Franco Berruti

Franco Berruti
The University of Western Ontario | UWO · Institute for Chemicals and Fuels from Alternative Resources

About

259
Publications
41,328
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6,358
Citations
Citations since 2016
72 Research Items
3573 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800

Publications

Publications (259)
Article
Biorefineries have been studied, involving technical, economic, and environmental aspects. Substantial research has identified many pathways for producing chemicals and fuels from biomass sources. Nevertheless, the implementation of biorefineries depends not only on biochemistry and technologies. In addition, biorefineries implementation needs to b...
Article
Full-text available
Biosolids generated as byproducts of wastewater treatment processes are widely used as fertilizer supplements to improve soil condition and ultimately agricultural products yields and quality. However, biosolids may contain toxic compounds, i.e., per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), which can end up in soils, groundwater, and surface water,...
Article
The growing global energy demand encourages the request for renewable sources, as biomethane from the anaerobic digestion (AD) of waste biomass. Biochar (BC) can effectively increase methane production when supplemented to AD, depending on BC physico-chemical properties. This study was developed in two phases. Firstly, a systematic meta-analysis of...
Article
Syngas produced by biomass and waste gasification processes must be adequately clean of tar compounds before being utilized in value‐added applications. The syngas cleaning by tar cracking at high temperatures is a promising technique, which can utilize different kinds of catalysts. However, their use is limited by deposition of coke layers, which...
Article
Full-text available
The efficient reduction of accumulated waste biomass and red mud by converting them into a value-added magnetic adsorbent is both difficult and tempting in terms of sustainability. This study focused on investigating the reaction mechanism of co-pyrolysis of different biomasses, including pine wood, cellulose, and lignin, with red mud at 500, 650,...
Article
The Jiggled Bed Reactor (JBR) is a new multiphase lab‐scale microreactor consisting of a sealed container attached to a piston that is rapidly moved up and down by a pneumatically powered actuator. Particles and fluids in the container are mixed by this up and down motion instead of mechanical agitators or a fluidizing gas. This alternating motion...
Article
Liquid injection into a gas-solid fluidized bed has been applied in various industries, coating and granulation processes in pharmaceutical and food industries, reactor cooling in polyolefin production, fluid catalytic cracking[1-5][1-5][1-5][1-5][1-5], and fluid coking in the petroleum industry. A new experimental method has been successfully deve...
Article
Activated carbons are recognised as inexpensive, easily available, and efficient catalysts for tar cracking reactions at high temperatures. Their use in hot syngas cleaning is limited by the rapid deactivation resulting from the coke deposition, and the consequent masking phenomenon over the activated carbon surface. This study contributes to a bet...
Article
Biomass fast pyrolysis was performed in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor that incorporated two crucial innovations. A fractional condensation train provided dry bio-oils with only 1% of moisture and much reduced acidity. Autothermal pyrolysis with partial oxidation enhanced dry bio-oil quality while reducing the capital and operating costs by elimi...
Article
Full-text available
Biochar (BC) recently gained attention as an additive for anaerobic digestion (AD). This work aims at a critical analysis of the effect of six BCs, with different physical and chemical properties, on the AD of mixed wastewater sludge at 37 °C, comparing their influence on methane production and AD kinetics. AD batch tests were performed at the labo...
Article
Full-text available
Bio-oil from lignocellulosic biomass pyrolysis is a promising feedstock as a precursor for the production of transportation fuels and value-added chemicals. The presence of significant concentrations of oxygen, water, and acids makes it difficult to use bio-oil directly as a transportation fuel without costly upgrading. The acidity of pyrolysis liq...
Article
The current imbalance of carbon in the atmosphere is stimulating the search for carbon sequestration opportunities and for alternative processes and products with a reduced carbon footprint. Biochar, produced from residual biomass of the bio-ethanol industry (Dry Distillers Grains), was added as filler to a standard concrete, aiming at finding pote...
Article
This work describes the impacts of biochar (BC) addition to the anaerobic digestion (AD) of waste activated sludge (WAS). Three BCs, produced by pyrolysis at 550 °C of different waste biomasses (soft wood, sewage sludge and rice husk), then physically activated at 900 °C with CO2, were investigated as additives. AD tests were performed in batch mod...
