François Galgani

François Galgani
Institut Français de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer | Ifremer · Department of Biological Resources and Environment

About

281
Publications
183,019
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20,766
Citations
Additional affiliations
June 2011 - June 2015
University of California, Santa Barbara
Position
  • member NCEAS group Marine litter

Publications

Publications (281)
Article
The pollution of the environment with plastics is of growing concern worldwide, including the Arctic region. While larger plastic pieces are a visible pollution issue, smaller microplastics are not visible with the naked eye. These particles are available for interaction by Arctic biota and have become a concern for animal and human health. The det...
Article
Full-text available
Here, we evaluate for the first time the performances of the newly developed laser direct infrared (LDIR) technique and propose an optimization of the initial protocol for marine microplastics (MPs) analysis. Our results show that an 8 μm porosity polycarbonate filter placed on a Kevley slide enables preconcentration and efficient quantification of...
Article
Full-text available
The Mediterranean Sea is recognized as one of the most polluted areas by floating plastics. During the Tara Mediterranean expedition, an extensive sampling of plastic debris was conducted in seven ecoregions, from Gibraltar to Lebanon with the aim of providing reliable estimates of regional differences in floating plastic loads and plastic characte...
Chapter
Given that approximately half of the plastics produced is heavier than seawater, the seafloor, from intertidal to abyssal and hadal depths, is an important long‐term sink for marine macro and microplastics. Some seafloor areas can be difficult to monitor due to differences in the seabed, such as, structures and types, which can be sandy, muddy, or...
Book
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Chapter 1.1: Purpose and scope The purpose of this Document is to guide Member States in the review and update of the assessment of their marine waters in respect of each marine region or subregion, according to Article 17(2)(a) in conjunction with Articles 8(1) and 9(1) MSFD, which is due for reporting by 15 October 2024 and in subsequent reportin...
Article
Full-text available
Monitoring of marine litter at the sea surface, the beaches and the seafloor is essential to understanding their sources, pathways and sinks and design effective clean-up programs or increase public awareness for reducing litter waste. Up until today, seafloor litter is the least exploited component of marine litter. Although the protocols for reco...
Article
Microplastics (MPs) were sampled in three seasons from 2016 to 2018 in the Bay of Marseille, northwestern Mediterranean Sea, adjacent to a highly urbanized area. Six sites were selected according to their different characteristics (river mouth, treatment plants, protected marine area). Surface floating MPs were characterized (number, weight, typolo...
Article
The Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) has published a plan and guidelines for the monitoring of litter and microplastics (MP) in the Arctic. Here we look beyond suggestions for immediate monitoring and discuss challenges, opportunities and future strategies in the long-term monitoring of litter and MP in the Arctic. Challenges are r...
Article
The Mediterranean Sea is one of the most studied regions in the world in terms of microplastic (MP) contamination. However, only a few studies have analysed the chemical composition of MPs at the Mediterranean Sea surface. In this context, this study aims to describe the chemical composition as a function of particle size, mass and number concentra...
Article
High quality and integrated information able to show marine litter distribution at a global scale is a crucial goal to tackle the environmental problem. One of the important gaps is the definition of a global monitoring protocol and reporting. Large data infrastructures can provide a sustainable framework to host harmonized and standard litter data...
Article
Full-text available
A total of 8218 pelagic microplastic samples from the world’s oceans were synthesized to create a dataset composed of raw, calibrated, processed, and gridded data which are made available to the public. The raw microplastic abundance data were obtained by different research projects using surface net tows or continuous seawater intake. Fibrous micr...
Article
We studied the abundance of seafloor litter in the bay of Bejaia, Algeria, in order to better understand its sources and distribution and provide scientists with the technical basis for further monitoring and reduction measures. Data were collected during trawl surveys dedicated to fishing activity, between 40 and 200m. After each trawl, litter ite...
Technical Report
Full-text available
1. Présence d’une micro-algue toxique sur la presqu’île de Dakar. 2. Cette micro-algue, relâche des toxines - analogues de la toxine palytoxine - qui ont des effets sur la santé humaine avec des symptômes variables qui peuvent s’apparenter à la grippe saisonnière. 3. Faible connaissance de cette toxine par les services de santé et de la médecine gé...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The purpose of the guidelines is to review existing knowledge and provide guidance for designing an Arctic monitoring program that will track litter and MP. The topics of litter, plastic pollution, and MP are addressed in many fora, including several of the Arctic Council working groups: Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP; https://www...
Article
Full-text available
The surge of research on marine litter is generating important information on its inputs, distribution and impacts, but data on the nature and origin of the litter remain scattered. Here, we harmonize worldwide litter-type inventories across seven major aquatic environments and find that a set of plastic items from take-out food and beverages large...
Chapter
