Francjan van Spronsen

Francjan van Spronsen
University of Groningen | RUG · Faculty of Medical Sciences

Professor in Pediatrics

About

300
Publications
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8,290
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Publications

Publications (300)
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Tyrosinemia type 1 (TT1) and phenylketonuria (PKU) are both inborn errors of phenylalanine-tyrosine metabolism. Neurocognitive and behavioral outcomes have always featured in PKU research but received less attention in TT1 research. This study aimed to investigate and compare neurocognitive, behavioral and social outcomes of treated...
Article
Full-text available
Background In the Netherlands (NL) the government assigned 2 hospitals as centres of expertise (CE) for Phenylketonuria (PKU), while in the United Kingdom (UK) and Germany no centres are assigned specifically as PKU CE’s. Methods To identify expectations of patients/caregivers with PKU of CEs, a web-based survey was distributed through the nationa...
Article
Background Large neutral amino acid (LNAA) treatment has been suggested as alternative to the burdensome severe phenylalanine-restricted diet. While its working mechanisms and optimal composition have recently been further elucidated, the question whether LNAA treatment requires the natural protein-restricted diet, has still remained. Objective Fi...
Article
Background Dietary treatment in Phenylketonuria (PKU) is known to cause eating problems, but knowledge on both prevalence and magnitude, especially on social restrictions, is scarce. Our aim is to evaluate the social restrictions and eating problems PKU children and their caregivers experience due to dietary treatment. Methods A web-based question...
Article
Many countries do not have a newborn screening (NBS) program, and immigrants from such countries are at risk for late diagnosis of phenylketonuria (PKU). In this international survey, 52 of 259 patients (20%) with late diagnosed PKU were immigrants, and 145 of the 259 (55%) were born before NBS or in a location without NBS.
Article
Full-text available
Background Pyridoxine monotherapy in PDE-ALDH7A1 often results in adequate seizure control, but neurodevelopmental outcome varies. Detailed long-term neurological outcome is unknown. Here we present the cognitive and neurological features of the Dutch PDE-ALDH7A1 cohort. Methods Neurological outcome was assessed in 24 patients (age 1–26 years); cl...
Article
Background A subset of patients with phenylketonuria benefit from treatment with tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), although there is no consensus on the definition of BH4 responsiveness. The aim of this study therefore was to gain insight into the definitions of long-term BH4 responsiveness being used around the world. Methods We performed a web-based su...
Article
Full-text available
Background: This study investigated the agreement between various dried blood spot (DBS) and venous blood sample measurements of phenylalanine and tyrosine concentrations in Phenylketonuria (PKU) and Tyrosinemia type 1 (TT1) patients. Study design: Phenylalanine and tyrosine concentrations were studied in 45 PKU/TT1 patients in plasma from venou...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive inborn error of phenylalanine metabolism caused by deficiency in the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase that converts phenylalanine into tyrosine. Main body: In 2017 the first European PKU Guidelines were published. These guidelines contained evidence based and/or expert opinion recommend...
Article
Full-text available
Background and objective Methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) and propionic acidemia (PA) are inborn errors of metabolism. While survival of MMA and PA patients has improved in recent decades, long-term outcome is still unsatisfactory. A protein restricted diet is the mainstay for treatment. Additional amino acid mixtures (AAM) can be prescribed if natural...
Article
Full-text available
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.
Article
Phenylketonuria (PKU), caused by variants in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene, is the most common autosomal-recessive Mendelian phenotype of amino acid metabolism. We estimated that globally 0.45 million individuals have PKU, with global prevalence 1:23,930 live births (range 1:4,500 [Italy]–1:125,000 [Japan]). Comparing genotypes and metab...
Article
Full-text available
Phenylketonuria and tyrosinemia type 1 are treated with dietary phenylalanine (Phe) restriction. Aspartame is a Phe-containing synthetic sweetener used in many products, including many ‘regular’ soft drinks. Its amount is (often) not declared; therefore, patients are advised not to consume aspartame-containing foods. This study aimed to determine t...
Article
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Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) leads to severe neurological deterioration unless diagnosed early and treated immediately. We have evaluated the effectiveness of 11 years of MSUD newborn screening (NBS) in the Netherlands (screening >72 hours, referral if both total leucine (Xle) and valine ≥400 μmol/L blood) and have explored possibilities for im...
