Francois Raulin

Francois Raulin
Université Paris-Est Créteil Val de Marne - Université Paris 12 | UPEC · Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques (LISA)

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Publications

Publications (516)
Article
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The aim of this article is to provide the reader with an overview of the different possible scenarios for the emergence of life, to critically assess them and, according to the conclusions we reach, to analyze whether similar processes could have been conducive to independent origins of life on the several icy moons of the Solar System. Instead of...
Article
The exploration and use of outer space is the province of all humankind. This principle in Article I of the UN Outer Space Treaty guarantees the freedom to explore outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, without discrimination, and to carry out scientific investigations. This freedom, however, comes with a responsibility describ...
Article
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Return of samples from the surface of Mars has been a goal of the international Mars science community for many years. Strategies for the collection of such samples have ranged from “grab and go” acquisition from the surface, to dust collection in the atmosphere, to scientific selection by geologically capable rovers. As comprehension of the comple...
Article
Full-text available
Return of samples from the surface of Mars has been a goal of the international Mars science community for many years. Affirmation by NASA and ESA of the importance of Mars exploration led the agencies to establish the international MSR Objectives and Samples Team (iMOST). The purpose of the team is to re‐evaluate and update the sample‐related scie...
Article
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This report requested by the International Mars Exploration Working Group (IMEWG). Return of samples from the surface of Mars has been a goal of the international Mars science community for many years. Affirmation by NASA and ESA of the importance of Mars exploration led the agencies to establish the international MSR Objectives and Samples Team (i...
Book
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Executive Summary: Return of samples from the surface of Mars has been a goal of the international Mars science community for many years. Affirmation by NASA and ESA of the importance of Mars exploration led the agencies to establish the international MSR Objectives and Samples Team (iMOST). The purpose of the team is to re-evaluate and update the...
Article
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The entry of the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft into orbit around Saturn in July 2004 marked the start of a golden era in the exploration of Titan, Saturn's giant moon. During the Prime Mission (2004–2008), ground-breaking discoveries were made by the Cassini orbiter including the equatorial dune fields (flyby T3, 2005), northern lakes and seas (T16, 2...
Chapter
The second ExoMars mission will be launched in 2020 to target an ancient landing site interpreted to possess a strong potential for preserving the physical and chemical biosignatures of fossil martian microorganisms, if they existed there. The mission will deliver a lander with instruments designed for atmospheric and geophysical investigations and...
Article
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The second ExoMars mission will be launched in 2020 to target an ancient location interpreted to have strong potential for past habitability and for preserving physical and chemical biosignatures (as well as abiotic/prebiotic organics). The mission will deliver a lander with instruments for atmospheric and geophysical investigations and a rover tas...
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This paper describes strategies to search for, detect, and identify organic material on the surface and subsurface of Mars. The strategies described include those applied by landed missions in the past and those that will be applied in the future. The value and role of ESA's ExoMars rover and of her key science instrument Mars Organic Molecule Anal...
Article
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ABSTRACT The COmetary Secondary Ion Mass Analyser instrument on board ESA!s Rosetta mission has collected dust particles in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko. During the early-orbit phase of the Rosetta mission, particles and particle agglomerates have been imaged and analyzed in the inner coma at distances between 100 km and 10 km off th...
Article
The COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy describes requirements for different planetary protection categories depending on the type of mission, the target body and the type of scientific investigations [1]. Updating the COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy is an iterative process that involves the scientific community. This process is based on new scie...
Article
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Comets harbor the most pristine material in our solar system in the form of ice, dust, silicates, and refractory organic material with some interstellar heritage. The evolved gas analyzer Cometary Sampling and Composition (COSAC) experiment aboard Rosetta's Philae lander was designed for in situ analysis of organic molecules on comet 67P/Churyumov-...
Article
Comets harbor the most pristine material in our solar system in the form of ice, dust, silicates, and refractory organic material with some interstellar heritage. The evolved gas analyzer Cometary Sampling and Composition (COSAC) experiment aboard Rosetta’s Philae lander was designed for in situ analysis of organic molecules on comet 67P/ Churyumov...
Article
Since Bishun Khare's pioneer works on Titan tholins, many studies have been performed to improve the experimental database of the optical constants of Titan tholins. The determination of the optical constants of Titan aerosols is indeed essential to quantify their capacity to absorb and scatter solar radiation, and thus to evaluate their role on Ti...
Conference Paper
In this paper data recorded by the Cometary Sampling and Composition experiment (COSAC), a pyrolysis - gas-chromatograph - mass-spectrometer (pyr GC-MS) aboard Philae are presented. After landing in a somewhat non-nominal way on the cometary nucleus of 67/P, Philae carried out its First Science Sequence. As part of these activities COSAC acquired s...
