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Research Items (32)
The limited flexibility and time-consuming nature of the genetic manipulation procedures applicable to Trypanosoma cruzi continue to restrict the functional dissection of this parasite. We hypothesised that transformation efficiency could be enhanced if electroporation was timed to coincide with DNA replication. To test this, we generated epimastigote cultures enriched at the G1/S boundary using hydroxyurea-induced cell-cycle synchronisation, and then electroporated parasites at various time points after release from the cell-cycle block. We found a significant increase in transformation efficiency, with both episomal and integrative constructs, when cultures were electroporated 1 hour after hydroxyurea removal. It was possible to generate genetically modified populations in less than 2 weeks, compared to the normal 4-6 weeks, with a 5 to 8-fold increase in the number of stably transformed clones. This straightforward optimisation step can be widely applied and should help streamline functional studies in T. cruzi.
Background: Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas disease, a major public health problem throughout Latin America. There is no vaccine and the only drugs have severe side effects. Efforts to generate new therapies are hampered by limitations in our understanding of parasite biology and disease pathogenesis. Studies are compromised by the complexity of the disease, the long-term nature of the infection, and the fact that parasites are barely detectable during the chronic stage. In addition, functional dissection of T. cruzi biology has been restricted by the limited flexibility of the genetic manipulation technology applicable to this parasite. Methodology/principal findings: Here, we describe two technical innovations, which will allow the role of the parasite in disease progression to be better assessed. First, we generated a T. cruzi reporter strain that expresses a fusion protein comprising red-shifted luciferase and green fluorescent protein domains. Bioluminescence allows the kinetics of infection to be followed within a single animal, and specific foci of infection to be pinpointed in excised tissues. Fluorescence can then be used to visualise individual parasites in tissue sections to study host-parasite interactions at a cellular level. Using this strategy, we have been routinely able to find individual parasites within chronically infected murine tissues for the first time. The second advance is the incorporation of a streamlined CRISPR/Cas9 functionality into this reporter strain that can facilitate genome editing using a PCR-based approach that does not require DNA cloning. This system allows the rapid generation of null mutants and fluorescently tagged parasites in a background where the in vivo phenotype can be rapidly assessed. Conclusions/significance: The techniques described here will have multiple applications for studying aspects of T. cruzi biology and Chagas disease pathogenesis previously inaccessible to conventional approaches. The reagents and cell lines have been generated as a community resource and are freely available on request.
- Apr 2018
Piperaceae species are abundant in the tropics and are important components of secondary vegetation. Many of these plants have received considerable attention due to their wide range of biological activities. Here, the trypanocidal activity of extracts and fractions with different polarities obtained from Colombian Piper jericoense plant was evaluated. A furofuran lignan, (1S,3aS,4S,6aS)-1-(3',4'-dimethoxyphenyl)-4-(3″,4″-methylendioxyphenyl)hexahydrofuro[3,4-c]furan, (1), was isolated from Colombian Piper jericoense leaves ethyl acetate extract. Its relative configuration at the stereogenic centers was established on the basis of various spectroscopic analyses, including 1D- (1H, 13C, and DEPT) and 2D-NMR (COSY, NOESY, HMQC and HMBC) and a 2D INADEQUATE NMR experiment as well as by comparison of their spectral data with those of related compounds such as (+)-Kobusin (2). The activity against Trypanosoma cruzi indicated that compound 1 was active against all parasite forms (epimastigote, amastigote and trypomastigote) and presented lower toxicity than the reference drug, benznidazole (Bz), evidenced by a selective index of 18.4 compared to that of Bz, which was 6.7. Moreover, this compound inhibited the infectious process, and it was active in infected mice in the acute phase. This compound significantly inhibited the T. cruzi Fe-SOD enzyme, whereas Cu/Zn-SOD from human cells was not affected. Ultrastructural analyses, together with metabolism-excretion studies in the parasite, were also performed to identify the possible mechanism of action of the tested compound. Interestingly, the lignan affected the parasite structure, but it did not alter the energetic metabolism.