Article
This work analysed the effects of biochar (BC) addition to the Anaerobic digestion (AD) of wastewater Mixed sludge (MS) in semi-continuous mode. A 3 L digester was operated at 37 °C for 100 days, feeding MS collected every three weeks in the same wastewater treatment plant, and 10 g L⁻¹ of BC. The average performance of MS digestion (biogas 188 NmL...
Article
Due to the rapid increase in the global demand for renewable energy and uneven, seasonal distribution of bulky biomass resources, developing decentralized and mobile biomass thermochemical conversion systems are critical , particularly to accommodate the energy needs of rural residents in developing countries and remote communities. This paper esta...
Presentation
Full-text available
This presentation proposes a new model to infer the hydrocarbon liquid losses in the bottom part of an industrial Fluid Coker by using a room-temperature pilot unit. In Cokers, wet agglomerates that trapped injected bitumen carry unreacted liquid to the stripper. In this study, the effect of lateral bitumen injections, and their impact on superfici...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
– In the Fluid CokingTM process, heavy oil is atomized with steam and sprayed into a fluidized bed of hot coke particles. The jet-bed interaction tends to promote agglomerate formation that delay the vaporization of product vapors. Prolonged residence time of vapors also leads to undesired over-cracking of products to non-condensable gases. Previou...
Conference Paper
– During the industrial Fluid CokingTM process, a portion of valuable liquid is trapped in undesirable agglomerates, which contribute to fouling in the stripper section. To solve this major operating issue, the objective of this research is to reduce agglomeration by modifying local bed hydrodynamics, such as changing the gas distributor, and addin...
Conference Paper
Formation of agglomerates in Fluid CokersTM can cause operating problems, such as excessive stripper shed fouling, which can lead to premature unit shut down. Better understanding of how agglomerates move through a fluidized bed can help improve the design and operation of Fluid Cokers and minimize the risk of agglomerates reaching regions where th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
*** AVAILABLE AT: https://cfb13.org/conference-proceeding *** This paper proposes a new model to infer the hydrocarbon liquid losses in the bottom part of an industrial Fluid Coker by using a room-temperature pilot unit. In Cokers, wet agglomerates that trapped injected bitumen carry unreacted liquid to the stripper. In this study, the effect of la...
Article
Full-text available
Aqueous pyrolysis condensate (APC) is rich in acetic acid and has been utilized as feedstock for anaerobic digestion to produce biogas. However, various phenolic compounds dissolved in the APC act as inhibitors, negatively affecting the anaerobic digestion. In this work, we have investigated the feasibility of employing pyrolytic biochar as an adso...
Article
Population growth, rapid urbanization, industrialization and economic development have led to the magnified municipal solid waste generation at an alarming rate on a global scale. Municipal solid waste seems to be an economically viable and attractive resource to produce green fuels through different waste-to-energy conversion routes. This paper re...
Article
Formation of agglomerates in fluidized beds can cause operating problems, such as excessive stripper shed fouling, which can lead to premature unit shut down. The focus of this study is to reach a better understanding of how agglomerates move through a fluidized bed to improve the Fluid CokersTM and minimize the risk of agglomerates reaching region...
Article
Miscanthus, an invasive crop, has recently gained attention as an emerging energy crop because of certain traits like fast growth, high yield, ability to grow in marginal land, and resistance to extreme weather conditions. In this work, Miscanthus was selected as the feedstock for fast pyrolysis in a mechanically fluidized bed reactor at variable t...
Article
In processes such as Fluid Coking™, agglomerate formation should be minimized since it reduces the yield of valuable products, and degrades operability because of the fouling of internals. An experimental model, consisting of an aqueous solution of gum arabic with a dye, has been successfully developed to simulate the formation of agglomerates in t...
Article
The USA, China and India are the top three producers of municipal solid waste. The composition of solid wastes varies with income: low-to-middle-income population generates mainly organic wastes, whereas high-income population produces more waste paper, metals and glasses. Management of municipal solid waste includes recycling, incineration, waste-...
Article
Plastics are common in our daily lifestyle, notably in the packaging of goods to reducing volume, enhancing transportation efficiency, keeping food fresh and preventing spoilage, manufacturing healthcare products, preserving drugs and insulating electrical components. Nonetheless, massive amounts of non-biodegradable plastic wastes are generated an...
