Francois Nemo

Francois Nemo
Université d'Orléans | UO · Laboratoire ligérien de linguistique

Professor

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88
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356
Citations
Citations since 2016
46 Research Items
131 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022051015202530
2016201720182019202020212022051015202530
2016201720182019202020212022051015202530
2016201720182019202020212022051015202530
Introduction
Francois Nemo currently works at the Université d'Orléans.UMR CNRS 7270. His research in Semantics, Pragmatics, Morphology and Prosody focuses on: - prosody and interpretation (word-level + injonctives) - morpheme semantics and lexematization (transformation of morphemes into lexemes) - polymorphy & induced interlexical relationships (lock/close/occlusion). - research and field lexicography in French Guyana, mostly on Palikur (Arawakan-Maipurean) - contributions and contributional sequences

Publications

Publications (88)
Presentation
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When conversion coexists with lexical differentiation. Non-exponency revisited. While it is frequently assumed that the alternative to conversion is exponent-based category change, it will first be shown, both in theoretical and empirical terms, that relations between lexical «pairs» such as noun/verb pairs for instance cannot be reduced to an opp...
Presentation
Full-text available
La communication a pour objet de montrer que si les descriptions de la "polysémie" de si en français ne sont apparemment compatibles qu'avec l'existence de si homonymiques, il est possible d'identifier des présupposés morphémiques partagés par les emplois dits contrastifs et ceux qui ne le sont pas.
Presentation
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Si l’on peut caractériser les constructions dites corrélatives comme des constructions interprédicatives dans lesquelles la relation entre deux prédications est rendue syntaxiquement obligatoire par la présence de locutions ou lexèmes discontinus, on peut observer que ces derniers sont construits à partir des mêmes morphèmes pour les constructions...
Presentation
Parmi les questions qui sont au cœur de l’interface entre lexique et grammaire, se trouve la question de la différentiation lexicale, autrement dit de l’existence de relations interlexicales entre lexèmes de catégories différentes (verbes, noms, prépositions) qui ne relèvent pas de la dérivation affixale ou de la zéro-dérivation (ni de l’allomorphi...
Presentation
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We approach lexical differentiation both as a language-internal issue and as a typological one in word-class typology. We recall first that in word-class typology, assuming that all affixes have been removed and zero-derivations excluded: - differentiated lexicons are lexicons in which lexical units used as predicates(verbs), terms (nouns), predic...
Presentation
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Whereas indexicality is often conceived as a property of a specific class of semiotically-defined signs, the presentation - following notably Pierre Cadiot’s (1994) seminal work on the role of indexicality in the polysemy of nouns and subsequent works (e.g. Nemo, 2003) – describes it as inherent to the relationship between minimal signs and non-min...
Presentation
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While much focus has been put on semantic change in diachrony, notably concerning grammaticalization and pragmaticalization the issue of semantic continuity has remained notably under considered. As a consequence, homonymic degrouping in diachrony, i.e. the fact that semantic change at some points my lead to the absence of any form of semantic cont...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
While much focus has been put on semantic change in diachrony, notably concerning grammaticalization and pragmaticalization the issue of semantic continuity has remained notably under considered. As a consequence, homonymic degrouping in diachrony, i.e. the fact that semantic change at some points my lead to the absence of any form of semantic cont...
Presentation
Full-text available
Comparing Lexicons: A Typology of the Morpheme/Lexeme Relationship In the comparison of lexicons, a recurrent difficulty is associated with the fact that if is frequently the case that at some point a choice must ultimately be made between identifying minimal semantic signs as such or identifying minimal signs as grammatically-defined minimal sign...
Presentation
Full-text available
Comparing lexicons: �a typology of the morpheme/lexeme relationship
Poster
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Approaches of semantics which are based ultimately on truth-conditions have largely ignored morphemes as too problematic to be dealt with. In many cases however, it is both the case that their contribution to the meaning of lexemes can be clarified and that the same is true, as a consequence, of their contribution to the interpretation of utteranc...
