François Leblanc

François Leblanc
Sorbonne Université | UPMC

About

280
Publications
23,005
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6,356
Citations
Citations since 2017
69 Research Items
3382 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600

Publications

Publications (280)
Preprint
Full-text available
We introduce a new flexible one-dimensional photochemical model named Photochemical and RadiatiOn Transport model for Extensive USe (PROTEUS), which consists of a Python graphical user interface (GUI) program and Fortran 90 modules. PROTEUS is designed for adaptability to many planetary atmospheres, for flexibility to deal with thousands of or more...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Lunar Orbital Platform-Gateway (LOP-Gateway, or simply Gateway) is a crewed platform that will be assembled and operated in the vicinity of the Moon by NASA and international partner organizations, including ESA, starting from the mid-2020s. It will offer new opportunities for fundamental and applied scientific research. The Moon is a unique lo...
Article
Full-text available
In this study we present the observation of Mercury’s inner southern magnetosphere and surrounding regions, never previously explored, as detected by the two ion sensors of the instrument package: ‘Search for Exospheric Refilling and Emitted Natural Abundances’ (SERENA), named ‘Planetary Ion CAMera’ (PICAM) and ‘Miniaturized Ion Precipitation Analy...
Preprint
Full-text available
The escape and precipitation of planetary ions at Mercury under different solar wind conditions have been examined using a global hybrid simulation. The combination of Mercury’s weak intrinsic magnetic field and solar wind conditions at Mercury’s location results in the formation of a relatively small magnetosphere compared to that of Earth. Its ma...
Article
We simulate the seasonal variations of the Mg 285.3 nm and Ca 422.7 nm brightness and compared our results to the MESSENGER/MASCS observations at dawn. Our results are consistent with the previous studies of Ca while for Mg we used another seasonal variation for the g -value (excitation frequency) at 285.3 nm. We find that both emissions are well r...
Article
Full-text available
Ionospheric Pedersen and Hall conductances play significant roles in electromagnetic coupling between the planetary ionosphere and magnetosphere. Several observations and models have suggested the existence of meteoric ions with interplanetary origins in the lower part of Jupiter’s ionosphere; however, no models have considered the contributions of...
Preprint
Full-text available
The ESA-JAXA BepiColombo mission will provide simultaneous measurements from two spacecraft, offering an unprecedented opportunity to investigate magnetospheric and exospheric dynamics at Mercury as well as their interactions with the solar wind, radiation, and interplanetary dust. Many scientific instruments onboard the two spacecraft will be comp...
Article
Full-text available
Plain Language Summary A solar flare is a sudden outburst on the Sun which releases radiation and energetic particles. The abrupt radiation enhancement can strongly increase the frequency by which neutral atoms in Mercury's thin atmosphere are ionized. We use a model of the flare radiation spectrum and a new ion density model to study how a strong...
Article
Full-text available
The Solar Energetic Particle and imaging ultraviolet spectrograph (IUVS) instruments onboard the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft discovered diffuse aurora that span across the nightside of Mars due to the interaction of solar energetic particles (SEPs) with the Martian atmosphere. However, it is unclear whether the diffuse...
Article
Full-text available
Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) plans a Phobos sample return mission (MMX: Martian Moons eXploration). In this study, we review the related works on the past climate of Mars, its evolution, and the present climate and weather to describe the scientific goals and strategies of the MMX mission regarding the evolution of the Martian surface...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this White Paper submitted to ESA's Voyage 2050 call is to get a more holistic knowledge of the dynamics of the Martian plasma system from its surface up to the undisturbed solar wind outside of the induced magnetosphere. This can only be achieved with coordinated multi-point observations with high temporal resolution as they have...
Article
Full-text available
Photo-ionization of Mercury’s tenuous exosphere contributes to the heavy ion population in the Hermean environment. Observations with the MESSENGER Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer (FIPS) have revealed the ion density and spatial distribution of the three most abundant planetary ions or ion groups around Mercury: The Na⁺-group (mass-per-charge rati...