Article
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The study of the evolution of organic matter subjected to space conditions, and more specifically to Solar photons in the vacuum ultraviolet range (120–200 nm) has been undertaken in low-Earth orbit since the 1990s, and implemented on various space platforms. This paper describes a photochemistry experiment called AMINO, conducted during 22 months...
Article
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The scientific aim of the present campaign is to study the whole chain of methane photo-degradation, as initiated by Solar vacuum-ultraviolet irradiation in Titan's atmosphere. For this purpose, the AMINO experiment on the EXPOSE-R mission has loaded closed cells for gas-phase photochemistry in space conditions. Two different gas mixtures have been...
Article
Full-text available
The study of the evolution of organic matter subjected to space conditions, and more specifically to solar photons in the vacuum ultraviolet range (120-200 nm) has been undertaken in low Earth Orbit since the 90’s, and implemented on various space platforms. The most recent exposure facilities are BIOPAN outside the Russian automatic capsules FOTON...
Article
Saturn's moons, Titan and Enceladus, are two of the Solar System's most enigmatic bodies and are prime targets for future space exploration. Titan provides an analogue for many processes relevant to the Earth, more generally to outer Solar System bodies, and a growing host of newly discovered icy exoplanets. Processes represented include atmospheri...
Article
With the European Space Agency's Rosetta space mission to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, a gas chromatograph, part of the COmetary Sampling And Composition (COSAC) experiment, travelled for about 10 years in the interplanetary medium before operating at the surface of the cometary nucleus in November 2014. During its journey in space, the instrum...
Article
Titan's environment hosts a complex organic chemistry that can be investigated from the Earth-based laboratory experiments. One of the key astrobiological questions of Titan's environment is the fate of the organic aerosols produced in the atmosphere, after they are deposited on the surface. In the present study, we report the geological structures...
Article
Full-text available
The JamesWebb Space Telescope is slated for launch in 2018. Working primarily in the infrared, the James Webb will search for the first bright objects of the early Universe, examine how galaxies evolve, study the birth and development of stars, and investigate the physical properties of star systems as they relate to the building blocks of life. An...
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The Curiosity rover discovered fine-grained sedimentary rocks, which are inferred to represent an ancient lake and preserve evidence of an environment that would have been suited to support a martian biosphere founded on chemolithoautotrophy. This aqueous environment was characterized by neutral pH, low salinity, and variable redox states of both i...
Article
The European Space Agency’s Rosetta mission was launched in March 2004 in order to reach comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko by August 2014. The Cometary Sampling and Composition experiment (COSAC) onboard the Rosetta mission’s lander “Philae” has been designed for the cometary in situ detection and quantification of organic molecules using gas chromat...
Article
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Sedimentary rocks examined by the Curiosity rover at Yellowknife Bay, Mars, were derived from sources that evolved from an approximately average martian crustal composition to one influenced by alkaline basalts. No evidence of chemical weathering is preserved, indicating arid, possibly cold, paleoclimates and rapid erosion and deposition. The absen...
Article
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Sedimentary rocks at Yellowknife Bay (Gale crater) on Mars include mudstone sampled by the Curiosity rover. The samples, John Klein and Cumberland, contain detrital basaltic minerals, calcium sulfates, iron oxide or hydroxides, iron sulfides, amorphous material, and trioctahedral smectites. The John Klein smectite has basal spacing of ~10 angstroms...
Article
H2O, CO2, SO2, O2, H2, H2S, HCl, chlorinated hydrocarbons, NO, and other trace gases were evolved during pyrolysis of two mudstone samples acquired by the Curiosity rover at Yellowknife Bay within Gale crater, Mars. H2O/OH-bearing phases included 2:1 phyllosilicate(s), bassanite, akaganeite, and amorphous materials. Thermal decomposition of carbona...
Conference Paper
Titan, the largest moon of Saturn, is known for its dense and nitrogen-rich atmosphere. The organic aerosols which are produced in Titan’s atmosphere are objects of astrobiological interest. In this paper we focus on their potential chemical evolution when they reach the surface and interact with putative ammonia-water cryomagma[1]. Figure 1: The...
Article
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The ChemCam instrument, which provides insight into martian soil chemistry at the submillimeter scale, identified two principal soil types along the Curiosity rover traverse: a fine-grained mafic type and a locally derived, coarse-grained felsic type. The mafic soil component is representative of widespread martian soils and is similar in compositi...
Article
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“Jake_M,” the first rock analyzed by the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer instrument on the Curiosity rover, differs substantially in chemical composition from other known martian igneous rocks: It is alkaline (textgreater15% normative nepheline) and relatively fractionated. Jake_M is compositionally similar to terrestrial mugearites, a rock type...
Article
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Stable isotope ratios of H, C, and O are powerful indicators of a wide variety of planetary geophysical processes, and for Mars they reveal the record of loss of its atmosphere and subsequent interactions with its surface such as carbonate formation. We report in situ measurements of the isotopic ratios of D/H and O-18/O-16 in water and C-13/C-12,...