Pathogenic strains of Acanthamoeba cause keratitis (AK), granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE), amoebic pneumonitis (AP), and skin infection in human and animals. The treatment of an Acanthamoeba infection is invariably very difficult and not always effective, and compounds that are amebicidic or amebistatic are frequently toxic and/or irritating for humans. Squaramides and polyamine derivatives have been demonstrated to have antitumor and antiprotozoal activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of 5 squaramides and 5 acyclic polyamines against trophozoites and cysts of A. castellanii Neff. Amoebicidal activity against the trophozoites and cytotoxicity against Vero cells were evaluated with a colorimetric assay, using Alamar Blue®, and chlorhexidine digluconate was assayed as the reference drug. The squaramides 3 and 5 and the acyclic polyamine 6 appeared to be the most active against the trophozoites and their cytotoxicity was low, showing selectivity indexes of 28.3, 26, and 25.7, respectively, similar to the control drug, chlorhexidine digluconate (27.6). But only the squaramide 3 showed complete cysticidal activity at the concentrations of 100 and 200 µM, as the chlorhexidine digluconate. Further studies of the mechanism of action and in vivo assays are needed, but squaramide 3 could be used for developing novel therapeutic approaches against Acanthamoeba infections.
Trypanosoma cruzi, the causal agent of Chagas disease in humans, is a widely spread protozoan in Latin America. Chronically infected people are asymptomatic during an indeterminate stage but can represent a significant risk of transmission due to blood donations and organ transplants. Blood transfusion is recognized as the second most important path for transmitting of Chagas disease; in addition, it can be recognized as the main important route in industrialized non-endemic countries. The aim of the present work was to detect anti-T. cruzi antibodies in blood donors in Cancun, Quintana Roo, Mexico. We implemented 5 serological diagnostic tests in 969 individuals; two in-house ELISAs were used: a wholeparasite lysate (ELISA-H) and other using the semi-purified iron-superoxide dismutase excreted by T. cruzi (ELISA-FeSODe); Western blot against the same antigen (WB-FeSODe), Indirect Immunofluorescence (IIF), and one commercial test. Results: The serological test results showed a seroprevalence range of low to high: from 5 (0.51%) donors by the commercial ELISA (Chagas ELISA IgG+IgM) and 19(1.96%) by IIF, 43(4.43%) detected by ELISA-H; 115 (11.86%) by WB-FeSODe and 148 (15.27%) as the highest seroprevalence by ELISA-FeSODe. Thus, the evaluation of the reliability of the ELISA FeSODe in the diagnosis of Chagas disease showed a sensitivity of 99.13% and specificity of 96.01%. We identified a high prevalence of T. cruzi seropositive donors, suggesting a high risk of contamination through blood transfusion. The excellent sensitivity and good specificity of FeSODe antigen for the detection of anti-T. cruzi antibodies in donors lead us to confirm that the serological test performed with FeSODe would be a helpful test for screening in blood banks as confirmatory test for Chagas disease.
- Apr 2017
The synthesis and antiprotozoal activity of some simple dialkyl pyrazole-3,5-dicarboxylates (compounds 2-6) and their sodium salts (pyrazolates) (compounds 7-9) against Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis are reported. In most cases the studied compounds showed, especially against the clinically significant amastigote forms, in vitro activities higher than those of the reference drugs (benznidazole for T. cruzi and glucantime for Leishmania spp.); furthermore, the low non-specific cytotoxicities against Vero cells and macrophages shown by these compounds led to good selectivity indexes, which are 8-72 times higher for T. cruzi amastigotes and 15-113 times higher for Leishmania spp. amastigotes than those of the respective reference drugs. The high efficiency of diethyl ester 3 and its sodium salt 8 against the mentioned protozoa was confirmed by further in vitro assays on infection rates and by an additional in vivo study in a murine model of acute and chronic Chagas disease. The inhibitory capacity of compounds 3 and 8 on the essential iron superoxide dismutase of the aforementioned parasites may be related to the observed anti-trypanosomatid activity. The low acute toxicity of compounds 3 and 8 in mice is also reported in this article.
