François Keck

François Keck
Eawag: Das Wasserforschungs-Institut des ETH-Bereichs | Eawag · Department of Aquatic Ecology

PhD

About

45
Publications
16,230
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1,271
Citations

Publications

Publications (45)
Article
Freshwaters worldwide face serious threats, making their protection increasingly important. Freshwater monitoring has historically produced valuable data and continues to develop. Rapid improvements to biomolecular techniques are revolutionizing the way scientists describe biological communities and are bringing about major changes in biomonitoring...
Article
Full-text available
Diatoms include a great diversity of taxa and are recognized as powerful bioindicators in rivers. However using diatoms for monitoring programs is costly and time consuming because most of the methodologies necessitate species-level identification. This raises the question of the optimal trade-off between taxonomic resolution and bioassessment qual...
Article
Diatom taxonomy has evolved in recent years, with many new species described and new approaches such as molecular genetics showing the existence of cryptic diversity within currently accepted species. This cryptic diversity is not well understood even for common freshwater genera such as Fragilaria and Ulnaria. The purpose of our study was to defin...
Article
Full-text available
Ciliates are unicellular heterotrophic organisms that play a key role in aquatic planktonic and benthic food webs. Advances in sedimentary DNA (sed-DNA) analysis offer the possibility to integrate these bioindicators in paleoenvironmental reconstructions. In this study, we used the top–bottom paleolimnological approach and metabarcoding techniques...
Article
Full-text available
Monitoring biodiversity is essential to understand the impacts of human activities and for effective management of ecosystems. Thereby, biodiversity can be assessed through direct collection of targeted organisms, through indirect evidence of their presence (e.g. signs, environmental DNA, camera trap, etc.), or through extrapolations from species d...
Article
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DNA metabarcoding is increasingly used for the assessment of aquatic communities, and numerous studies have investigated the consistency of this technique with traditional morpho‐taxonomic approaches. These individual studies have used DNA metabarcoding to assess diversity and community structure of aquatic organisms both in marine and freshwater s...
Preprint
Full-text available
Monitoring freshwater biodiversity is essential to understand the impacts of human activities and for effective management of ecosystems. Thereby, biodiversity can be assessed through direct collection of targeted organisms, through indirect evidence of their presence (e.g. signs, environmental DNA, camera trap, etc.), or through extrapolations fro...
Preprint
Full-text available
Ciliates are unicellular heterotrophic organisms that play a key role in the planktonic and benthic food webs of lakes, and represent a great potential as bioindicator. In this study, we used the top-bottom paleolimnological approach to compare the recent and past (i.e. prior to major anthropogenic impacts) ciliate communities of 48 lakes located a...
Article
Our study evaluates differences in the distribution and ecology of genetic variants within several ecologically important diatom species that are also key for Water Framework Directive monitoring of European rivers: Fistulifera saprophila (FSAP), Achnanthidium minutissimum (ADMI), Nitzschia inconspicua (NINC) and Nitzschia soratensis (NSTS). We use...
Preprint
Full-text available
Assessment of the diversity and composition of biological communities is central to studies in ecology as well as for ecological monitoring. Historically, individual taxonomic groups have been assessed separately, while for an understanding of the state and change of biodiversity under ongoing global change an integrated assessment would be necessa...
Article
Full-text available
Land-use imposes an important potential threat on the aquatic ecosystems of riverine habitats. In this study, DNA metabarcoding was used to assess the effect of land-use on diatom assemblages, with a special focus on cropland area as an integrative proxy for several direct-acting pressures. The so-called taxonomy-free approach was tested using exac...
Article
With the democratization of molecular biology, more and more ecologists are required to analyse complex datasets including biological sequences. I present the R package bioseq, a comprehensive toolset to handle biological sequences in R. The package implements three classes to work with DNA, RNA and amino acid sequences. Biological sequences are st...
Article
Full-text available