While the physical impact of meso- and macrodebris on biota is broadly documented, microplastics (MPs) are also known to induce various detrimental effects on organisms but their physical impacts are still under debate. Scientific reports indicate that our knowledge of the physical impact of MPs on biota is very limited. The most frequent effects o...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The goal of the Working Group on Marine Litter (WGML) is to provide scientific guidance towards the international harmonisation of monitoring data for seafloor litter and microlitter. WGML functions as a knowledge base for other international organisations regarding seafloor litter and microlitter. WGML has mapped seafloor litter and microplastic m...
Article
The Mediterranean Sea is one of the most polluted marine basins and currently serves as a hotspot for marine litter. The seafloor represents the ultimate sink for most litter worldwide. Nevertheless, the knowledge about litter distribution and its interactions with benthic organisms in deep water is poorly understood. In 2018, we investigated spati...
Article
Full-text available
The seafloor covers some 70% of the Earth's surface and has been recognized as a major sink for marine litter. Still, litter on the seafloor is the least investigated fraction of marine litter, which is not surprising as most of it lies in the deep sea, i.e. the least explored ecosystem. Although marine litter is considered a major threat for the o...
Article
Full-text available
Whilst both plastic production and inputs at sea have increased since the 1950s, several modelling studies predict a further increase in the coming years in these respective quantities. We compiled scientific literature on trends in marine litter, consisting largely of plastic and microplastics in the ocean, understanding that monitoring programs o...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Tujuan Riset Tujuan dari riset ini adalah merangkum informasi yang tersedia tentang pendekatan pemantauan dan mempertimbangkan bagaimana GES dan target lingkungan dapat ditentukan dengan tujuan mencegah masuknya sampah lebih lanjut ke, dan mengurangi jumlah totalnya di lingkungan laut. Lokasi Riset Lokasi riset dilakukan di Kelautan Eropa Metode ya...
Article
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This paper presents major gaps and challenges for implementing the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (2021-2030) in the Mediterranean region. The authors make recommendations on the scientific knowledge needs and codesign actions identified during two consultations, part of the Decade preparatory-phase, framing them in the Medi...
Article
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Background: Pollution – unwanted waste released to air, water, and land by human activity – is the largest environmental cause of disease in the world today. It is responsible for an estimated nine million premature deaths per year, enormous economic losses, erosion of human capital, and degradation of ecosystems. Ocean pollution is an important, b...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Pollution – unwanted waste released to air, water, and land by human activity – is the largest environmental cause of disease in the world today. It is responsible for an estimated nine million premature deaths per year, enormous economic losses, erosion of human capital, and degradation of ecosystems. Ocean pollution is an important, b...
Article
Full-text available
Pollution – unwanted waste released to air, water, and land by human activity – is the largest environmental cause of disease in the world today. It is responsible for an estimated nine million premature deaths per year, enormous economic losses, erosion of human capital, and degradation of ecosystems.Ocean pollution is an important, but insufficie...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Abstract. The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC) requires that European threshold values (TVs) for marine litter (descriptor 10) be defined. The MSFD Technical Group on Marine Litter (TG ML) decided to focus on coastline litter (Criterion 1), often referred to as beach litter, in a first step, since for this criterion a monitori...
Article
An intercalibration exercise on the characterisation of microplastics in marine sediment and water samples was carried out among five laboratories involved in the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) in their country. The samples were prepared by mixing cleaned natural sediment and sea water with microplastics sets made...
Article
Microplastics (MPs) are an environmental problem of growing concern, and several studies have defined the Bay of Biscay (BoB) as a marine litter accumulation area. To address the abundance of MPs in this region, a critical overview is presented compiling the research performed to date on the different water bodies, sediments and biota. The comparat...
Article
Les plastiques sont des matériaux obtenus par l’association de polymères synthétiques ou naturels, généralement chimiquement modifiés, et de divers additifs. Le développement des matières plastiques dans des secteurs aussi diversifiés que l’emballage, la construction, l’automobile, l’électronique ou le médical, est lié à la palette considérable de...
Article
A poorly known form of marine litter known as Abandoned, Lost or otherwise Discarded Fishing (ALDFG) derives from fishing activities using FADs (Fish Aggregating Devices). In the Mediterranean Sea, this activity is widespread in southern Italy, Tunisia, Malta and Majorca (Spain). The way of constructing FADs, from a functional point of view, is ver...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Guidance developed within the Common Implementation Strategy for the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. MSFD Technical Group on Marine Litter
Article
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Summary: Marine litter is one of the main sources of anthropogenic pollution in the marine ecosystem, with plastic representing a global threat. This paper aims to assess the spatial distribution of plastic macro-litter on the seafloor, identifying accumulation hotspots at a northern Mediterranean scale. Density indices (items km–2) from the MEDITS...