- Jul 2016
In order to evaluate the in vitro leishmanicidal activity of N,N′-Squaramides derivatives, compounds that feature both hydrogen bond donor and acceptor groups and are capable of multiple interactions with complementary sites, against Leishmania infantum, L. braziliensis and L. donovani a series of 18compounds was prepared and assayed on extracellular and intracellular parasite forms. Infectivity and cytotoxicity tests were performed on J774.2 macrophage cells using meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) as the reference drug. Changes in metabolite excretion by 1H-NMR and the ultrastructural alterations occurring in the parasites treated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), was analyzed. Compounds 1, 7, 11, 14 and 17 were the more active and less toxic. Infection rates showed that the order of effectiveness was 17 > 11 > 14 > 7 for both L. infantum and L. braziliensis and in the same way, the compound 1 for L. donovani. All these compounds have altered the typical structure of the promastigotes, glycosomes and mitochondria. These severe modifications by the compounds are the ultimate reasons for the alterations observed in the excretion products. The Squaramide 17 (3-(butylamino)-4-((3-(dimetilamino)propyl)(methyl)amino)cyclobut-3-en-1,2-dione) was clearly the most efficient of all compounds. The data appear to confirm that the severe modifications generated in organelles such as glycosomes or mitochondria by the compounds are the ultimate reasons for the alterations observed in the excretion products of all species. The activity, stability, low cost of starting materials, and straightforward synthesis make amino squaramides appropriate molecules for the development of an affordable anti-leishmanial agent.
- Jun 2016
A series of tetraamine-based compounds was prepared, and their trypanocidal effects against Trypanosoma cruzi and cytotoxicity were determined through the determination of IC50 values. In vivo assays were performed in mice, where parasitaemia levels were quantified by fresh blood examination and the assignment of a cure was determined by polymerase chain reaction and reactivation of blood parasitaemia levels after immunosuppression. The mechanisms of action were elucidated at metabolic and ultra-structural levels, by (1)H NMR, Fe-SOD inhibition and TEM studies. The high-selectivity indexes observed in vitro were the basis of promoting one of the tested compounds to in vivo assays. Compound 6 induced a remarkable decrease in the reactivation of parasitaemia after immunosuppression and curative rates of 33%. The experiments allowed us to select compound 6 as a promising candidate for treating Chagas disease, but a further high-level study should be considered to obtain an improved efficiency.
In order to identify new compounds to treat Chagas disease during the acute phase with higher activity and lower toxicity than the reference drug benznidazole (Bz), two hydroxyphthalazine derivative compounds were prepared and their trypanocidal effects against Trypanosoma cruzi were evaluated by light microscopy through the determination of IC50 values. Cytotoxicity was determined by flow cytometry assays against Vero cells. In vivo assays were performed in BALB/c mice, in which the parasitemia levels were quantified by fresh blood examination; the assignment of a cure was determined by reactivation of blood parasitemia levels after immunosuppression. The mechanism of action was elucidated at metabolic and ultra-structural levels, by 1H NMR and TEM studies. Finally, as these compounds are potentially capable of causing oxidative damage in the parasites, the study was completed, by assessing their activity as potential iron superoxide dismutase (Fe-SOD) inhibitors. High-selectivity indices observed in vitro were the basis of promoting one of the tested compounds to in vivo assays. The tests on the murine model for the acute phase of Chagas disease showed better parasitemia inhibition values than those found for Bz. Compound 2 induced a remarkable decrease in the reactivation of parasitemia after immunosuppression. Compound 2 turned out to be a great inhibitor of Fe-SOD. The high antiparasitic activity and low toxicity together with the modest costs for the starting materials render this compound an appropriate molecule for the development of an affordable anti-Chagas agent.
The anti-chagasic activity of a series of eleven derivatives of aza-scorpiand-like macrocycles, some of them newly synthesised, was assayed. The four compounds with the best selectivity indices in vitro were subjected to in vivo assays. Tests in a murine model of the acute phase of Chagas disease showed a two-fold reduction in parasitaemia compared to that with benznidazole. Furthermore, compounds 7 and 11, with 4-pyridine and phenanthroline substituents in the lateral chain, caused a remarkable decrease in parasitaemia reactivation during the chronic phase after inducing immunosuppression in mice. These activity studies were complemented by measuring their inhibitory effect towards the antioxidant parasite-specific enzymes Fe-superoxide dismutase (Fe-SOD) and trypanothione reductase (TR), the metabolites excreted after treatment and ultrastructural alterations. The ability of selected macrocycles to complex with Fe(II) and Fe(III) was studied by potentiometric methods. Detailed molecular dynamics studies provided interesting hints about the way in which the compounds approach and modify the active centre of Fe-SOD. The activity, low toxicity, stability, low cost of the starting materials and straightforward synthesis make these compounds appropriate molecules for the development of affordable anti-chagasic agents.