Article
Full-text available
Production of green fuels and chemicals from non-edible corn cob residues presents an excellent opportunity to produce sustainable low carbon energy vectors as an alternative to fossil fuels. The objective of this study was to optimize the fuel physical and chemical properties of torrefied corn cobs bio-oil by investigating the relationship between...
Article
Anaerobic digestion (AD) could be considered as a mature technology and nowadays it can still play a pivot role because of the urgent need to provide renewable energy sources and efficiently manage the continuously growing amount of organic waste. Biochar (BC) is an extremely versatile material, which could be produced by carbonization of organic m...
Article
The electrostatic charge in a fluidized bed can be applied to provide local information on the bed hydrodynamics. Electrostatic probes can withstand adverse conditions that would be an issue for other measurement probes, such as high temperatures (limited by metal), high velocities (e.g. 2 m/s), high bed densities (1500 kg/m3), and large-scale equi...
Article
This paper investigates how solids flow in a circulating fluidized bed can be modified by adding baffles and modifying gas injection locations, and how these changes suggest strategies for a reduction of liquid carryunder in the stripper in Fluid Cokers™. A Computer-Aided Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT) method was used with a pilot unit opera...
Chapter
Miscanthus is recently being considered as an energy crop for biofuel production because of certain features, such as adaptability to lower temperature, efficient use of water and nutrients, low or no need of nitrogen fertilisers, high biomass yield, fast-growing cycle and less-intensive agricultural cultivation practices than other energy crops. T...
Preprint
Full-text available
In Fluid Cokers TM , heavy oil is injected into a fluidized bed of hot coke particles where it undergoes thermal cracking. Efficient and uniform liquid feed distribution enhances the yield of valuable products and the Coker operability by reducing the formation of wet agglomerates. A promising method to improve liquid distribution is to modify the...
Article
Lignocellulosic feedstocks such as forestry biomass and agricultural crop residues can be utilized to generate biofuels and biochemicals. In addition, a large amount of non-plant residues or biogenic wastes is also generated worldwide that has huge potentials but remains underutilized. Converting these organic waste materials through thermochemical...
Article
In industrial Fluid Coking™ processes, wet agglomerates formed with coke particles flowing down from the spray regions to the stripper section cause fouling of the stripper sheds, which is a major operating problem. The objective of this work was to determine how to reduce agglomeration by increasing the superficial gas velocity, modifying the gas...
Article
Biooil produced via biomass pyrolysis includes an aqueous-acidic phase and a dense and rich organic phase. The aqueous phase has a low heating value and is considered a waste stream. In this study fractional condensation was employed to separate the liquid product of birch bark pyrolysis into an aqueous pyrolysis condensate (APC) and a dense biooil...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The measure of landfill gas and the estimation of fugitive emissions over the landfill surface have been studied in order to predict the concentration at sensible receptors and to understand the associated environmental impact. In this paper, we have applied the inverse dispersion technique to estimate the H2S emissions during the winter season fro...
Presentation
Full-text available
comparing to the last CSCHE conference, an interesting correlation between gas distribution and water trapped % was found.
Poster
Full-text available
This poster investigates how solids flow in a circulating fluidized bed can be modified by adding baffles and modifying gas injection locations, and how these changes suggest strategies for a reduction of liquid carryunder in the stripper in Fluid Cokers. A Computer-Aided Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT) method was used with a pilot unit opera...
Presentation
Full-text available
*** AVAILABLE at https://www.aiche.org/conferences/fluidization/2019/proceeding/paper/impact-column-geometry-and-internals-on-gas-and-particle-flows-fluidized-bed-downward-solids *** This presentation investigates how solids flow in a circulating fluidized bed can be modified by adding baffles and modifying gas injection locations, and how these ch...
Article
Pyrolysis of sewage sludge was selected as a potential disposal method that provides biochar and bio-oil. An intrinsic problem of sewage sludge is the high concentration of heavy metals, which is retained in the char. This study aims to compare both slow and fast pyrolysis char and their leachability of heavy metals for agricultural land use, as de...
Article
Pyrolysis is a simple, inexpensive and arguably safer method to recover high-value products from plants relative to solvent extraction processes. In order to optimize pyrolysis conditions to improve the separation of selected compounds, a novel reactor-condenser chain process was developed to isolate nicotine from tobacco leaf. Ground tobacco (Nico...