Poster
Full-text available
A Truth-Conditional Account of the Morpheme/Lexeme and Morpheme/Utterance Relationships
Conference Paper
Theories of lexicons are as much theories of interlexical relationships as they are theories about the nature of individual lexical items. Interlexical relationships fall into three categories, namely purely semantic relationships, relationships associated with the presence of one word into another word, and relationships based on the sole sharing...
Preprint
Non-derivational relationships between units which are neither semantically autonomous nor autonomous in terms of form play a major role in lexical differentiation and hence in lexicons, where they create networks of lexemes based on such morphosemantic overlaps (called lexical nexuses). The volume, after describing the linguistic base of such rela...
Preprint
La question du rapport entre lexique et référence recouvre de très nombreuses questions qui s'organisent autour d'une question centrale et simple, qui est celle de savoir si l'atomicité inévitable des référents implique celle du lexique lui-même. Aborder cette question supposant de comprendre le rapport entre lexèmes et morphèmes ainsi que les lien...
Article
Full-text available
Construction du sens : un modèle instructionnel pour la sémantique. Peter Lang. 2017. 294 pages. ISBN : 978-3-034-32570-7. Lu par François NEMO Université d'Orléans- Laboratoire ligérien de linguistique Longtemps considérées séparément, les questions de la construction du sens des énoncés à partir des éléments qui la composent et celles de la poly...
Presentation
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In order to discuss the existence or inexistence of morphemes with a transcategorial distribuion such as the morpheme /tant/ in French, we first introduce the notion of semantic autonomy as what has to be tested to establish if cognates have become semantically autonomous units/listemes or not. We then present methods to test semantic autonomy in d...
Presentation
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Our aim will be to illustrate with a case study the way morphemes contribute to the representation of alternatives associated with the uttered sentences and sequences in which they are used and the way such morphemic constraints are combined with one another. In utterances, alternative sets and possible worlds appear to be associated mostly with pr...
Presentation
Full-text available
After clarifying the notion of full (denominative) categorization and observing that the nouns used as denominative labels do not allow as such to achieve full categegorization but provide a pre-categorization. I show that morphemes and lexemes used as denominative labels undergo a semantic denominative narrowing by becoming names, with the morphem...
Presentation
Full-text available
La question du rapport entre lexique et référence recouvre de très nombreuses questions. Pour l’essentiel cependant, elles s’organisent autour d’une question centrale, celle de savoir si l’atomicité inévitable des référents implique celle du lexique lui-même. Sont donc abordées quatre questions : conduit à aborder quatre questions : - la question d...
Article
Full-text available
L'objet de l'article est de montrer ce que des décennies de recherches patientes sur la nature du signifié peuvent apporter à une linguistique du signifiant, en montrant la nécessité d'adopter une conception stratifiée (et plurisémique) du signifié, et une conception plurimorphique du signifiant comme association d'une forme externe et d'une forme...
Chapter
Over the course of a long history stretching back to the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, via the arbitration in 1900 of the Franco-Brazilian border dispute, the Palikur (or Parikwene) have been divided between France and Brazil. This community, considered autochtonous in that it existed in the same place at the time of the Europeans’ arrival, now inhabi...
Article
The article presents a morphemic account of transcategoriality, with detailed illustrations (e.g. English but and even, French encore, tout, meme, Latin to French morpheme /tant/) of the approach. After making explicit the paradigmatic differences between exoskeletal and endoskeletal approaches, and showing that ultimately it can be summarized in t...
Presentation
Full-text available
The idea that Saussure arbitrariness of (minimal) signs makes it necessary for linguists to axiomatize the non-iconicity of words has long been taken for granted, and has provided an hostile settings for any claim that form and meaning could be intertwined at word-level. My aim will be to show that the conflation of the notions of (minimal) sign an...