Article
Neutropenia and neutrophil dysfunction cause serious infections and inflammatory bowel disease in glycogen storage disease Ib (GSD-Ib). Our discovery that accumulating 1,5-anhydroglucitol-6-phosphate causes neutropenia in a G6PC3-deficient mouse model and in the two rare diseases (GSD-Ib and G6PC3-deficiency) led us to repurpose the widely used ant...
Preprint
Full-text available
BACKGROUND: To investigate agreement between various dried blood spot (DBS) and venous blood sample measurements of phenylalanine and tyrosine concentrations in Phenylketonuria (PKU) and Tyrosinemia type 1 (TT1) patients. STUDY DESIGN: Phenylalanine and tyrosine concentrations were studied in 45 PKU/TT1 patients in plasma from venous blood in lithi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background - Patients with inborn errors of metabolism causing fasting intolerance are at risk of acute metabolic decompensations. Disease specific emergency protocols are widely available, but long-term data on safety and efficacy outcomes are lacking. We hypothesized that a generic emergency protocol can be safe and effective in patients with inb...
Article
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Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) is a life-threatening, ultrarare inborn error of metabolism. Case reports described successful D,L-3-hydroxybutyrate (D,L-3-HB) treatment in severely affected MADD patients, but systematic data on efficacy and safety is lacking. A systematic literature review and an international, retrospective coho...
Preprint
BACKGROUND: To investigate agreement between various dried blood spot (DBS) and venous blood sample measurements of phenylalanine and tyrosine concentrations in Phenylketonuria (PKU) and Tyrosinemia type 1 (TT1) patients. STUDY DESIGN: Phenylalanine and tyrosine concentrations were studied in 45 PKU/TT1 patients in plasma from venous blood in lithi...
Article
Full-text available
In phenylketonuria, casein glycomacropeptide (CGMP) requires modification with the addition of some essential and semi essential amino acids to ensure suitability as a protein substitute. The optimal amount and ratio of additional amino acids is undefined. Aim A longitudinal, parallel, controlled study over 12 months evaluating a CGMP (CGMP-AA2) f...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Treatment with 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione (NTBC) and dietary phenylalanine and tyrosine restriction improves physical health and life expectancy in Tyrosinemia type 1 (TT1). However, neurocognitive outcome is suboptimal. This study aimed to investigate behavior problems and health-related quality of life...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Evidence for effectiveness of newborn screening (NBS) for propionic acidemia (PA) and isolated methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) is scarce. Prior to implementation in the Netherlands, we aim to estimate the expected health gain of NBS for PA and MMA. Methods: In this national retrospective cohort study, the clinical course of 76/83 Dutch...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inborn error of phenylalanine (Phe) metabolism. Besides dietary treatment, some patients are responsive to and treated with tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). Our primary objective was to examine whether the 48-hour BH4 loading test misses BH4-responsive PKU patients. Secondary, we assessed if it would be beneficial...
Article
Full-text available
Tyrosinemia type 1 (TT1) treatment with 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluormethyl-benzyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione (NTBC) and a phenylalanine-tyrosine restricted diet is associated with low phenylalanine concentrations. Phenylalanine supplementation is prescribed without comprehensive consideration about its effect on metabolic control. We investigated the effect of...
Article
Full-text available
Tyrosinemia type 1 (TT1) is a rare metabolic disease caused by a defect in tyrosine catabolism. TT1 is clinically characterized by acute liver failure, development of hepatocellular carcinoma, renal and neurological problems, and consequently an extremely poor outcome. This review showed that the introduction of 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)...
Article
Full-text available
Phenylketonuria (PKU) management is aimed at preventing neurocognitive and psychosocial dysfunction by keeping plasma phenylalanine concentrations within the recommended target range. It can be questioned, however, whether universal plasma phenylalanine target levels would result in optimal neurocognitive outcomes for all patients, as similar plasm...
Article
Full-text available
Tyrosinemia type 1 (TT1) is a rare metabolic disease caused by a defect in the tyrosine degradation pathway. Neurocognitive deficiencies have been described in TT1 patients, that have, among others, been related to changes in plasma large neutral amino acids (LNAA) that could result in changes in brain LNAA and neurotransmitter concentrations. Ther...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Low BMD as a risk factor for fractures has been a long-standing concern in PKU. It is hypothesized that the disease itself or the dietary treatment might lead to a low BMD. Previous studies show conflicting results of BMD in PKU due to differences in age, techniques to assess BMD and criteria used. Aim: to assess the prevalence of lo...
