in public universities in South Africa. Various policy documents have expressed concern that the academic staff contingent in the country is ageing, while the postgraduate pipeline is not adequate to allow for the full replacement of those who exist the system through retirement or nat...
Article
Full-text available
The production and reproduction of knowledge are important components of national development. As student mobility increases, globally and within Africa, so does the national diversity of students as they seek to further their postgraduate studies at the limited number of research universities in Africa. Knowledge migration is inevitably a relation...
Chapter
In exceptional circumstances such as pandemics, the expectation is for policy to be supported by science. However, the lack of scientific consensus during the COVID-19 pandemic places strain on decision making. In this chapter, we focus on COVID-19 effects on children and the public debate around the reopening of schools. The aim is to better under...
Preprint
Full-text available
The production and reproduction of knowledge are important components of national development. As student mobility globally and within Africa increases, so does the national diversity of students as they seek opportunity to further their postgraduate studies at the limited number of research universities on the continent. Knowledge migration is ine...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present a forecasting analysis on the growth of scientific literature related to COVID-19 expected for 2021. Considering the paramount scientific and financial efforts made by the research community to find solutions to end the COVID-19 pandemic, an unprecedented volume of scientific outputs is being produced. This questions the capacity of scie...
Preprint
Full-text available
Situations in which no scientific consensus has been reached due to either insufficient, inconclusive or contradicting findings place strain on governments and public organizations which are forced to take action under circumstances of uncertainty. In this chapter, we focus on the case of COVID-19, its effects on children and the public debate arou...
Article
Full-text available
This paper is a personal reflection that seeks to capture most of the observable changes that have taken place in South Africa and in its public university system as a consequence of the sudden and global spread of the novel coronavirus. The purpose for doing so is to provide a record of how the South African university sector has responded to the...
Chapter
Full-text available
Open data and its effects on society are always woven into infrastructural legacies, social relations, and the political economy. This raises questions about how our understanding and engagement with open data shifts when we focus on its situated use. To shed a light on these questions, Situating Open Data provides several empirical accounts of ope...
Chapter
Full-text available
Data is a valued resource in informational development, prized and exploited by the small and highly advanced sectors of national economies, and could well be described as a new form of capital. Open data -- data free to reuse without any restriction -- are also of value to these exclusive sectors. But it remains an open question who exactly will b...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents an analysis of the anti-vaccination movement’s referencing of research articles on the topic of vaccination in the social media network Twitter. Drawing on the concept of bibliographic coupling, the paper demonstrates how Twitter users can be coupled based on articles mentioned on Twitter. The sample applied consists of 113 open...
Article
University academics face multiple pressures to publish. These pressures emanate from contexts with different, often competing, social norms, which result in academics publishing for reasons that may run counter to accepted scientific practice. This paper asks what decisions are being taken by academics when it comes to their choice of scholarly bo...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter deals especially with the risks posed to science communication when using social media. It examines the use of social media by the anti-vaccination movement in the context of communication networks, trust, open science and the norms of science. The research sought to create an empirically-based understanding of a fast-changing digital...
Conference Paper
This paper presents an analysis of the anti-vaccination movement’s interactions with open access scholarly papers on Twitter. By using tweeter coupling analysis combined with data on the stance of Twitter accounts, the networks and sub-networks of tweeters around the debate of anti-vaccination and autism are plotted, analysed and discussed. The mai...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The has been a shift in the discourse regarding the role of the university in development on the African continent. It is now widely accepted that for a country to thrive, it must develop high-level skills and competencies (human capital), as well as its scientific research, innovation and technological development capacity. Flagship universities i...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter from the book The State of Open Data is one of several which explores the various roles of the major stakeholders that have shaped the development of the open data ecosystem, including civil society, government, the private sector, journalists, researchers, donors, and multilateral agencies. The chapter offers the author's perspective...
Preprint
Full-text available
The literature on data and economic rights is not vast. This is primarily because rights advocates and researchers have paid more attention to the relationship between data and privacy than between data and economic rights. In this paper we review the literature that is available with an inevitable overreliance of certain contributions because of t...
