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Francisco Thoumi

Francisco Thoumi
International Narcotics Control Board

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84
Publications
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842
Citations
Citations since 2017
5 Research Items
237 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023010203040

Publications

Publications (84)
Chapter
This chapter explores the logic of the international drug conventions and their “comprehensive, integrated, and balanced” drug policy approach that rejects all “nonmedical and scientific” drug uses and implicitly seeks a drug-free world. It questions the logic of that policy approach, its consistency with the reasons given for the conventions, and...
Article
Full-text available
The conventions of the UN international drug control system limit the uses of controlled substances to medical and scientific purposes, but do not define the meaning of this expression means. This situation generates a legal gap or lacunae that makes it impossible to determine whether a policy complies with the international conventions. These conv...
Chapter
A brief history of the evolution or Mexican drug organizations.
Article
Full-text available
This essay studies the recreational marihuana policies of Colorado and Washington State and the constitutional conflicts between federal and state powers that make it very difficult for the federal government to enforce its drug laws and the international conventions on the states. The essay summarizes the development of the International Drug Cont...
Article
This essay studies the recreational marihuana policies of Colorado and Washington State and the constitutional conflicts between federal and state powers that make it very difficult for the federal government to enforce its drug laws and the international conventions on the states. The essay summarizes the development of the International Drug Cont...
Article
Illegal drugs develop in vulnerable societies. Antidrug policies fail because they do not attack those vulnerabilities; most only attack some of the contributing or risk factors that help the illegal drug industry development. Political systems, particularly those of nonauthoritarian regimes in pluralistic societies, are ill suited to prohibit indi...
Article
This paper is inspired by two anomalies encountered in the study of the illegal drugs industry. First, despite the very high profits of coca/cocaine and poppy/opium/heroin production, most countries that can produce do not. Why, for example, does Colombia face much greater competition in the international coffee, banana, and other legal product mar...
Chapter
This essay traces the evolution of Organized Crime (OC) in Colombia in the post WWII period. It also highlights the country’s structure: its geography, historical and institutional development that made it very vulnerable to the development of transnational OC. By today’s definition, OC has always existed in Colombia but it was a local fixture. The...
Article
Full-text available
None of the prevalent paradigms helps explain why the great majority of countries that can cultivate coca and corn poppy and produce cocaine and heroin do not make it, that is, why the illegal production of those drugs is so concentrated being so profitable; or why in the countries where traditional cultivations of coca were common, big dealing org...
Article
All societies have to control individual behaviors that are considered as socially damaging. The use of mind altering drugs is one such behavior. These controls have always been determined locally but in the 20th Century an international drug control regime was developed that established a globally unified normative control system formulated in the...
Article
The international drug control regime is formulated under a basic paradigm: all drugs included in the convention schedules I, II and IV can only have medical and research uses. The policies derived from these conventions forbid all recreational, ritual, experimental, or self-medicating consumption of coca, cocaine, opium, heroin, marijuana and many...
Article
Full-text available
Narco-trafficking moves between 20 and 30 percent of the world economy. (Ríos, FARC-EP, 2000, p. 154) Drugs provide Colombia's biggest source of foreign income, nearly 36 percent of its total gross national product. (Freemantle, 1986, p. 211)
Article
In 1970 Colombia was not known for its cocaine or illegal drugs production and Afghanistan was and had been for a long time a minor producer of opium. In fact, opium had not been a "traditional" crop in Afghanistan and before the nineties it had been grown only in a few places around the country. Unlike the majority of the countries in this region,...
Chapter
Criminal impunity combined with rampant violence has created an environment in which vigilante justice and retribution has replaced legal recourse. Human rights abuses are pervasive. Violent deaths are only one indicator of this problem. Colombia today accounts for about one-half of all kidnappings reported in the world and extortion from businesse...
Article