• Arctic freshwaters support biota adapted to the harsh conditions at these latitudes, but the climate is changing rapidly and so are the underlying environmental filters. Currently, we have limited understanding of broad‐scale patterns of Arctic riverine biodiversity and the correlates of α‐ and β‐diversity. • Using information from a database set...
Article
Full-text available
Long-term time series have provided evidence that anthropogenic pressures can threaten lakes. Yet it remains unclear how and the extent to which lake biodiversity has changed during the Anthropocene, in particular for microbes. Here, we used DNA preserved in sediments to compare modern micro-eukaryotic communities with those from the end of the 19t...
Article
Full-text available
A decade after environmental scientists integrated high‐throughput sequencing technologies in their toolbox, the genomics‐based monitoring of anthropogenic impacts on the biodiversity and functioning of ecosystems is yet to be implemented by regulatory frameworks. Despite the broadly acknowledged potential of environmental genomics to this end, tec...
Article
Full-text available
Comprehensive assessments of contemporary diatom distributions across the Arctic remain scarce. Furthermore, studies tracking species compositional differences across space and time, as well as diatom responses to climate warming, are mainly limited to paleolimnological studies due to a lack of routine monitoring in lakes and streams across vast ar...
Preprint
Full-text available
A decade after environmental scientists integrated high-throughput sequencing technologies in their toolbox, the genomics-based monitoring of anthropogenic impacts on biodiversity and ecosystems is yet to be implemented by regulatory frameworks. Despite the broadly acknowledged potential of environmental DNA and RNA to cost-efficiently and accurate...
Article
Full-text available
Classical biomonitoring techniques have focused primarily on measures linked to various biodiversity metrics and indicator species. Next-generation biomonitoring (NGB) describes a suite of tools and approaches that allow the examination of a broader spectrum of organizational levels—from genes to entire ecosystems. Here, we frame 10 key questions t...
Article
Full-text available
Recent years provided intense progression in the implementation of molecular techniques in a wide variety of research fields in ecology. Biomonitoring and bioassessment can greatly benefit from DNA metabarcoding and High-Throughput Sequencing (HTS) methods that potentially provide reliable, high quantity and quality standardized data in a cost- and...
Article
Full-text available
Despite important progress, uncertainty persists regarding the ecological forces driving microbial community assembly. Here, we present the first study to use phylogenetic information to interpret the structure and diversity of diatom communities. We examined local phylogenetic divergence and beta- phylogenetic diversity in a large dataset of 595 f...
Article
Full-text available
Diatoms are known to be efficient bioindicators for water quality assessment because of their rapid response to environmental pressures and their omnipresence in water bodies. The identification of benthic diatoms communities in the biofilm, coupled with quality indices such as the Indice de polluosensibilité spécifique (IPS) can be used for biomon...
Article
This paper explores the diversity and taxonomy of species within Fragilaria sensu stricto, an abundant and ecologically important diatom genus, taking advantage of cultured and DNA‐barcoded material. The goal is to facilitate identification of European taxa within this complex, providing a unified view on morphological and molecular diversity. Ther...
Article
Full-text available
Freshwater ecosystems are continuously affected by anthropogenic pressure. One of the main sources of contamination comes from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents that contain wide range of micro- and macropollutants. Chemical composition, toxicity levels and impact of treated effluents (TEs) on the recipient aquatic ecosystems may strongly...
Technical Report
Full-text available
CAFF Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program State of Arctic Freshwater Biodiversity Report.
Article
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Sötvatten (www.havochvatten.se/sotvatten17). Authors: Maria Kahlert, Bonnie Bailet & Francois Keck, SLU (2018) In Swedish. About the recent developments of metabarcoding for environmental assessment and diversity analyses, with a focus on diatoms and Swedish monitoring programs.
Article
DNA metabarcoding has been introduced as a revolutionary way to identify organisms and monitor ecosystems. However, the potential of this approach for biomonitoring remains partially unfulfilled because a significant part of the sampled DNA cannot be affiliated to species due to incomplete reference libraries. Thus, biotic indices which are based o...