Article
Full-text available
Martian atmospheric neon (Ne) has been detected by Viking and also found as trapped gas in Martian meteorites, though its abundance and isotopic composition have not been well determined. Because the timescale of Ne loss via atmospheric escape estimated from recent measurements with MAVEN is short (0.6–1 × 108 years), the abundance and isotope comp...
Article
Full-text available
Volatiles and refractories represent the two end-members in the volatility range of species in any surface-bounded exosphere. Volatiles include elements that do not interact strongly with the surface, such as neon (detected on the Moon) and helium (detected both on the Moon and at Mercury), but also argon, a noble gas (detected on the Moon) that su...
Article
Europa is the closest and probably the most promising target to search for extant life in the Solar System, based on complementary evidence that it may fulfil the key criteria for habitability: the Galileo discovery of a sub-surface ocean; the many indications that the ice shell is active and may be partly permeable to transfer of chemical species,...
Article
Full-text available
A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-021-00809-8
Article
Full-text available
The ESA-JAXA BepiColombo mission to Mercury will provide simultaneous measurements from two spacecraft, offering an unprecedented opportunity to investigate magnetospheric and exospheric particle dynamics at Mercury as well as their interactions with solar wind, solar radiation, and interplanetary dust. The particle instrument suite SERENA (Search...
Article
Executive Summary In this White Paper we propose that NASA works with ESA and other potentially interested international partners to design and fly jointly an ambitious and exciting planetary mission to characterize Europa’s habitability and search for bio-signatures in the environment of Europa (surface, subsurface and exosphere). By choosing the...
Presentation
The Mercury plasma environment is enriched in planetary ions from the tenuous neutral exosphere. The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) time-of-flight spectrometer Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer (FIPS) has revealed important clues about the absolute ion density and spatial distribution of three major planeta...
Article
Full-text available
We discuss the influence of the solar wind dynamic pressure on the ion precipitation using observations performed by MAVEN from 4 June 2014 to 20 July 2017. The increase of the dynamic pressure from 0.63 to 1.44 nPa is clearly associated with an increase of the same order of magnitude of the precipitating oxygen ion energy flux measured by MAVEN/ST...
Article
Full-text available
The ESA-JAXA BepiColombo mission will provide simultaneous measurements from two spacecraft, offering an unprecedented opportunity to investigate magnetospheric and exospheric dynamics at Mercury as well as their interactions with the solar wind, radiation, and interplanetary dust. Many scientific instruments onboard the two spacecraft will be comp...
Article
Ganymede's surface is subject to constant bombardment by Jovian magnetospheric and Ganymede's ionospheric ions. These populations sputter the surface and contribute to the replenishment of the moon's exosphere. Thus far, estimates for sputtering on the moon's surface have included only the contribution from Jovian ions. In this work, we have used o...
Article
Full-text available
The SIMBIO-SYS (Spectrometer and Imaging for MPO BepiColombo Integrated Observatory SYStem) is a complex instrument suite part of the scientific payload of the Mercury Planetary Orbiter for the BepiColombo mission, the last of the cornerstone missions of the European Space Agency (ESA) Horizon + science program.The SIMBIO-SYS instrument will provid...
Article
Full-text available
The Bepi-Colombo mission was launched in October 2018, headed for Mercury. This mission is a collaboration between Europe and Japan. It is dedicated to the study of Mercury and its environment. It will be inserted into Mercury orbit in December 2025 after a 7-year long cruise. Probing of Hermean Exosphere By Ultraviolet Spectroscopy (PHEBUS) is an...
Article
Ganymede's neutral and plasma environments are poorly constrained by observations. Carnielli et al. (2019) developed the first 3D ionospheric model aimed at understanding the dynamics of the present ion species and at quantifying the presence of each component in the moon's magnetosphere. The model outputs were compared with Galileo measurements of...
Article
Full-text available
On 19 October 2014, Mars experienced a close encounter with Comet C/2013 A1 Siding Spring. Using data from the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS) on board Mars Express (MEX), we assess the interaction of the Martian ionosphere with the comet's coma and possibly magnetic tail during the orbit of their closest approac...
