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François Boussu

François Boussu
Ecole Nationale Superieure des Arts et Industries Textiles · GEMTEX laboratory

Engineer, Ph-D, HDR

About

282
Publications
41,227
Reads
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1,663
Citations
Introduction
Design and optimization of 3D warp interlock fabrics for 3D forming of thermo-plastic fibrous reinforcement of composite material. Dynamic characterization of high performance yarns submitted to ballistic impact
Additional affiliations
October 1998 - present
Ecole d'ingénierie et d'innovation textile
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
Description
  • Weaving technology and design of 2D and 3D fabrics for composite material courses and practical works Project management courses and practical works
October 1995 - present
Ecole d'ingénierie et d'innovation textile
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Description
  • The design and production of 2D and 3D woven structures as fibrous reinforcement for textile composite solutions Design and production of textile composite protective solutions against low and high speed ballistic impacts
Education
March 2014 - November 2014
Université Polytechnique Hauts-de-France
Field of study
  • Applied mechanics and textile composite
January 1995 - January 1998
University of Lille Nord de France
Field of study
  • Automation and data processing
September 1989 - June 1992
Ecole d'ingénierie et d'innovation textile
Field of study
  • Textile engineer

Publications

Publications (282)
Article
The high-performance fibres are employed largely as reinforced polymer fabrics and composites in the flexible and stiff stab-resistant personal protection equipment. To simulate the knife attack on the human body, a new methodology named pre-deformed stabbing is developed to characterise the stab performance taking into account the fabric’s deforma...
Article
Full-text available
This research paper presented recent advancements on the manufacturing technique of the 3D warp interlock fabrics (3DWIFs) as fibrous material. Four different types of 3DWIFs are designed by WiseTex© and DB-WEAVE software: Angle interlock/through-the-thickness binding (A/T), Angle interlock/layer-to-layer binding (A/L), Orthogonal interlock/through...
Article
Full-text available
Textile materials can be used as a soft solution to protect the human body of the soldier and as a hard solution to provide more efficient armour for various types of vehicles. Their advantages are numerous in terms of performance versus weight, forming ability and availability of different types of high-performance yarns. Special attention has bee...
Article
The 3D warp interlock carbon fabrics, which have different structural properties, were produced and their tensile, bending, shear and formability properties were tested in our previous study. However, further analyses and modelling studies are needed to have an overall understanding of the specific and complex behaviours of the 3D warp interlock ca...
Article
The dynamic behaviour of a woven fabric submitted to a ballistic impact is a complex phenomenon. The dynamic deformations of yarns over time are still unknown both from the experimental and modeling point of view. To overcome this lack of information, a sensor yarn has been developed to monitor the dynamic strain while based on the same raw materia...
Book
Full-text available
Modern industry can produce composite materials with a wide range of mechanical properties applicable in the medicine, aviation, and automotive industries, etc. However, the construction industry is responsible for a substantial part of the budgets worldwide and uses vast amounts of materials. Engineering practice has revealed that innovative techn...
Article
Full-text available
The performance of bulletproof vests is mainly based on the energy absorption capacity of the flexible fibrous reinforcements. To understand the in situ behaviour of these textile structures during a ballistic impact, we find the use of sensor yarns integrated into these fibrous reinforcements to be a non-invasive and reliable solution. Measurement...
Article
Full-text available
In this work, a sensor yarn based on a natural sisal yarn containing a non-electro-conductive core impregnated with PVA polymer and coated by PEDOT:PSS polymer as an electro-conductive sheath was investigated. The main objectives include the development of this new sensor yarn as a first step. Then, we look towards the insertion of this sensor yarn...
Article
Despite the variability of Moroccan natural resources, few Moroccan natural fibers are exploited as natural textile composites. This study aims to investigate the characteristics of 3D warp interlock fabrics based on Moroccan sisal yarns. Before weaving, the characteristics of sisal yarns have been analyzed following standards. Based on these natur...
Article
This paper presents the influence of fabric structures and stab angles on single-pass stab impact and the repeated and multi-angle stabbings of 3-dimensional (3D) warp interlock structural fabrics based on the high-molecular-weight polyethylene (HMWPE) yarns. Five kinds of samples with different structures were experimentally tested using the drop...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the current study is to further investigate the impact of the sisal fiber content up to 30% on the mechanical and thermal properties of polylactic acid (PLA) matrix composites following up to our previous study for sisal content up to 15%. The biocomposites were prepared successfully using a twin‐screw extruder and an injection molding m...