Article
Citizen science programs carried out by volunteers are fundamental for the collection of scientific data on a wide spatial scale. From 2011 to 2018, 468 survey dives were conducted in 172 coastal locations of the Mediterranean Sea through Project AWARE's citizen science program, Dive Against Debris®. During the dives, information was collected on q...
Article
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Sustained observations are required to determine the marine plastic debris mass balance and to support effective policy for planning remedial action. However, observations currently remain scarce at the global scale. A satellite remote sensing system could make a substantial contribution to tackling this problem. Here, we make initial steps towards...
Article
Full-text available
This paper identifies knowledge gaps on the sustainability and impacts of plastics and presents some recommendations from an expert group that met at a special seminar organised by the European Commission at the end of 2018. The benefits of plastics in society are unquestionable, but there is an urgent need to better manage their value chain. The r...
Article
This paper identifies knowledge gaps on the sustainability and impacts of plastics and presents some recommendations from an expert group that met at a special seminar organised by the European Commission at the end of 2018. The benefits of plastics in society are unquestionable, but there is an urgent need to better manage their value chain. The r...
Article
The Mediterranean Sea is one of the areas in the world most affected by marine litter. The main aim of this paper is to reflect on the key outcomes of the special session entitled ‘Harmful effects of plastic litter and mitigation strategies in the Mediterranean Sea’, which was organized within the framework of the SETAC Europe 28th Annual Meeting....
Article
Full-text available
Tintoré et al. Sustained Mediterranean Observing Forecasting System The Mediterranean community represented in this paper is the result of more than 30 years of EU and nationally funded coordination, which has led to key contributions in science concepts and operational initiatives. Together with the establishment of operational services, the commu...
Article
Four sandy beaches on the island of Malta in the Central Mediterranean were regularly sampled for Large MicroPlastic (LMP) particles having a diameter between 1 mm and 5 mm, at stations located at the waterline and 10 m inshore. The 10975 extracted LMP particles were characterised (dimensions, surface roughness, colour) through unaided visual obser...
Article
Full-text available
Plastics and other artificial materials pose new risks to health of the ocean. Anthropogenic debris travels across large distances and is ubiquitous in the water and on the shorelines, yet, observations of its sources, composition, pathways and distributions in the ocean are very sparse and inaccurate. Total amounts of plastics and other man-made...
Article
Full-text available
Maximenko et al. Integrated Marine Debris Observing System Plastics and other artificial materials pose new risks to the health of the ocean. Anthropogenic debris travels across large distances and is ubiquitous in the water and on shorelines, yet, observations of its sources, composition, pathways, and distributions in the ocean are very sparse an...
Article
Full-text available
Marine litter is a growing problem for environmental and human health and policies have included monitoring as an important tool to evaluate both trends and the efficiency of reduction measures. The Marine Strategy Framework Directive is the main driver in Europe for the monitoring of the marine environment; it has included the evaluation of marine...
Article
Seafloor litter has been studied both on the continental shelves (by trawling during 24 years) and in canyons (by ROV) of the French Mediterranean sea Water (FMW). On the continental shelf, mean densities range from 49.63 to 289.01 items/km 2. The most abundant categories were plastic, glass/ceramics, metals and textiles. Trend analysis shows a sig...
Article
Full-text available
Editorial to the Frontiers Research Topic "Impacts of Marine Litter" https://www.frontiersin.org/research-topics/6356/impacts-of-marine-litter#overview
Article
The MYTIAD project focused on the assessment of chemical contamination (metals, PAHs, PCBs and organo-chlorine pesticides) in the Adriatic coastal waters by active mussel watching. Its purpose was harmonising and standardising strategies and methodologies used to assess the contamination status of the Adriatic Sea, in the framework of the WFD, the...
Technical Report
Free access: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00487/59840/ As part of the AMARE project, the main purpose of this report is to provide advice and practical guidance, for establishing programmes to monitor and assess the distribution and abundance of marine litter in MPAs. The present document build on relevant existing monitoring and assessment pra...
Article
Adverse impacts of marine litter is documented on >1400 species, including marine megafauna (fish, birds, sea turtles and mammals). The primary impacts include ingestion and entanglement, and there is increasing concern about chemical contamination via ingestion. Numerous survey approaches and monitoring programs have been developed and implemented...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report was the product of a GESAMP Working Group, consisting of 15 independent experts based in North America, South America, Asia, Africa, Europe and Australasia. The report was edited by Kershaw, Turra and Galgani. It with provides recommendations to encourage a more harmonised approach to the monitoring and assessment of plastic litter, inc...
Article
Marine litter represents a transboundary challenge since it originates from manifold sources and travels long distances. Reducing marine litter can involve measures to prevent, mitigate, and remove litter, as well as to change behaviour. So far, the effects of prevention policies have been ineffective, resulting in great amounts of litter at sea an...