Thesis
Full-text available
There is persistent pressure on science to be more open. But for all the fervour, scant attention has been paid to the full gamut of the potentials of openness, both positive and negative. These potentials are, in many cases, linked to open access to the formal communications of science made possible by digitisation, the internet and developments i...
Chapter
The study focuses on the openness of judicial data in seven countries in Latin America. The judiciary continues to be among the least willing institutions to implement policies on transparency and access to information, generally because of their conservative tradition and lack of accountability practices. The study adopted an exploratory design in...
Preprint
Full-text available
At this point in human history, it is a truism to describe digital technology in general and the internet in particular as having a pervasive and profound impact on the development of humankind. So much so, that Castells and Himanen (2014) propose a new mode of development -- informational development -- that drives material wealth creation in the...
Book
From the early 2000s, a new discourse emerged, in Africa and the international donor community, that higher education was important for development in Africa. Within this zeitgeist of converging interests, a range of agencies agreed that a different, collaborative approach to linking higher education to development was necessary. This led to the es...
Book
Full-text available
From the early 2000s, a new discourse emerged, in Africa and the international donor community, that higher education was important for development in Africa. Within this ‘zeitgeist’ of converging interests, a range of agencies agreed that a different, collaborative approach to linking higher education to development was necessary. This led to the...
Data
Performance data on students, staff and research outputs for 8 aspirant research universities in Africa: University of Botswana, University of Cape Town, University of Dar es Salaam, Eduardo Mondlane University, University of Ghana, Makerere University, University of Mauritius and University of Nairobi. Data is for the years 2001 to 2015 and consis...
Book
Full-text available
Tensions in South African universities have traditionally centred around equity (particularly access and affordability), historical legacies (such as apartheid and colonialism), and the shape and structure of the higher education system. What has not received sufficient attention, is the contribution of the university to place-based development. Th...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter suggests that sufficient imagination about the role of the university as a place-based actor, in conjunction with conditions of institutional embeddedness and normative alignment of university-community engagement, are minimum requirements for place-specific engagement. To explore this process of alignment and institutional conditions...
Article
Full-text available
This article investigates the current status and challenges faced by university presses in Africa, looking particularly at the institutional perspective. Four case studies from Ethiopia, Kenya, and South Africa show how different presses adapt their practices and adopt new technologies. Interpreted through an institutional logics perspective, the s...
Data
Student, staff, research and financial performance data for South African public universities from 2009 to 2016.
Article
Full-text available
This paper suggests that sufficient imagination about the role of the university as a place-based actor, in conjunction with conditions of institutional embeddedness and normative alignment of university-community engagement, are minimum requirements for place-specific engagement. To explore this process of alignment and institutional conditions in...
Chapter
Full-text available
This introductory chapter outlines some reflections on current developments in the field, and considers how they may affect the state of open data and open data research in the years to come. It describes a wide variety of trends – some positive, some more cautionary. If there is one overarching message, it is that for all the excitement and hype,...
Book
Full-text available
The Social Dynamics of Open Data is a collection of peer reviewed papers presented at the 2nd Open Data Research Symposium (ODRS) held in Madrid, Spain, on 5 October 2016. Research is critical to developing a more rigorous and fine-combed analysis not only of why open data is valuable, but how it is valuable and under what specific conditions. The...
Chapter
Full-text available
The study focuses on the openness of judicial data in seven countries in Latin America. The judiciary continues to be among the least willing institutions to implement policies on transparency and access to information, generally because of their conservative tradition and lack of accountability practices. The study adopted an exploratory design in...
Research
Full-text available
An Empirical Overview of Emerging Research Universities in Africa 2001–2015 is the latest publication in which the Centre for Higher Education Trust’s Higher Education Research and Advocacy Network in Africa (Herana) project reports on data and indicators for a group of eight emerging research universities in Africa. The report consists primarily o...