To classify 21 new isolates of Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) according to the Discrete Typing Unit (DTU) which they belong to, as well as tune up a new pair of primers designed to detect the parasite in biological samples. Strains were isolated, DNA extracted, and classified by using three Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR). Subsequently this DNA was used along with other isolates of various biological samples, for a new PCR using primers designed. Finally, the amplified fragments were sequenced. It was observed the predominance of DTU I in Colombia, as well as the specificity of our primers for detection of T. cruzi, while no band was obtained when other species were used. This work reveals the genetic variability of 21 new isolates of T. cruzi in Colombia.Our primers confirmed their specificity for detecting the presence of T. cruzi. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Intestinal parasites are common in the Moroccan population. Enteroparasites in children from four schools in urban and rural areas of Tetouan (Morocco) were studied to treat these children and to design prevention and control programs. A total of 673 children were examined. The prevalence of parasitized children was 51%. The average number of enteroparasites was half in urban areas than in rural areas. Multiple parasitism appeared in 30% of the samples presenting two, three, or four parasites. The most prevalent parasite was Blastocystis hominis (64%). Giardia duodenalis was the most frequent pathogen, with an overall prevalence of 20% (24% in rural areas and 16% in urban areas). Other pathogenic enteroparasites were Cyclospora cayetanensis (5% in rural and urban areas), Iodamoeba butschlii, Hymenolepis spp., Trichuris trichiura and Enterobius vermicularis, with prevalence lower than 2%. In this work, G. duodenalis genotypes were molecularly characterized by a study of the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and 18S rRNA genes. This is the first study of molecular characterization of G. duodenalis in Moroccan children, and the sequence analysis revealed both Assemblage A (AII) and Assemblage B (BIII, BIV), with the predominance of Assemblage BIV (73%).
SUMMARY The in vitro leishmanicidal activity and cytotoxicity of pyrazole-containing macrocyclic polyamines 1-4 was assayed on Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis species. Compounds 1-4 were more active and less toxic than glucantime and both infection rates and ultrastructural alterations confirmed that 1 and 2 were highly leishmanicidal and induced extensive parasite cell damage. Modifications in the excretion products of parasites treated with 1-3 were also consistent with substantial cytoplasm alterations. Compound 2 was highlighted as a potent inhibitor of Fe-SOD in both species, whereas its effect on human CuZn-SOD was poor. Molecular modelling suggested that 2 could deactivate Fe-SOD due to a sterically favoured enhanced ability to interact with the H-bonding net that supports the enzyme`s antioxidant features.
- Jan 2014
Access to basic drugs is a major issue in developing countries. Chagas disease caused by the Trypanosoma cruzi is a paradigmatic example of a chronic disease without an effective treatment. Current treatments based on benznidazole and nifurtimox are expensive, ineffective and toxic. N,N'-Squaramides are amide-type compounds that feature both hydrogen bond donor and acceptor groups and are capable of multiple interactions with complementary sites. When combined with amine and carboxylic groups, squaramide compounds have increased solubility and therefore make suitable therapeutic agents. In this work, we introduce a group of Lipinski's Ro5 compliant squaramides as candidates for treating Chagas disease. The in vivo studies confirmed the positive expectations arising from the preliminary in vitro studies, revealing compound 17 to be the most effective for both acute and chronic phases. The activity, stability, low cost of starting materials and straightforward synthesis make amino squaramides appropriate molecules for the development of an affordable anti-Chagasic agent.
A study of intestinal parasites in school children in urban and rural areas of Tetouan (Morocco) was conducted. Before it was performed a comparative quantitative study of Faust's and Ritchie's techniques in order to optimize intestinal parasites diagnosis and to determine the techniques effectiveness. The Ritchie's technique resulted the most effective for the detection of both protozoan and helminthes, especially under conditions of low parasite burdens. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was 65% and 71% in rural and urban areas respectively. Overall, the prevalence of protozoa that was found was higher than the one detected for helminths. The most frequent of the intestinal parasites was the protozoa Blastocystis hominis and the most frequent pathogenic protozoa were Giardia lamblia followed by Cyclospora cayetanensis. Among the helminths Trichuris trichiura, Hymenolepis nana, H. diminuta, Enterobius vermicularis, Taenia saginata, Ascaris lumbricoides and Fasciola hepatica. Giardia lamblia showed notable differences between boys and girls in urban areas. To compare the prevalence of parasites in children with the same sex in different areas the differences were only found in boys infected by B. hominis, G. lamblia and E. nana. Multiple parasitism appeared in 29% of the samples presenting two, three or four parasites.