Article
Full-text available
The effects of the yarn composition system inside 3D woven high-performance textiles are not well investigated and understood against their final ballistic impact behaviour. The current study aims to examine the ballistic impact performances of armour panels made of different 3D woven fabric variants through postmortem observations. Four high-perfo...
Article
Full-text available
Personal body armour is one of the most important pieces of equipment to protect human beings from various critical and fatal injuries. In today’s modern world, various organizations including law enforcement and security service have made it mandatory for their personnel to wear personal protection system while on field duty. However, the systems...
Article
Full-text available
This work aims to investigate the physical and mechanical properties of sisal fiber and yarn of Moroccan origin. The cellulosic and non-cellulosic constituents of the Moroccan sisal fiber were identified by FTIR spectroscopy. The thermal properties were studied by thermogravimetric analysis. The hydrophilicity of the fiber was evaluated by the cont...
Article
Composite materials which are reinforced with 3D warp interlock fabrics have outstanding mechanical properties such as higher delamination resistance, ballistic damage resistance and impact damage tolerance by means of their improved structural properties. Textile reinforcements are exposed to large deformations in the production stage of composite...
Article
Fabrics constructed from 3 D warp interlock fabrics (3DWIFs) structures provide varying flexibility and durability and are promising structures for protective applications. However, its performance toward stab resistance from knife attack should be investigated before applying. In this work, the influences of fabric architectures, ply orientation o...
Article
Full-text available
Materials used in the technical application including composite reinforcements and ballistic fabrics should show not only good mechanical performance but also better deformational behaviors. Meanwhile, three dimensional (3D) warp interlock fabrics have been widely employed in such applications to substitute the two dimensional (2D) fabrics because...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, three-dimensional (3D) warp interlock fabric has been involved in composite reinforcement and soft ballistic material due to its great moldability, improved impact energy-absorbing capacity, and good intra-ply resistance to delamination behaviors. However, understanding the effects of different parameters of the fabric on its mechanical b...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates the effects of warp yarns ratios on the ballistic performances of three-dimensional (3D) warp interlock p-aramid fabrics. Four 3D warp interlock variants with different binding and stuffer warp yarns ratios were designed and developed. Except for warp yarns ratios, similar fabric parameters and manufacturing conditions were...
Article
Three dimensional (3D) warp interlock fabric becomes a promising structure due to its good mechanical performances. However, its complex manufacturing process can cause severe yarn damage and affects its overall final performances. The current study addressed the effects weaving process and warp yarn ratios on the multi-filaments yarn degradations...
Article
Full-text available
3D weaving process has been more and more used as reinforcement for composite materials. However, 3D weaving applications are recent and the mechanical properties of the 3D warp interlock fabrics are not well known. Tensile tests have been performed both in the warp and weft directions of the fabrics, indeed they lead to different behaviour regardi...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this research is the valorization of Moroccan natural resources through the manufacturing of innovative 3D interlocks textiles. In order to investigate the potential of the sisal yarns used into 3D warp interlock fabrics, the 3D fabrics were studied at multi-scales (micro-scale, meso-scale and macro-scale). Before starting the manufactur...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the current study is to develop and optimize a flexible sensor based on a natural sisal fiber. Based on this sensor yarn, different fibrous reinforcements of 3D warp interlock fabrics used in composite materials could be monitored. This natural yarn (Sisal) has been pre-coated with a layer of PVA solution which makes it possible to homog...
Article
Full-text available
As promising fibrous reinforcements in the thick composites manufacturing, 3-dimensional warp interlock fabrics (3DWIFs) are recognised more and more in the industry for their outstanding mechanical properties compared to the 2D laminates. The present work shows the influence of the fabric’s architecture on the tensile behaviour of 3DWIFs. Five kin...
Article
Full-text available
Multiscale characterization of the textile preform made of natural fibers is an indispensable way to understand and assess the mechanical properties and behavior of composite. In this study, a multiscale experimental characterization is performed on three-dimensional (3D) warp interlock woven fabrics made of flax fiber on the fiber (micro), roving...