Presentation
Full-text available
The modeling and theorizing of the semantic/pragmatic interface has for decades been centered on the sentence/utterance relationship (e.g. Grice, Récanati), with sentence being defined in strictly syntactic terms and the main issue to decide being the determination of the output of the syntactic module, prior to utterance interpretation. In the pa...
Article
The article presents a morphemic account of transcategoriality, with detailed illustrations (e.g. English but and even, French encore, tout, même, Latin to French morpheme /tant/) of the approach. After making explicit the paradigmatic differences between exoskeletal and endoskeletal approaches, and showing that ultimately it can be summarized in t...
Presentation
Full-text available
Because speaking is ultimately a matter of attracting attention on something and asking the addressee to take into account, as acknowledged in various contemporary pragmatic theories, it is possible to show that semantic categorization, far from being a pragmatic-free cognitive process regulated by cognitive mechanism of perception (e.g. Berlin & K...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
My starting point will be a discussion of the way, in the history of the interpretations of the saussurean notion of arbitrariness of the sign, the notion of sign has been assimilated with the notion of word, before in more recent times to become associated with a strictly morphemic forms of arbitrariness. The aim of my intervention will thus be pr...
Chapter
Full-text available
As language endangerment depends more on the speakers' desire and ability to continue speaking a language than on the size of a linguistic community, the aim of this study will be to show that regardless of the self-proclaimed attachment to a language, lexical competence appears to be related to the reduction of various areas of language use. Based...
Poster
The handout provides illustrations of the results obtained by the approach described in poster
Conference Paper
The aim of this study is to evaluate the ability of local or global prosodic features in achieving a classification task of word’s uses. The use of French word “oui” in spontaneous discourse can be identified as belonging to the class “convinced (CV)”or “lack of conviction (NCV)”. Statistics of classical prosodic patterns are considered for the cla...
Presentation
Our aim will be to show that biological classification nomenclatures can be much better understood once the pragmatic constraints associated with in-situ identification and discursive characterization are spelled out, and once the cultural common ground which backs the different systems of classification, including the scientific taxonomic one, are...
Chapter
Quiconque entend croiser deux questions aussi vastes et complexes que la question de la métaphore et la question de l’argumentation est confronté à deux difficultés majeures, à savoir de ne pas trop simplifier les deux questions tout en montrant comment elles s’articulent et s’éclairent mutuellement. Ayant consacré beaucoup de temps à ces deux ques...
Chapter
The article’s aim is to show how the modelization of market interactions could be greatly improved by taking into account some of the parameters which have proved to be crucial to the understanding of the relation between language and information. Namely their performative, attentional and sequential dimensions. After describing these dimensions a...
Chapter
Full-text available
Cerca de três línguas e povos da Guiana e do Brasil, o artigo discute a questão tradicional das etno-classificações do mondo vivo e o que elas revelam sobre a relação entre homens e animais. O artigo apresenta as três comunidades e as bases pragmática e semântica do trabalho de análise da diversidade das práticas classificatórias (padrões denominat...
Article
1 Introduction As language endangerment depends more on the speakers' desire and ability to continue speaking a language than on the size of a linguistic community, the aim of this study will be to show that regardless of the self-proclaimed attachment to a language, lexical competence appears to be related to the reduction of various areas of lang...
Article
This paper introduces the importance of prosodic constraints on interpretation in the understanding of the semantic/pragmatic interface and the linguistic marking and lexicalization of pragmatic meanings. It addresses this issue at word and utterance levels, after defining the notions of non-structural prosody and free lexical prosody. At word leve...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The importance for morphology of the way the semantics of morpheme is understood (or misunderstood) cannot be underestimated. After being considered initially as both a semantic and combinatorial brick of language since Baudoin de Courtenay (1895), the morphological and semantic status of morphemes has been a much disputed issue in both contempor...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is to show, in relation with Pierre-Yves Raccah’s work, the general existence of a specific interpretative layer, linguistically built to a large extent and which concerns the marking and lexicalization of viewpoints. After recalling the distinction between polysemy and plurisemy (defined as the multi-layered interpretation as...