- Jan 2013
The activity of a family scorpiand-like azamacrocycles against Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis was studied using promastigotes, axenic and intracellular amastigotes forms. All the compounds are more active and less toxic than meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime). Moreover, the data on infection rates and amastigotes showed that compounds P2Py, PN and P3Py are the most active against both species of Leishmania. On the other hand, studies on the inhibitory effect of these compounds on SOD enzymes showed that while the inhibition of the Fe-SOD enzyme of the promastigote forms of the parasites is remarkable, the inhibition of human CuZn-SOD and Mn-SOD from Escherichia coli is negligible. The ultrastructural alterations observed in treated promastigote forms confirmed that the compounds having the highest activity were those causing the largest cell damage. The modifications observed by (1)H NMR, and the amounts of catabolites excreted by the parasites after treatment with the compounds, suggested that the catabolic mechanism could depend on the structure of the side chains linked to the aza-scorpiand macrocycles.
- Oct 2012
A series of new phthalazine derivatives 1-4 containing imidazole rings were prepared. The monoalkylamino substituted derivatives 2 and 4 were more active in vitro against T. cruzi and less toxic against Vero cells than both their disubstituted analogues and the reference drug benznidazole. Compounds 2 and 4 highly inhibited the antioxidant parasite enzyme Fe-SOD, and molecular modeling suggested that they interact with the H-bonding system of the iron atom moiety. In vivo tests on the acute phase of Chagas disease gave parasitemia inhibition values twice those of benznidazole, and a remarkable decrease in the reactivation of parasitemia was found in the chronic phase for immunodeficient mice. Glucose metabolism studies showed that compounds 1-4 did not affect the succinate pathway but originated important changes in the excretion of pyruvate metabolites. The morphological alterations found in epimastigotes treated with 1-4 confirmed extensive cytoplasm damage and a high mortality rate of parasites.
- Jul 2012
Four terpenoid derivatives were examined for their activity against Trypanosoma cruzi. Our results show that two compounds were very active in vitro against both extra- and intracellular forms. These compounds, non-toxic for the host cells, are more effective than the reference drug benznidazole. The capacity to infect cells was negatively affected and the number of amastigotes and trypomastigotes was reduced. A wide range of ultrastructural alterations was found in the epimastigote forms treated with these compounds. Some metabolic changes occurred presumably at the level of succinate and acetate production, perhaps caused by the disturbance of the enzymes involved in sugar metabolism inside the mitochondria. In vivo results were consistent with those observed in vitro. The parasitic load was significantly lower than in the control assay with benznidazole. The effects of these products showed the reduction of the anti-T. cruzi antibodies level during the chronic stage.
The activity of five (1-5) abietane phenol derivatives against Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis was studied using promastigotes and axenic and intracellular amastigotes. Infectivity and cytotoxicity tests were performed with J774.2 macrophage cells using Glucantime as a reference drug. The mechanisms of action were analysed by performing metabolite excretion and transmission electron microscopy ultrastructural studies. Compounds 1-5 were more active and less toxic than Glucantime. The infection rates and mean number of parasites per cell observed in amastigote experiments showed that derivatives 2, 4 and 5 were the most effective against both L. infantum and L. braziliensis. The ultrastructural changes observed in the treated promastigote forms confirmed that the greatest cell damage was caused by the most active compound (4). Only compound 5 caused changes in the nature and amounts of catabolites excreted by the parasites, as measured by ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. All of the assayed compounds were active against the two Leishmania species in vitro and were less toxic in mammalian cells than the reference drug.
The in vitro and in vivo anti- Trypanosoma cruzi activity of the pyrazole-containing macrobicyclic polyamine 1 and N-methyl- and N-benzyl-substituted monocyclic polyamines 2 and 3 was studied. Activity against both the acute and chronic phases of Chagas disease was considered. The compounds were more active against the parasite and less toxic against Vero cells than the reference drug benznidazole, but 1 and 2 were especially effective, where cryptand 1 was the most active, particularly in the chronic phase. The activity results found for these compounds were complemented and discussed by considering their inhibitory effect on the iron superoxide dismutase enzyme of the parasite, the nature of the metabolites excreted after treatment, and the ultrastructural alterations produced. A complementary histopathological analysis confirmed that the compounds tested were significantly less toxic to mammals than the reference drug and that 1 and 2 exhibited lower levels of damage than 3.