This essay analyses the nature of the drug policy formulation problem, describes a theory of competitive advantage in illicit drugs, draws some policy implications from this theory, analyses the characteristics of the main drug producing countries that make them prone to develop the illicit drugs industry, surveys the evolution of anti-drug policie...
Article
... La gran concentración de la industria de drogas ilegales contradice creencias y lugares comunes respecto a las razones por las cuales un país produce dichas substancias. Comúnmente se afirma que las drogas ilegales se producen simplemente porque son muy rentables. Esta afirmación es simple y trivial, pues nadie, a excepción de algunas organizac...
Article
The implementation of anti-drug policies that focus on illicit crops in the Andean countries faces many significant obstacles, one of which is the cultural clash it generates between the main stakeholders. On the one hand one finds the governments and agencies that attempt to implement crop substitution and eradication policies and on the other the...
Chapter
At UNGASS-98 the United Nations Office of Drug Control and Crime Prevention (ODCCP) proposed an ambitious program to substantially reduce the availability of coca and poppy based drugs by 2008. This goal was scaled down from an even more ambitious one, originally put forward by Pino Arlacchi, then ODCCP under- secretary general, which aimed to elim...
Article
Policies towards mind-altering drugs are controversial and vary among countries and cultures. Many nations feel that the United Nations should be a forum where anti-drug issues can be discussed openly and `objectively'. During the 1990s I participated frequently in U.N. sponsored research projects. This essay summarize what has been a challenging a...
Article
During the past thirty years, the illegal drug industry has marked Colombia's development. In no other country has the illegal drug industry had such dramatic social, political, and economic effects. This short article provides a synthesis of the development of the marijuana, coca-cocaine, and poppy-opium-heroin illegal industries. It studies the d...
Article
During the past thirty years, the illegal drug industry has marked Colombia's development. In no other country has the illegal drug industry had such dramatic social, political, and economic effects. This short article provides a synthesis of the development of the marijuana, coca-cocaine, and poppy-opium-heroin illegal industries. It studies the d...
Article
Estudia la evolución de la estructura económica regional y urbana y el crecimiento de las diferentes regiones del país durante el período 1960 – 1975, con el fin de identificar elementos importantes que influyen en el crecimiento económico regional y urbano, de evaluar la importancia de las políticas económicas generales y espaciales sobre dicho cr...
Article
Full-text available
La relación entre corrupción y el desarrollo de la industria de drogas ilegales y del narcotráfico en un país es circular. La corrupción es simultáneamente causa y efecto de dichos desarrollos. tanto la corrupción como el narcotráfico muchas veces son resultado de porcesos de deslegitimación del régimen político y de deterioro de las instituciones...
Article
Full-text available
Desde una perspectiva histórica discute la paradoja de un crecimiento sostenido y mejoras en los indicadores sociales en medio de una escalada en los niveles de violencia y corrupción, para lo cual toma como referencia los planes de desarrollo y la política económica de los últimos treinta años. en la dinámica del crecimiento económico reciente se...
Article
This chapter uses the case of Ecuador to explore the political economy of muddling towards adjustment. Here, muddling refers to a pattern of policy reform in which changes are often successfully introduced but then suffer from considerable slippage as they are altered or reversed in response to a variety of political and economic pressures. We are...
Article
Mainstream economists blame the poor 1980s economic performance of most Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries on the poor economic policies followed by the region for the past several decades and recommend drastic policy changes including (a) elimination of many subsidies, (b) lowering tariffs and other obstacles to international trade, (c)...
Article
Economic growth and government policies in small Caribbean countries have been conditioned (1) by the very large fluctuations in their external sector which continuously change the relative profitability of the various productive sectors of their economies, greatly complicating the macroeconomics management of their economies; (2) by the attempts o...
Article
A gravity equation is used to analyze intra-Latin American and Caribbean trade, which is shown to depend mainly on the exporters' GNP and distance. Importers' GNP and exporter government policies are also relevant variables. Richer countries import more natural resource-based products than manufactures from poorer ones. Thus, larger richer countrie...
Chapter
One of the main justifications used to promote systems of economic integration in Latin America was the need to dampen the effects of the fluctuations of the value of the region’s exports to the rest of the world. The advocates for economic integration expected that the Latin American regional market would provide a more stable base for development...