Chapter
Based on our fieldwork on Palikur (Arawakan) in French Guyana this paper discusses the need to devote more time and energy to documenting the lexicons of endangered languages (EL) and the urgent need to focus on the parts of the lexicon subject to strong lexical erosion, in order to allow the transmission of saved knowledge to younger generations....
Book
Full-text available
Il s’agira dans cet article, d’une part, de montrer que l’étude de la négation est inséparable d’une théorie de l’énoncé (et en ce sens qu’elle ne peut donner lieu à aucun traitement propositionnel) et, d’autre part, de montrer que le sens des énoncés dépendant directement de ce qui les rend faux, qui s’avère varier d’une énonciation-type à l’autre...
Article
Full-text available
The fish fauna of French Guiana is one of the best described in the geographical area covering the Guiana Shield. Paradoxically, however, there is no summary document validated by ethnologists and specialized linguists that links the scientific names of the fish of this area to their vernacular names from the different language groups. In this pape...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
When working with oral speech, the issue of natural meaning processing can be improved using easily available prosodic information. Only recently, semanticists have started to consider that the prosodic features could play a key role in the interpretation and classification of different word's uses. In this work, we propose a prosodic based automat...
Conference Paper
The paper discusses the relationship between prosody and argumentation in the interpretation of what is said, its role in the determination of the argumentative orientation of utterances and the description of argumentative exchanges. It also discusses the wider implications of such a role for argumentation studies as a whole and for specific model...
Article
Full-text available
The paper adresses the issue of well-formedness of lexical items, notably of so-called listemes. It shows that such words, which are often described as non-grammatically (and/or semantically) predictable, remain most of the time fully interpretable. It is thus shown that ar word-level, well-formedness is a matter of interpretability and not a matte...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
When it comes to endangered minority languages, lexicography is faced with specific limits and challenges. Based on our field lexicography experience and on the writing of a Palikur (Arawakan, French Guyana) dictionary, this paper aims to present some of the shortcomings of dictionary production, and what should and could be done to address the spe...
Article
When it comes to endangered minority languages, lexicography is faced with specific limits and challenges. Based on our field lexicography experience and on the writing of a Palikur (Arawakan, French Guyana) dictionary, this paper aims to present some of the shortcomings of dictionary production, and what should and could be done to address the spe...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We discuss here the way the integration of sound files in lexical-lexicographical entries, which is made possible by the electronic nature of e-dictionaries, opens a new frontier in lexicographical work, by making possible the integration of prosodic features in the description of words. We start by showing the relevance of prosody at a lexical lev...
Article
Full-text available
Montrer que le passage de la distinction binaire classique entre signification et sens héritée de Benveniste à une distinction ternaire identifiant entre la signification et le sens, une étape de profilage, est d’autant plus importante qu’elle éclaire une large part de ce que nous allons appeler la plurisémie de l’interprétation et ce faisant rend...
Article
Full-text available
Situer le travail de Pierre Cadiot, c’est reconnaître qu’à l’opposé des linguistiques de flux comme la grammaire générative, qui croient pouvoir réduire la sémantique à la seule étude de la combinatoire des éléments lexicaux présupposés, il considère que rendre compte de la génération du lexique est une tache incontournable de la linguistique, ce q...
Article
Une étude des situations d’obtention des formes de passage d’une langue à l’autre dans les pratiques linguistiques des Palikurs, en interrogeant simultanément ces pratiques d’alternance, à tous les niveaux langagiers ou linguistiques.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is to show that the instability of the form/meaning relationship, instead of being a curse for linguistics, should be considered as a unique window into the nature of semantic mechanisms, and may indeed be predicted. Showing that such a reality holds for all semantic levels, i.e. from morphological constructions to discursive...