Article
Full-text available
The feasibility to manufacture a 3D warp interlock preform from 1000 Tex flax roving is investigated by means of a prototype machine developed to GEMTEX laboratory. The provided flax roving has low tensile failure load because of lack of twist so it isn’t suitable for weaving. The first step was dedicated to improve the tensile properties of the ro...
Article
In recent years, the research interest on three-dimensional warp interlock woven fabrics (3DWIFs) as reinforcement in composites is warranted and obtained popularity due to their advantages over two-dimensional laminated fabrics. The current literature tends to address the aspects of mechanical properties of 3DWIFs by experimental and numerical app...
Article
Mouldability, along with other mechanical properties, is a very crucial material parameter in various technical textile applications, including composites and soft body armour products. Moreover, the mouldability and recovery behaviours of the material will be affected by various internal and external parameters before, during and after the forming...
Article
Full-text available
The material forming capability becomes one of the most important characteristic of textile performance in the manufacturing of three-dimensional (3D) components to fit a 3D surface in various technical applications. In this study, different forming characteristics of 3D warp interlock fabrics in dry fabric condition were investigated. 3D warp inte...
Article
This paper investigates the influences of woven fabric type, impact locations and number of layers on ballistic impact performances of target panels through trauma dimension and panel surface damage mechanisms for lightweight women ballistic vest design. Three panels with 30, 35 and 40 layers of two-dimensional plain weave and two panels with 30 an...
Article
This paper investigates the influences of woven fabric type, impact locations and number of layers on ballistic impact performances of target panels through trauma dimension and panel surface damage mechanisms for lightweight women ballistic vest design. Three panels with 30, 35 and 40 layers of two-dimensional plain weave and another two panels wi...
Article
This paper investigates the influences of woven fabric type, impact locations and number of layers on ballistic impact performances of target panels through trauma dimension and panel surface damage mechanisms for lightweight women ballistic vest design. Three panels with 30, 35 and 40 layers of two-dimensional plain weave and two panels with 30 an...
Article
Landmines and Improvised Explosive Devices are known to be major threats for the coalition armies in operation. In order to protect the soldiers from their effects, armored vehicle manufacturers developed some blast protective solutions. However, these solutions often reduce the vehicles’ mobility and payload capacity because of their shape or weig...
Conference Paper
Le tissage 3D interlock chaine permet de réaliser des préformes épaisses pour matériaux composites. Or, cette technologie est très peu employée pour des renforts à base de fibres naturelles. Cette étude démontre à la fois la faisabilité du tissage 3D interlock chaine pour les fibres naturelles et s’intéresse à l’influence du nombre de couches sur l...
Article
3D warp interlock fabric became a promising structure to develop women body armour due to its good mouldability. However, its ballistic performance for different threats should be investigated This paper aims to investigate the ballistic performances of 3D interlock p-aramid (Twaron®) fabric panels’ against NIJ (National Institute of Justice) stand...
Article
Ballistic impact mechanism is a very complex mechanical process which depends on various parameter mainly the thickness, strength, ductility, toughness and density of the target material and projectile parameters. Nowadays, the developments of tough, high-strength and high- modulus fibres have led to the use of fabrics and their composite laminates...
Article
Full-text available
In today’s scenario, numerous studies have shown a great interest on 3D woven structures like 3D warp interlock fabric as a fibre reinforcement for composite material to provide a better impact than 2D laminated fabrics with unlinked structures in the thickness. The impact energy absorption capacity depends on different and independent parameters,...
Article
Full-text available
In today’s scenario many personnels including police officers, security guards, field journalist etc. made it mandatory to wear ballistic protection garments while on duty. In order to give the required protection, most of the ballistic protecting garment (vests) were developed with higher number of fabic layers.The development of such garment usin...
Article
Full-text available
Smart textile structures such as sensor yarns provide real possibility for in situ structural health monitoring of textile reinforced thermoplastic composites. In this work thermal properties of E-glass/polypropylene (GF/PP) and E-glass/poly(N,N’-hexamethylene adipamide) (GF/PA66) sensor yarns based on conductive polymer complex [3,4(ethylenedioxy)...