Article
El desarrollo de las exportaciones de manufacturas siguió un sendero similar en la Argentina y en el Brasil. Las políticas de protección durante los años '50 y '60 y la sustitución de importaciones proveyeron en ambos países el aprendizaje requerido para alcanzar los mercados externos. La composición de las exportaciones que resultó es diferente de...
Article
Full-text available
El periodo 1970-1984 trajo grandes transformaciones para la economía colombiana. A nivel agregado, la economía creció a un ritmo más bien rápido hasta 1980, cuando el país comenzó a sentir la recesión mundial. El proceso de urbanización continuó a paso firme aunque moderado, y se consolidó el cambio de una economía predominante rural a otra urbana,...
Article
Differences in the degree of economic development and diversification among members of economic integration systems could easily create obstacles to economic integration, as they tend to have an impact on the distribution of costs and benefits of economic integration processes. There are several reasons why the Least Developed Members (LDMs) within...
Article
Shows that, in the large and relatively more industrialized economies of Argentina and Brazil, exports resulted not only from further processing of natural resources, in which these countries enjoyed a comparative advantage, but also from manufactures that they learned to produce during the import-substitution phase. Concludes that the substantial...
Article
Economic development—defined by growth of GNP per capita—among the poor countries of the world during the last 25 years has been higher than in almost any other period in mankind's history. Although this growth might have not been as high as that expected by some policy makers, the 1950-1975 period shows an overall improvement over the recent past....
Article
Colombia's industrial sector, which began to develop in the early 20th century, became a target of a deliberate import-substitution policy following World War II. This programme of import-substitution yielded to an emphasis on more balanced growth and export promotion in the early 1960s. The creation of the Andean Group raised hopes for the success...
Article
This essay develops a model which determines the optimum age at which to import a durable good, the optimum period of time during which it should be used, and the welfare costs of nonoptimum import-use patterns. An estimation of such costs is made for the case of bus chassis imports in Colombia.
Article
La relación entre corrupción y el desarrollo de la industria de drogas ilegales y del narcotráfico en un país es circular. La corrupción es simultáneamente causa y efecto de dichos desarrollos. Tanto la corrupción como el narcotráfico muchas veces son resultado de procesos de deslegitimación del régimen político y de deterioro de las instituciones...
Article
Desde una perspectiva histórica discute la paradoja de un crecimiento sostenido y mejoras en los indicadores sociales en medio de una escalada en los niveles de violencia y corrupción, para lo cual toma como referencia los planes de desarrollo y la política económica de los últimos treinta años. En la dinámica del crecimiento económico reciente se...
Article
Todas las sociedades han tenido y tienen que controlar los comportamientos individuales que se considera que generan o pueden generar efectos socialmente nocivos. Históricamente, la gama de estos comportamientos ha sido muy amplia, incluyendo comportamientos sexuales, políticos y religiosos, otros relacionados con los juegos de azar, las agresiones...
Article
Durante los últimos años se ha insinuado la posibilidad de abrir el debate sobre la flexibilización de las políticas contra las drogas. Esto indica que a pesar de las afir-maciones oficiales de la Oficina de las Naciones Unidas Contra la Droga y el Delito (Onudd) sobre el éxito de las políticas punitivas y represivas contra las drogas, para muchos...
Article
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Minnesota, 1973. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 103-105). Microfilm. s
Article
"This article originally appeared in the southern economic journal, vol. 50, number 3, january 1984" INcluye bibliografía
Article
"Este trabajo fué publicado en Desarrollo y Sociedad, no. 11, Mayo de 1983, Universidad de Los Andes, Colombia. Se ha reproducido con la autorización del Centro de Estudios sobre Desarrollo Económico (CEDE), Universidad de Los Andes"
Article
"Este trabajo fué publicado en Desarrollo y Sociedad, no. 10, enero de 1983, por CEDE-Uniandes, Bogotá, Colombia. Se ha reproducido con la autorización de CEDE" Incluye bibliografía
Article
Antes publicado en Desarrollo y Sociedadno. 14, mayo de 1984, CEDE, Uniandes Incluye bibliografía
Article
Antes publicado en el Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs, vol. 27, no. 4, Winter 1985-86 Incluye bibliografía
Article
This article originally appeared in the Newer Caribbean decolonization, democracy and Development Incluye bibliografía

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