Article
Full-text available
Revue de Sémantique et Pragmatique. 2009. Numéro 25-26. pp. 97-119. Le propos de l'article est de montrer qu'une sémantique explicative ne peut pas et ne doit pas, quand elle se donne pour objet de rendre compte de la diversité des emplois des unités sémantiques, prendre telle ou telle valeur comme une donnée de départ, à partir de laquelle les au...
Chapter
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La question de la polysémie est rarement posée quand sont dépassées les frontières catégorielles, même si elle l’a été dès le début de la sémantique linguistique par Benveniste, qui, après avoir élaboré la distinction signification/sens, indique dans « Problèmes sémantiques de la reconstruction » (1966 [1954], 301) que « la différence de sens et la...
Article
Full-text available
Revue de Sémantique et Pragmatique Parler de la place du sens en linguistique, c'est poser une question très vaste qui n'a commencé à être posée sérieusement qu'à la fin des années soixante, tant le sens apparaissait jusque-là comme quelque chose de trop insaisissable pour donner lieu à un travail scientifique. Il ne s'agit d'ailleurs pas ici de di...
Article
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Revue de Sémantique et Pragmatique. 2004. Numéro 15-16. pp. 19-40 A partir de la distinction entre signification/sens et les notions d’instructions et d’indications, il est possible de nommer trois niveaux de stabilisation sémantique à savoir : – les morphèmes, comme paires forme/signification existant indépendamment des constructions et des con...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
More than a century after the first linguistic definition of the notion of morpheme by Baudoin de Courtenay (1895) and Sweet (1876), an ever-lasting debate – which I shall refer here as the "Morpheme or Lexeme" (M or L) debate – on the nature of linguistic bricks is still going on. Since a by-product of this debate is terminological confusion in th...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is to propose what we call an indexical-indicial theory of lexical meaning. The diversity of uses of individual words calls for a conception where only relational properties are coded. Contextual interpretations (which can of course be conventionnal and specifically memorized) are values over such coded functions.
Article
The aim of this paper is to propose what we call an indexical-indicial theory of lexical meaning. The diversity of uses of individual words calls for a conception where only relational properties are coded. Contextual interpretations (which can of course be conventionnal and specifically memorized) are values over such coded functions.
Article
Full-text available
A morphemic-indicational description of English but (and French mais) is proposed, showing that the uses of but whose closer equivalents (and French translation) are almost, except, only, and without, together with the considerable variety of its connective uses, may be accounted for within a single semantic description. It is shown that but and ma...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We are presenting here a generative account of the French lexemes balayer (to sweep) and balayage (sweeping), based on extensive data mining from newspapers data-bases. We are showing that i) these words are routinely used to refer to the most diverse kinds of referents ri ii) a semantic function f(m,c) allows to account for all (m,ri) pairs; i...
Conference Paper
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To answer a question such as the question of the autonomy of morphology from syntax, we need to measure precisely what part of the data a non-autonomous morphology can account for. We need also to understand what part of the data cannot be accounted for within any combinatory perspective, and why. As for these three new questions, my general claim...
Article
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La signification lexicale est souvent conçue, au moins partiellement, en termes de description ou, dans notre terminologie, de propriétés intrinsèques (PI). Nous explorons ici l'hypothèse inverse que le mot (notamment le nom) renvoie directement aux types de relations, 1° que le locuteur entretient avec les référents variés que tel mot lui permet d...
Conference Paper
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Article
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P. Cadiot et F. Némo : Pour une sémiogenèse du nom Lexical signification is often conceived, at least partially, in terms of a description or, in our terminology, in terms of intrinsic properties (IP). In this article we explore an opposite hypothesis that words (most notably nouns) invoke directly those types of relations : 1. which a given word a...

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Project
The MsO database documents interlexical relationships, i.e. relations between lexemes within a lexicon, which are mostly not derivational and which are always based on lexical differenciation, allowing semantically-related lexemes to share both a large part of their meaning and form, even as their meaning and forms are differentied. Complete documentation of such morphosemantic overlaps will be achieved for French and English lexicons, with Spanish only starting.