Article
Full-text available
Cette étude décrit à la fois la faisabilité du tissage 3D interlock chaine à base de mèches de lin et la caractérisation multi-échelle de ces renforts secs pour matériaux composites. Le tissage 3D interlock chaine permet de réaliser des structures épaisses, plus résistantes aux délaminages que les empilements de tissus 2D. Les propriétés mécaniques...
Article
The three-dimensional weaving process enables to produce near-net shaped complex preforms used as reinforcement of composite materials. However, the lack of knowledge on the mechanical behaviour of these three-dimensional woven structures may restrict their use for composite material. To fill this gap, we have tempted to highlight their specific me...
Article
Full-text available
The final geometry of 3D warp interlock fabric needs to be check during the 3D forming step to ensure the right locations of warp and weft yarns inside the final structure. Thus, a new monitoring approach has been proposed based on sensor yarns located in the fabric thickness. To ensure the accuracy of measurements, the observation of the surface d...
Article
Full-text available
Significant efforts have been made so far to improve the overall performance of female soft body armor. However, still designing female soft body armor which accommodates the bust area for different women morphological differences with good comfort, fitness, and better ballistic protection is in its great demand. This research paper presents an eff...
Article
Full-text available
The present study carries on the characterization of dry reinforcement structure for composite material. Yarn properties were analyzed to select the optimal level of twist. The influence of 3D-warp interlock structure's bending type was also investigated. Structures, made with 1000Tex flax roving, were woven on a dobby loom. Physical characterizati...
Article
Female participants in different perilous tasks including law enforcement offices have been considerably increased in the last few decades. However, they mostly wear men’s body armour with smaller sizes which brings a negative upshot not only in ballistic protection performance, comfort, fitness but also in a psychological point of view. Hence, man...
Article
Full-text available
3D warp interlock fabrics have been used both in composite materials as fibrous reinforcement as well as in protective solutions against impact mainly due to their improved capacity to absorb energy by higher intra-ply resistance to delamination. However, depending on the type of architecture used, the binding warp yarns may provide different types...
Article
For the past many decades’ enormous research has been done on mechanical and moulding properties of 2D woven and non-woven fabrics. The current paper presents a comprehensive investigation of the tensile, bending and moulding behaviours of 3D orthogonal warp interlock fabrics with different fabric densities. Four 3D warp interlock fabrics with diff...
Article
Full-text available
In today's scenario for the various technical applications, from composites to body armour, the material mouldability along with its mechanical property become very important. In the present study, two dimensional (2D) woven fabrics made of para-aramid high performance fibres in multi-layer dry structure were used for investigating different formin...
Article
In many textile applications stitching process is one of the widely used methods to join the multi-layer fabric plies not only due to its easy applicability and flexible production but also provide structural integrity throughout-the-thickness of materials. In this research, the influences of stitching pattern on various molding characteristics of...
Article
The performance of various protective clothing i.e., soft body armor depends mainly on material type, fabric construction and garment design. However, most female soft body armor has been designed using traditional methods which face poor ballistic protection, less fitness and comfort. These problems mainly arise from corset problem due to using cu...
Article
In this study, effects of different stitching parameters on formability behaviour of multi-layerd para-armide panels were investigated. Different stitching pattern namely, Uni-axial longitudinal,Bi-axial straight, Uni-axial-diagonal, Bi-axial-diagonal, Edge stitch and Unstitched were used for binding different layers. Stitch length and gap paramete...
Chapter
The purpose of this study is to analyse the influence of weaving parameters of 3D warp interlock fabrics on their mechanical properties. Using the same yarns in the warp and weft direction, four main product and process parameters have been chosen as the weave diagram, the weft density and positions of stuffer and linking warp yarns inside the wove...
Article
Full-text available
The traditional two dimensional (2D) pattern making method for developing female body armour has a negative effect on the ballistic protective performance as well as the comfort of the wearer. This is due to, unlike the male body armour, the female body armour manufacturing involves different darts to accommodate the natural curvature of the female...
Article
Full-text available
The final geometry of 3D warp interlock fabric needs to be check during the 3D forming step to ensure the right locations of warp and weft yarns inside the final structure. Thus, a new monitoring approach has been proposed based on sensor yarns located in the fabric thickness. To ensure the accuracy of measurements, the observation of the surface d...