VII Taller sobre la Enfermedad de Chagas Importada. Avances en el Tratamiento Antiparasitario. Barcelona, España. 5/03/2012.
To evaluate the in vitro leishmanicidal activity of imidazole-based (1-4) and pyrazole-based (5-6) benzo[g]phthalazine derivatives against Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis. The in vitro activity of compounds 1-6 was assayed on extracellular promastigote and axenic amastigote forms, and on intracellular amastigote forms of the parasites. Infectivity and cytotoxicity tests were performed on J774.2 macrophage cells using meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) as the reference drug. The mechanisms of action were analysed by iron superoxide dismutase (Fe-SOD) and copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) inhibition, metabolite excretion and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). Compounds 1-6 were more active and less toxic than meglumine antimoniate. Data on infection rates and amastigote mean numbers showed that 2, 4 and 6 were more active than 1, 3 and 5 in both L. infantum and L. braziliensis. The inhibitory effect of these compounds on the antioxidant enzyme Fe-SOD of promastigote forms of the parasites was remarkable, whereas inhibition of human CuZn-SOD was negligible. The ultrastructural alterations observed in treated promastigote forms confirmed the greater cell damage caused by the most active compounds 2, 4 and 6. The modifications observed by (1)H-NMR in the nature and amounts of catabolites excreted by the parasites after treatment with 1-6 suggested that the catabolic mechanisms could depend on the structure of the side chains linked to the benzo[g]phthalazine moiety. All the compounds assayed were active in vitro against the two Leishmania species and were less toxic against mammalian cells than the reference drug, but the monosubstituted compounds were significantly more effective and less toxic than their disubstituted counterparts.
- Apr 2011
The in vitro and in vivo trypanocidal activities of nine flavonoids (1-9) isolated from the aerial parts of Delphinium staphisagria have been studied in both the acute and chronic phases of Chagas disease. The antiproliferative activity of these substances against Trypanosoma cruzi (epimastigote, amastigote, and trypomastigote forms) in some cases exhibited more potent antitrypanosomatid activity and lower toxicity than the reference drug, benznidazole. Studies in vitro using ultrastructural analysis together with metabolism-excretion studies were also performed in order to identify the possible action mechanism of the compounds tested. Alterations mainly at the level of the mitochondria may explain metabolic changes in succinate and acetate production, perhaps due to the disturbance of the enzymes involved in sugar metabolism within the mitochondrion. In vivo studies provided results consistent with those observed in vitro. No signs of toxicity were detected in mice treated with the flavonoids tested, and the parasitic charge was significantly lower than in the control assay with benznidazole. The effects of these compounds were also demonstrated with the change in the anti-T. cruzi antibody levels during the chronic stage.
The in vivo trypanosomicidal activity of the imidazole-based benzo[g]phthalazine derivatives 1-4 and of the new related pyrazole-based compounds 5 and 6 has been studied in both the acute and chronic phases of Chagas disease. As a rule, compounds 1-6 were more active and less toxic than benznidazole in the two stages of the disease, and the monosubstituted derivatives 2, 4, and 6 were more effective than their disubstituted analogs. Feasible mechanisms of action of compounds 1-6 against the parasite have been explored by considering their inhibitory effect on the Fe-SOD enzyme, the nature of the excreted metabolites and the ultrastructural alterations produced. A complementary histopathological analysis has confirmed that the monosubstituted derivatives are less toxic than the reference drug, with the behavior of the imidazole-based compound 4 being especially noteworthy.
- Oct 2010
Seven ternary nickel(II) complexes (three previously described and four firstly described here) with an azapurine derivative (the anionic form of 4,6-dimethyl-1,2,3-triazolo[4,5-d]pyrimidin-5,7-dione) have been synthesized and spectroscopically characterized, and the crystal structures of three of them have been solved by X-ray diffraction. Studies in vitro and in vivo on the antiproliferative activity of these complexes against Trypanosoma cruzi (epimastigote, amastigote, and trypomastigote forms) have been carried out, displaying in some cases significantly higher antitrypanosomatid activity and lower toxicity than the reference drug for Chagas' disease, benznidazole (N-benzyl-2-(2-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)acetamide). Ultrastructural analysis and metabolism excretion studies were also executed in order to propose a possible mechanism of action for the assayed drugs.