Book
Full-text available
Castells in Africa: Universities and Development collects the papers produced by Manuel Castells on his visits to South Africa, and publishes them in a single volume for the first time. The book also publishes a series of empirically-based papers which together display the multi-faceted and far-sighted scope of his theoretical framework, and its fe...
Chapter
Full-text available
Smallholder farmers generate much of Ghana’s agricultural production. However, they have only limited access to important information that underlies increasingly complex global food chains, and this prevents them from fully maximizing the value of their crops. Esoko, a company operating in Ghana, sought to address this problem by using multiple dat...
Chapter
Full-text available
In 2014, Code for South Africa, a South Africa-based non-profit organization active in the open data space, took a little-known dataset from the national Department of Health website and created the Medicine Price Registry Application (MPRApp, https://mpr.code4sa.org/), an online tool that allows patients to compare medicine prices. MPRApp allows p...
Article
This paper offers a more socially nuanced approach to open data intermediaries using the theoretical framework of Bourdieu’s social model, particularly his species of capital. Secondary data on intermediaries from Emerging Impacts of Open Data in Developing Countries research was analysed according to a working definition of an open data intermedia...
Article
Full-text available
Open data practice is gaining momentum in the public sector and civil society as an important mechanism for sharing information, aiding transparency, and promoting socio-economic development. Within this context, licensing is a key legal mechanism that enables re-use without sanction. However, there is evidence of a “licensing deficit” and this r...
Article
Full-text available
Open data have the potential to improve the governance of universities as public institutions. In addition, open data are likely to increase the quality, efficacy and efficiency of the research and analysis of higher education systems by providing a shared empirical base for critical interrogation and reinterpretation. Drawing on research conducted...
Article
Civil society organizations (CSOs) are investing in new technologies and are increasingly working in networks and coalitions (such as Open Parliament, Open Contracting and Open Government) to develop standards for effective accountability through transparency and disclosure. These initiatives hold the promise of transforming the way government and...
Article
Full-text available
The roles of intermediaries in open data is insufficiently explored; open data intermediaries are often presented as single and simple linkages between open data supply and use. This synthesis research paper offers a more socially nuanced approach to open data intermediaries using the theoretical framework of Bourdieu’s social model, in particular,...
Article
Full-text available
This is the second research project in which the Centre for Higher Education Transformation'€™s Higher Education Research and Advocacy Network in Africa (HERANA) project collected data on eight African 'flagship' universities. The report describes the collecting and analysis of cross-national higher education data for the group of eight '€˜flagshi...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the flow of open data using the case of public university governance in South Africa. It reveals two different forms of open data supply from the same closed, government dataset. The paper argues that supply and demand should not be separated in open data research, that the shape of the open data supplied is informed by demand,...

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Cited By

Projects

Projects (8)
Project
Science communication is carried out by a multitude of organisations and actors with a wide range of motives and interests, all competing for attention in a saturated and competitive information environment. In such an environment, universities as the primary sites of knowledge production, as well as other science organisations, may well be tempted to engage in attention-seeking communication strategies to the detriment of the objective and balanced communication of science. In other words, universities may purposefully blur the distinction between different types of science communication. The danger is that the public is unable to identify and distinguish the different motives and, as a consequence, the credibility of science communication is at stake. Science communication is becoming general policy at universities and science organisations, particularly those that rely on funding from government and donor organisations. At the same time, competition among science organisations has led to an inflationary development of science communication rhetoric and formats. Rarely is the rhetoric put to test or are different formats evaluated for their effectiveness. Nor are science organisations able to articulate clearly the purpose of the communication strategies and how they align with the primary functions of the organisation as knowledge producer. There is also a lack of understanding about science communication by science organisations other than universities and large science organisations. Thus, the empirical underpinning of science communication rhetoric by science organisations across the spectrum is a pressing research objective.
Project
To develop a conceptual framework and a set of indicators that reflect the health of the South African higher education system and, in particular, of the country's research universities, as central contributors to the national science system.
Project
To understand whether and how the anti-vaccination movement is using two products of open science -- open access journal articles and open research data -- to bolster its ideologically-charged communications through the use of online social networks.