Article
Full-text available
Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) are the main sources of a broad spectrum of pharmaceuticals found in freshwater ecosystems. These pollutants raise environmental health concerns because of their highly bioactive nature and their chronic releases. Despite this, pharmaceuticals' effects on aquatic environments are poorly defined. Biofilms represent...
Article
Diatoms are used routinely to assess pollution level in rivers and lakes. Current methods are based on identification by light microscopy, which is laborious. An alternative is to identify species based on short DNA fragments and High–Throughput Sequencing (HTS). However a potential limitation is the incomplete coverage of species in reference barc...
Article
Aim 1. To disentangle the effects of local environmental conditions and space at multiple scales in order to uncover and explain biogeographical signals in microbial communities of freshwater diatoms. 2. To assess the role of species traits related to dispersal capacities in diatom biogeography. Location Rivers and streams of Sweden sampled over a...
Article
Full-text available
Diatoms are used as indicators of freshwater ecosystems integrity. Developing diatom-based tools to assess impact of herbicide pollution is expected by water managers. But, defining sensitivities of all species to multiple herbicides would be unattainable. The existence of a phylogenetic signal of herbicide sensitivity was shown among diatoms and s...
Thesis
Les diatomées sont des micro-algues largement utilisées pour évaluer la qualité écologique des milieux aquatiques. La grande majorité des indices biotiques utilisant les diatomées sont basés sur la sensibilité à la pollution des espèces. Cela constitue un frein à leur utilisation car l’identification taxonomique au niveau de l’espèce est complexe,...
Article
Full-text available
Diatoms are micro-algal indicators of freshwater pollution. Current standardized methodologies are based on microscopic determinations, which is time consuming and prone to identification uncertainties. The use of DNA-barcoding has been proposed as a way to avoid these flaws. Combining barcoding with next-generation sequencing enables collection of...
Article
Full-text available
Phylogenetic signal is the tendency for closely related species to display similar trait values as a consequence of their phylogenetic proximity. Ecologists and evolutionary biologists are becoming increasingly interested in studying the phylogenetic signal and the processes which drive patterns of trait values in the phylogeny. Here, we present a...
Article
Diatoms include a great diversity of taxa and are recognized as powerful bioindicators of freshwater quality. However using diatoms for bioassessment is costly and time consuming, because most of the indices necessitate species-level identification. Simplifying diatoms-based assessment protocols has focused the attention of water-managers and resea...
Article
Hospital wastewaters (HWW) contain wider spectrum and higher quantity of pharmaceuticals than urban wastewaters (UWW), but they are generally discharged in sewers without pretreatment. Since traditional urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) are not designed to treat HWWs, treated effluents may still contain pollutants that could impair receiving...
Article
Phylogeny has not yet been fully accepted in the field of ecotoxicology, despite studies demonstrating its potential for developing environmental biomonitoring tools, as it can provide an a priori assessment of the sensitivity of several indicator organisms. We therefore investigated the relationship between phylogeny and sensitivity to herbicides...
Article
1. Anthropogenic impacts on the biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) affect natural ecosystems worldwide. Modelling is required to predict where and when these key nutrients limit primary production in freshwaters. 2. We reviewed 382 nutrient-enrichment experiments to examine which factors promote limitation of microphytobentho...
Article
Full-text available
We review known and hypothesized effects of nitrogen (N) deposition owing to human activities on the chemistry, organisms, and ecosystem processes of remote oligotrophic freshwaters. Acidification is the best-known effect of N deposition on water chemistry, but additional effects include increased nutrient availability and alteration of the balance...

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Project (1)
Project
Diat.barcode is an open-access DNA barcode reference library for diatoms. Experts from several countries collaborate to complete and curate Diat.barcode. The database is accessible at https://www6.inrae.fr/carrtel-collection_eng/Barcoding-database.