Article
Full-text available
Many phenylketonuria (PKU) patients cannot adhere to the severe dietary restrictions as advised by the European PKU guidelines, which can be accompanied by aggravated neuropsychological impairments that, at least in part, have been attributed to brain monoaminergic neurotransmitter deficiencies. Supplementation of large neutral amino acids (LNAA) t...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: This study aimed to investigate and improve the usefulness of the 48-hour BH4 loading test and to assess genotype for BH4 responsiveness prediction, using the new definition of BH4 responsiveness from the European guidelines, as well as an amended definition. Method: Applying the definition of the European guidelines (≥ 100% increase...
Article
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a prototypical model of a neurodevelopmental metabolic disease that follows a cascade of pathological events affecting brain maturation and functioning. Neonatal screening and early treatment have eradicated the classical PKU phenotype in patients with early and continuously treated phenylketonuria (ECTPKU). However, effort...
Article
Full-text available
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is treated with dietary restrictions and sometimes tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). PKU patients are at risk for developing micronutrient deficiencies, such as vitamin B12 and folic acid, likely due to their diet. Tyrosinemia type 1 (TT1) is similar to PKU in both pathogenesis and treatment. TT1 patients follow a similar diet, but n...
Article
In phenylketonuria (PKU) patients, early diagnosis by neonatal screening and immediate institution of a phenylalanine‐restricted diet can prevent severe intellectual impairment. Nevertheless, outcome remains suboptimal in some patients asking for additional treatment strategies. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) could be one of those treatment options, as...
Article
Background: Childhood fasting intolerance is a life-threatening problem associated with various inborn errors of metabolism. Plasma acylcarnitines reflect fatty acid oxidation and help determine fasting intolerance etiology. Pediatric reference values of plasma acylcarnitines upon fasting are not available, complicating interpretation of stress sa...
Article
Full-text available
Phenylalanine (Phe) tolerance is highly variable in phenylketonuria (PKU) and rarely described in patients aged ≥12 years. Patients ≥12 years of age with PKU were systematically challenged with additional natural protein (NP) if blood Phe levels remained below 480 μmol/L (i.e., upper target blood Phe level for patients aged ≥12 years using Portugue...
Article
Full-text available
To evaluate the Dutch newborn screening (NBS) for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency since 2007, a nationwide retrospective, observational study was performed of clinical, laboratory and epidemiological parameters of patients with MCAD deficiency born between 2007 and 2015. Severe MCAD deficiency was defined by ACADM genotypes as...
Article
Full-text available
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inherited metabolic disease caused by phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) deficiency. As the resulting high blood phenylalanine (Phe) concentration can have detrimental effects on brain development and function, international guidelines recommend lifelong control of blood Phe concentration with dietary and/or medical therapy...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction In phenylketonuria (PKU), a gene mutation in the phenylalanine metabolic pathway causes accumulation of phenylalanine (Phe) in blood and brain. Although early introduction of a Phe-restricted diet can prevent severe symptoms from developing, patients who are diagnosed and treated early still experience deficits in cognitive functioning...
Data
Overview of the mice that reached the humane endpoint or died before the end of the study. (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: In phenylketonuria (PKU), evidence suggests that casein glycomacropeptide supplemented with rate-limiting amino acids (CGMP-AA) is associated with better protein utilisation and less blood phenylalanine (Phe) variability. Aim: To study the impact of CGMP-AA on blood Phe variability using 3 different dietary regimens in children with P...
Article
Full-text available
Newborn screening for phenylketonuria and early introduction of dietary therapy has been remarkably successful in preventing the severe neurological features of phenylketonuria, including mental retardation and epilepsy. However, concerns remain that long‐term outcome is still suboptimal, particularly in adult patients who are no longer on strict p...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is often considered as the classical example of a genetic disorder in which severe symptoms can nowadays successfully be prevented by early diagnosis and treatment. In contrast, untreated or late-treated PKU is known to result in severe intellectual disability, seizures, and behavioral disturbances. Rarely, howeve...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Propionic and methylmalonic acidemia (PA/MMA) are rare inborn errors of metabolism characterized by accumulation of propionyl CoA and/or methylmalonyl CoA, resulting in potentially serious metabolic crises and clinical complications. The gut microbiota contributes a significant proportion of total propionate production and provides a...
Article
Full-text available
It has been nearly 70 years since the discovery that strict adherence to a diet low in phenylalanine prevents severe neurological sequelae in patients with phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency (phenylketonuria; PKU). Today, dietary treatment with restricted phenylalanine intake supplemented with non-phenylalanine amino acids to support growth and m...