Presentation
Full-text available
Canada’s oil sands have the world’s largest known reserves of bitumen. In a Fluid CokerTM, the bitumen is thermal-cracked by being injected into a fluid bed filled with hot coke particles. The products from the Fluid Coker can then be upgraded into lighter, cleaner, and more valuable products, for instance, gasoline and diesel fuel. Since the recov...
Article
In this work three biomasses, two ligneous (rubberwood and eucalyptus) and one herbaceous (Phragmites aus-tralis), were fed to three different pyrolysis reactors: the Jiggled Bed Reactor (JBR) and a Mechanically Fluidized Reactor (MFR), working in slow batch pyrolysis mode, and a Bubbling Bed Reactor (BBR) operating as a continuous fast pyrolysis p...
Article
Full-text available
A fluidized bed reactor operating in the bubbling regime has been developed for the conversion of bio-oil to syngas. The reactor consists of a 7.6 cm I.D. bed, with an expanded freeboard, whose volume can be adjusted to vary the gas residence time. This reactor has been used to carry out either thermal or catalytic cracking/reforming of bio-oil. A...
Article
Full-text available
To make biomass conversion to fuels more cost-effective, value-added products, including pharmaceuticals, should be produced from agricultural residues. The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate the antioxidant properties of bio-oil produced from the pyrolysis of biomass and (2) to concentrate and identify antioxidant compounds from the...
Article
A Radioactive Particle Tracking (RPT) technique was used to study the effects of the internal baffles in the stripping section of the Fluid CokerTM, called sheds, have on the behavior of wet agglomerates that are formed when residual oil is injected into the Coker. Vapor emitted by reacting wet agglomerates below the sheds rises and causes shed fou...
Article
The radioactive particle tracking technique was used to study the effect of internal ring baffles on wet agglomerate motion inside a cold flow recirculating fluidized bed. The study found that using such a baffle on its own or above the regular sheds helps reduce the fouling of the stripper section by increasing the residence time that the agglomer...
Article
The Radioactive Particle Tracking (RPT) technique was used to study agglomerates behavior inside a cold flow recirculating fluidized bed with internals (known as sheds), mimicking the stripper baffles of a Fluid CokerTM. A higher fluidization gas velocity increases the time that agglomerates spend above the sheds and reduces the time spent in the s...
Article
Soil nitrogen (N) losses over winter and early spring are often substantial in northern temperate regions as a result of soil freeze-thaw. In agricultural fields, both biochar amendment and the use of cover crops have been proposed as strategies to increase crop N availability, but it is unclear how they may interact to affect soil N retention over...
Article
In fluidized bed reactors such as Fluid CokersTM, liquid injections are used. Good contact between liquid and bed solids is required to maximize product yields and quality, and gas-atomized nozzles are, therefore, used in all these processes. The spray nozzle technology is known to affect the liquid distribution. Therefore, the objective of this st...
Article
Liquid injection into a fluidized bed is employed in several chemical processes in order to maximize contact between liquid reactants and solid particles. For example, in the Fluid Coking™ process, droplets contact the bed particles and form wet agglomerates that impair heat transfer from the hot bed to the reacting liquid, slowing down its endothe...
Article
Fluid Coking™ is a non-catalytic carbon rejection process that is utilized to convert petroleum residues into more valuable light and middle distillates. In this process, heavy oil is sprayed into a fluidized bed of hot coke particles; the liquid heats up and undergoes endothermic thermal cracking to vapors, non-condensable gas and solid coke. This...
Article
Lignin has great potential for the production of valuable aromatic compounds and has attracted considerable attention. The development of high value applications for Kraft lignin would boost the profitability of pulp and paper operations. A potential solution is the pyrolytic conversion of lignin to valuable liquids and solids. However, Kraft ligni...
Article
Full-text available
A challenge in recent years has been the rational use of forest and agriculture residues for the production of bio-fuel, biochemical, and other bioproducts. In this study, potentially useful compounds from pyrolytic lignins were identified byHPLC-MS/MS and untargeted metabolomics. The metabolites identified were 2-(4-allyl-2-methoxyphenoxy)-1-(4-hy...
Article
In the Fluid Coking™ process, heavy oil is contacted with hot fluidized coke particles. If the local concentration of liquid is too high, fluidization is poor, a condition commonly known as bogging. The objective of this study is to identify practical methods for early bogging detection, simulating heavy oil at coker temperatures with a lighter oil...