Article
We have simulated the 3D atomic hydrogen density in the Martian upper atmosphere and associated Jeans escape rate during Martian years 28 and 29. The coronal Lyman-α brightness is computed using a 3D radiative transfer model which accounts for the monthly average hydrogen density for these two years and is compared to a large set of observations by...
Article
Full-text available
In this work we revisit an event observed by Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution MissioN in the solar wind where the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) rotates around the Mars‐Sun axis during ∼6 min. Based on a time‐dependent LATMOS Hybrid Simulation, we determine recovery timescales of the dayside Martian magnetosphere normalized by the IMF va...
Poster
Full-text available
The weak magnetic field, tenuous atmosphere and close distance from the Sun makes Mercury more susceptible to solar transients than other terrestrial planets. For this reason short-term variations in Mercury's sodium exosphere have been associated with the passage of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) [5, 2, 4] and solar flares [1]. Helium ion enhanceme...
Preprint
Full-text available
White Paper in response to the ESA's Voyage-2050 Call
Preprint
Full-text available
The objective of this White Paper submitted to ESA's Voyage 2050 call is to get a more holistic knowledge of the dynamics of the Martian plasma system from its surface up to the undisturbed solar wind outside of the induced magnetosphere. This can only be achieved with coordinated multi-point observations with high temporal resolution as they have...
Article
Full-text available
Suprathermal electron depletions are structures of the nightside ionosphere of Mars resulting from an equilibrium between electron loss and creation processes. Photoionization of oxygen and carbon dioxide by UV and EUV photons is the main ionization process of the Martian atmosphere. The observation of suprathermal electron depletions is strongly u...
Article
Full-text available
We study the influence of the solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) flux intensity on the precipitating ion fluxes as seen by the Solar Wind Ion Analyzer, an energy and angular ion spectrometer aboard the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft. We defined three periods with significantly different EUV flux intensity (1.6 and 3.2 times...
Article
Full-text available
The Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS) on board Mars Express, which operates between 0.1 and 5.5 MHz, suffered from a complete blackout for 10 days in September 2017 when observing on the nightside (a rare occurrence). Moreover, the Shallow Radar (SHARAD) onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, which operates at 20...
Article
Full-text available
Dedicated in situ measurements of Mars' exospheric Ar density by Neutral Gas Ion Mass Spectrometer/Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (NGIMS/MAVEN) highlight profiles displaying two slopes altitude variation. Below 230 km, the Ar density is characterized by scale height of 13.5 ± 1.7 km and above 400 km by scale height of 156 ± 25 km. A compari...
Poster
Full-text available
Mercury exhibits a tenuous and nearly collisionless surface-bounded exosphere, which demonstrates large variations over the span of a single orbit around the Sun. The sodium content has been shown to be especially variable, with global asymmetries between dawn/dusk and north/south. These are accompanied by more rapid changes on a timescale of a few...
Article
We present the first three-dimensional multi-species ionospheric model for Ganymede, based on a test particle Monte Carlo approach. Inputs include the electromagnetic field configuration around the moon from the magnetospheric models developed by Leclercq et al. (2016) and by Jia et al. (2009), and the number density, bulk velocity and temperature...
Article
The evolution of Europa's water-product exosphere over its 85-h day, based on current models, has not been shown to exhibit any diurnal asymmetries. Here we simulate Europa's exosphere using a 3-D Monte Carlo routine including, for the first time, the role of Europa's rotation on the evolution of exospheric molecules tracked throughout the orbit. I...
Article
Full-text available
The early prediction and subsequent detection of an \(\mbox{O}_{2}\) atmosphere on Europa, coupled with the discovery that Europa has an ocean under its ice mantle, has made this moon a prime astrobiologic target, soon to be visited by the JUICE and Europa Clipper spacecraft. In spite of the considerable number of observational, modeling, and labor...
Article
Full-text available
In this work, we study the influence of the September 2017 solar event on the precipitating heavy ion fluxes toward Mars' atmosphere as seen by Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN/Solar Wind Ion Analyzer, an energy and angular ion spectrometer and by Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN/Suprathermal and Thermal Ion Composition instrument, an e...