Article
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Volume mixing and isotope ratios secured with repeated atmospheric measurements taken with the Sample Analysis at Mars instrument suite on the Curiosity rover are: carbon dioxide (CO2), 0.960(±0.007); argon-40 (⁴⁰Ar), 0.0193(±0.0001); nitrogen (N2), 0.0189(±0.0003); oxygen, 1.45(±0.09) × 10⁻³; carbon monoxide, < 1.0 × 10⁻³; and ⁴⁰Ar/³⁶Ar, 1.9(±0.3)...
Conference Paper
The study of the habitable conditions in the outer solar system tends to enlarge the limits of the traditional habitable zone. Several of the icy moons show such promising conditions for the development and/or maintenance of life [1]. Jupiter’s Europa, Callisto and Ganymede as well as Saturn’s Titan and Enceladus, seem to satisfy many of the “class...
Article
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Observations by the Mars Science Laboratory Mast Camera (Mastcam) in Gale crater reveal isolated outcrops of cemented pebbles (2 to 40 millimeters in diameter) and sand grains with textures typical of fluvial sedimentary conglomerates. Rounded pebbles in the conglomerates indicate substantial fluvial abrasion. ChemCam emission spectra at one outcro...
Conference Paper
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Overview of results from Curiosity's Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation during the first 120 martian sols are summarized.
Article
The first results obtained by the ACP experiment onboard Huygens probe revealed that the main products obtained after thermolysis of Titan's collected aerosols, were ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Titan's aerosols, and their laboratory analogues named tholins, have been the subject of experimental or theoretical studies during the last f...
Article
The SAM Instrument data is analyzed to search for the possible presence of nitrates in the global dust collected from the Rocknest location at Gale Crater.
Conference Paper
Chapter 1: Introduction.- Chapter 2: Nitrogen in Solar System Minor Bodies.- Chapter 3: A Mathematic Approach to Nitrogen Fixation Through Earth History.- Chapter 4: Stability of Earth-like N2 Atmospheres.- Chapter 5: Hot Super Earth Atmospheres.- Chapter 6: The Nitrogen Chemistry in Hot Jupiter's Atmosphere.- Chapter 7: Implication of Impacts in t...
Conference Paper
The early setting and evolution of planetary atmospheres of rocky planets is a hot, but still immature research topic. A better understanding of the processes at work at that early epoch in the history of our solar system is certainly required, particularly at this historical juncture when we are just discovering the first exoplanets similar to Ear...
Chapter
The Cassini–Huygens mission has revealed a very active and diverse Saturnian system in which several satellites show promising conditions for habitability and the development and/or maintenance of life. Titan, for example, is the only other body in the solar system besides Earth to possess a dense atmosphere composed essentially of nitrogen (97 %)...
Article
Full-text available
The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) addresses the chemical and isotopic composition of the atmosphere and volatiles extracted from solid samples. The SAM investigation is designed to contribute substantially to the mission goal of quantitatively assessing the habitability of Mars as an essential step...
Article
On 10 July 2010 the Rosetta spacecraft flew-by asteroid Lutetia. At that time all the mass spectrometers in the payload of the Philae Lander capable of gas analysis were in operation. Among these, the COSAC (Cometary Sampling and Composition) experiment is a gas-chromatograph mass spectrometer which was switched on twice during the fly-by, once 3 h...
Article
Full-text available
The PROCESS (PRebiotic Organic ChEmistry on the Space Station) experiment was part of the EXPOSE-E payload outside the European Columbus module of the International Space Station from February 2008 to August 2009. During this interval, organic samples were exposed to space conditions to simulate their evolution in various astrophysical environments...
Article
Full-text available
The search for organic molecules at the surface of Mars is a top priority of the next Mars exploration space missions: Mars Science Laboratory (NASA) and ExoMars (ESA). The detection of organic matter could provide information about the presence of a prebiotic chemistry or even biological activity on this planet. Therefore, a key step in interpreta...
Article
Full-text available
Titan, the largest satellite of Saturn, is the only one in the solar system with a dense atmosphere. Mainly composed of dinitrogen with several % of methane, this atmosphere experiences complex organic processes, both in the gas and aerosol phases, which are of prebiotic interest and within an environment of astrobiological interest. This tutorial...
Chapter
The Saturn system includes several planetary bodies of interest for astrobiology especially Titan and Enceladus. As clearly shown by the many data obtained from the Cassini-Huygens mission, Titan presents important aspects in that field: many analogies with the Earth, the presence of a complex and active organic chemistry, and the potential for lif...
Article
Titan's environment hosts a complex organic chemistry that can be investigated from the Earth-based laboratory experiments. One of the key astrobiological questions of Titan's environment is the fate of the organic aerosols produced in the atmosphere, after they are deposited on the surface. In the present study, we report the geological structures...