Article
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Mitochondrial protein synthesis requires charging mt-tRNAs with their cognate amino acids by mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, with the exception of glutaminyl mt-tRNA (mt-tRNAGln). mt-tRNAGln is indirectly charged by a transamidation reaction involving the GatCAB aminoacyl-tRNA amidotransferase complex. Defects involving the mitochondrial...
Article
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Genomics methodologies have significantly improved elucidation of Mendelian disorders. The combination with high-throughput functional-omics technologies potentiates the identification and confirmation of causative genetic variants, especially in singleton families of recessive inheritance. In a cohort of 99 individuals with abnormal Golgi glycosyl...
Article
Toxic levels of phenylalanine in blood and brain is a characteristic of (untreated) phenylketonuria (PKU), leading to cognitive deficits in PKU mice. In addition, our recent findings showed that PKU mice (as well as PKU patients) have a disturbed sleep/wake cycle. As a consequence, sleep loss may contribute to cognitive deficits in PKU. Sleep loss...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The purpose of this project was to develop a telemedicine platform that supports home site monitoring and integrates biochemical, physiological, and dietary parameters for individual patients with hepatic glycogen storage disease (GSD). Methods and results: The GSD communication platform (GCP) was designed with input from software de...
Article
Full-text available
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive inborn error of phenylalanine metabolism caused by deficiency in the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase that converts phenylalanine into tyrosine. If left untreated, PKU results in increased phenylalanine concentrations in blood and brain, which cause severe intellectual disability, epilepsy and behavio...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: In hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 (HT1) patients, the dose of NTBC that leads to the absence of toxic metabolites such as succinylacetone (SA) is still unknown. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate the variation and concentrations of 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluormethyl-benzyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione (NTBC) during the day in rel...
Article
Molybdenum cofactor deficiency type A (MoCD-A) is an inborn error of metabolism presenting early after birth with severe seizures. Recently, experimental substitution treatment with cyclic pyranopterin monophosphate (cPMP) has become available. Because prenatal data is scarce, we report data of prenatal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in two cases...
Article
Phenylketonuria treatment mainly consists of a phenylalanine-restricted diet but still results in suboptimal neuropsychological outcome, which is at least partly based on cerebral monoamine deficiencies, while, after childhood, treatment compliance decreases. Supplementation of large neutral amino acids (LNAAs) was previously demonstrated in young...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Hereditary Tyrosinemia type 1 (HT1) is a rare metabolic disease caused by a defect in the tyrosine degradation pathway. Current treatment consists of 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenoyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione (NTBC) and a tyrosine and phenylalanine restricted diet. Recently, neuropsychological deficits have been seen in HT1 patients. The...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive and mental health problems in individuals with the inherited metabolic disorder phenylketonuria (PKU) have often been associated with metabolic control and its history. For the present study executive functioning (EF) was assessed in 21 PKU patients during childhood (T1, mean age 10.4 years, SD = 2.0) and again in adulthood (T2, mean age...
Article
Background Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is an autosomal recessively inherited inborn error of metabolism (IEM) due to mutations in the CYP27A1 gene. The clinical picture ranges from being nearly asymptomatic in early childhood, up to severe disability at adult age. Infantile-onset diarrhea and juvenile-onset cataract are the earliest sympto...
Article
Background Autosomal recessive mutations in DNAJC12, encoding a cochaperone of HSP70 with hitherto unknown function, were recently described to lead to hyperphenylalaninemia, central monoamine neurotransmitter (dopamine and serotonin) deficiency, dystonia and intellectual disability in six subjects affected by homozygous variants. Objective Patien...
Chapter
Full-text available
Clinically, Hereditary Tyrosinemia type I (HTI) is especially characterized by severe liver dysfunction in early life. However, recurrent neurological crises are another main finding in these patients when they are treated with a tyrosine and phenylalanine restricted diet only. This is caused by the accumulation of δ-aminolevulinic acid due to the...
Chapter
Since the introduction of 2-(2 nitro-4-3 trifluoro-methylbenzoyl)-1, 3-cyclohexanedione (NTBC), life expectancy of HT1 patients greatly improved. However, due to treatment with NTBC, tyrosine concentrations greatly increase. As a consequence to possible neurocognitive problems, the main objective of dietary therapy in HT1 is to provide adequate nut...
Chapter
Hereditary Tyrosinemia type I (HT1) is clinically mainly characterised by severe liver disease. Most patients present in their first months of life with liver failure, but others can present later with issues of compensated cirrhosis, renal tubulopathy or acute intermittent porphyria. If patients survive the acute phase with liver failure or if the...