Article
While soil freeze-thaw cycles can decrease soil nutrient retention over winter by increasing leaching losses and greenhouse gas emissions, biochar as a soil amendment could mitigate these effects. Nevertheless, there is often variation in the effectiveness of different biochar formulations with respect to soil nutrient retention. We added ¹⁵N trace...
Article
The Jiggle bed reactor (JBR) is a new batch-wise micro fluidized bed reactor that was designed for screening the catalysts at various gasification operating conditions. Natural olivine mineral, (Mg,Fe)2SiO4, was selected as a suitable catalyst for bio-oil gasification in fluidized bed reactors due to its iron content and its attrition-resistance pr...
Article
Full-text available
Background One of the main obstacles in lignocellulosic ethanol production is the necessity of pretreatment and fractionation of the biomass feedstocks to produce sufficiently pure fermentable carbohydrates. In addition, the by-products (hemicellulose and lignin fraction) are of low value, when compared to dried distillers grains (DDG), the main by...
Article
In Fluid CokersTM, banks of spray nozzles are used to inject oil in a bed of hot coke particles. The purpose of this study is to determine whether interactions between spray jets could enhance liquid distribution on hot coke particles, which is crucial to improve the operability and performance of Fluid Cokers. A low temperature experimental model...
Article
Valuable chemicals can be separated from agricultural residues by chemical or thermochemical processes. The application of pyrolysis has already been demonstrated as an efficient means to produce a liquid with a high concentration of desired product. The objective of this study was to apply an insect and microorganism bioassay-guided approach to se...
Presentation
Full-text available
Fluid CokingTM is a process to upgrade heavy oils through thermal cracking. Oil is injected in a downward-flowing bed of hot coke particles, where it heats up and cracks into smaller vapour molecules. The down-flowing coke particles are sent to a burner where they are reheated and send back to the reactor to provide heat for cracking reactions. Liq...
Article
In several commercial processes, liquid is injected into a hot fluidized bed, where it undergoes a reaction that generates gases, vapours, and a solid residue. An example is Fluid CokingTM, where large agglomerates resulting from poor liquid-solid contacting during the liquid injection are undesirable. These agglomerates limit heat and mass transfe...
Article
A simple procedure was suggested for the chromatographic analyses of bio-oils from pyrolysis of various feedstock employing different technologies. An acetonitrile solution of each bio-oil was prepared without any extraction or other sample pretreatments. Preliminary thin layer chromatography showed a large number of compounds having a broad range...
Article
Full-text available
The novel designed Jiggle Bed Reactor (JBR) was utilized to investigate thermal and catalytic gasification of bio-oils (without excess steam) with respect to carbon conversion and syngas (H2 + CO) yield. Two commercial nickel based steam reforming catalysts (X and Y) were used. Beside its convenient and economical operation, the JBR was capable to...
Article
A Radioactive Particle Tracking (RPT) technique was used to study the effect of the size and density of an agglomerate on its interactions with internal baffles in a fluidized bed, mimicking the stripper sheds of a Fluid CokerTM. Dense agglomerates (mimicking Fluid Coker agglomerates with a high liquid concentration) have a lower residence time in...
Article
Conflicting views regarding synthetic pesticides include the successful use as pest management tools for agriculture and forestry on one hand and the threats to components in the environment. Likewise, the residues from agriculture and forestry create a waste disposal problem, but are a potential bio-resource to be profited from. This abundant biom...
Article
The aim of this study was to develop a process to produce hydrogen-rich gas at temperatures between 650 and 700 °C, by steam reforming of char produced in a pyrolysis reactor. To achieve this, the experimental work was divided into three sections all of which primarily focus on the production of hydrogen by steam reforming. The first section invest...
Article
Biomass conversion to obtain bioenergy and fuels will only be cost effective when additional, value-added products including chemicals can be obtained as part of the process. The objective of this study was to increase nicotine recovery from tobacco leaves (Nicotiana tabacum) through pyrolysis using new technology, a mechanically fluidized reactor...
Article
Fast pyrolysis is a recognized technology for the thermochemical conversion of biomasses into bio-oils that may contain valuable chemicals, including solvents, pharmaceuticals and biopesticides. The composition of the bio-oils is partly determined by the biomass feedstock. Bio-oil produced from the residues of greenhouse tomato plants has been inve...