Conference Paper
One of the potential drivers of Mars' past atmospheric evolution is its escape to space following Mars' interaction with the solar radiation flux and solar wind. To understand how the solar mass and energy can lead to the erosion of the atmosphere is one of the main goals of the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution MissioN (MAVEN mission. Among t...
Article
Full-text available
This paper is a phenomenological description of multi‐spacecraft observations of energetic particles caused by the close flyby of comet C/2013 A1 Siding‐Spring with Mars on 19 October 2014. This is the first time that cometary energetic particles have been observed at Mars. The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) Solar Energetic Particle...
Article
To complement Hisaki's ultraviolet monitoring of the Io plasma torus, a ground-based campaign assembled a comprehensive data set at visible wavelengths with the ARC 3.5-m telescope at Apache Point Observatory. This work concentrates on the bright S⁺ emissions in these data. Recurrent traits in the intensity and location are discerned as a function...
Article
The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN Mission (MAVEN) is currently probing the complex Martian environment. Although main structures arising from the interaction between the solar wind (SW) and the induced magnetosphere of Mars can be described using a steady state picture, time-dependent physical processes modify the response of this obstacle...
Article
The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft observed a strong interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) reaching Mars on 13 September 2017. In this work we analyze the interaction between such an extreme event and the Martian-induced magnetosphere by means of Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux et Observations Spatiales Hybrid Simu...
Article
We present the effects of the local magnetic field configurations on ions precipitating into the upper atmosphere of Mars using Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) observations. Precipitating pickup planetary heavy ions (O⁺, O⁺2, and CO⁺2) are of particular interest in the Martian plasma environment because they potentially enhance the s...
Preprint
The early prediction and subsequent detection of an O$_2$ atmosphere on Europa, coupled with the discovery that Europa has an ocean under its ice mantle, has made this moon a prime astrobiologic target, soon to be visited by the JUICE and Europa Clipper spacecraft. In spite of the considerable number of observational, modeling, and laboratory effor...
Preprint
The evolution of Europa's water-product exosphere over its 85-hour day, based on current models, has not been shown to exhibit any diurnal asymmetries. Here we simulate Europa's exosphere using a 3-D Monte Carlo routine including, for the first time, the role of Europa's rotation on the evolution of exospheric molecules throughout the orbit. We foc...
Article
We simulate the hydrogen density near the exobase of Mars, using the 3-D Martian Global Circulation Model of Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, coupled to an exospheric ballistic model to compute the downward ballistic flux. The simulated hydrogen distribution near the exobase obtained at two different seasons-Ls = 180° and Ls = 270°-is close t...
Article
Mars likely lost a significant part of its atmosphere to space during its history. The sputtering of the atmosphere, by precipitating planetary heavy pickup ions accelerated by the solar wind, is one of the processes that could have significantly contributed to this atmospheric escape, in particular since the cessation of its global magnetic field,...
Article
We use a simple analytic model to examine the effect of the atmospheric source properties on the spatial distribution of a volatile in a surface-bounded atmosphere on a satellite that is tidally-locked to its planet. Spatial asymmetries in the O2 exosphere of Europa observed using the Hubble Space Telescope appear to reveal on average a dusk enhanc...
Article
Ganymede's atmosphere is produced by radiative interactions with its surface, sourced by the Sun and the Jovian plasma. The sputtered and thermally desorbed molecules are tracked in our Exospheric Global Model (EGM), a 3-D parallelized collisional model. This program was developed to reconstruct the formation of the upper atmosphere/exosphere of pl...
Article
Full-text available
Model studies of the ionosphere of Mars under daytime conditions reveal that for solar zenith angles (SZAs) of 0o-40o, the shapes and magnitudes of the electron density profiles Ne(h) change by only small amounts. This suggests that mid-day observations made by MAVEN instruments along slanted orbit segments can be used to represent vertical profile...
Article
Full-text available
Photochemical escape of atomic oxygen is thought to be one of the dominant channels for Martian atmospheric loss today and played a potentially major role in climate evolution. MAVEN is the first mission capable of measuring, in situ, the relevant quantities necessary to calculate photochemical escape fluxes. We utilize 18 months of data from three...