Francisco J Sierro

Francisco J Sierro
Universidad de Salamanca · Department of Geology

Doctor in Geology

About

433
Publications
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15,121
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January 2000 - December 2005
Universidad de Salamanca

Publications

Publications (433)
Article
Full-text available
Despite the rise in published evidence of deep‐marine bottom current processes and associated deposits there are still very few documented outcrop examples. Herein are reported results of a contourite channel system related to the late Miocene palaeo‐Mediterranean Outflow Water in the Rifian Corridor, Morocco. This work aims to unravel the sediment...
Article
Full-text available
Calcareous nannofossil assemblages and fragmentation ratios of two coccolithophore species (Coccolithus pelagicus and Calcidiscus leptoporus) were analysed in samples from ODP Site 1090, South Atlantic (42° 54.8′S, 8° 53.9′E), to obtain valuable insights into the paleoceanographic evolution and carbonate preservation trends during the late Pliocene...
Article
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Benthic foraminiferal, sedimentological, and stable isotope analyses performed on early Zanclean sediments from Alboran Basin ODP Site 976 and southern Spanish land-based sections in the Malaga, Nijar and Sorbas basins have enabled the reconstruction of Mediterranean environmental conditions immediately after the Messinian Salinity Crisis. The pres...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Detrital grains content in contourite sediments has been used as a Mediterranean Overflow Water (MOW) strength proxy along Iberian Margin in different ways. Fine sand fraction is considered to be an allogenic-detrital component and is widely used as a MOW strength proxy, whereas the coarser fraction mainly consist of pelagic and bioclastic particle...
Article
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The planktonic foraminiferal species Globorotalia truncatulinoides is widely used as a biostratigraphic proxy for the Quaternary in the Mediterranean region. High-resolution quantitative studies performed on sediment cores collected in the central and western Mediterranean Sea evidence a significant abundance of G. truncatulinoides during the Middl...
Article
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The study of planktic and benthic δ¹⁸O at site U1389 in the Gulf of Cadiz allowed us to reconstruct climate variability during the penultimate glacial period at an unprecedented millennial scale resolution. Hereby, a sequence of interstadial-stadial episodes similar to the Dansgaard-Oeschger events recorded during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS)3, were...
Article
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We present a new high-resolution reconstruction of annual sea-surface temperatures (SSTa) and net primary productivity (NPP) using novel coccolithophore-based models developed for the Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEP). We combined published coccolithophore census counts from core-tops in the Eastern Pacific with 32 new samples from the Equatorial re...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Ocean Acidification (OA) is considered a major threat and is projected to impact all areas of global ocean, therefore understanding its ecological impacts remains a priority for science and management. The Mediterranean Sea is considered a highly vulnerable region, so we analyzed material coming from Planier sediment trap in order to characterize t...
Conference Paper
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The Late Miocene deposits in the Sorbas Basin (Spain) have been of an extreme importance in the understanding of the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) events (5.97-5.33 Ma). They consist of four formations. The pre-crisis Abad marls topped by the evaporitic Yesares gypsum member, followed by two non-evaporitic units known as the Sorbas and Zorreras m...
Article
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Foreland basins are normally dominated by turbidite deposits in the early stages of their evolution. In this work, we show evidences of bottom current influence in the Algarve basin, which evolved as a foredeep basin of the Betic-Rif orogeny, during which the paleo-Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) was active through the Betic and Rifian corridors....
Article
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Trace fossil assemblages are studied at Ocean Discovery Program Site 977 to characterize the response of the macrobenthic trace maker community to deep paleoenvironmental conditions during the Termination V (TV) and interglacial Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 at the western Mediterranean Alboran Sea. An assemblage composed of Chondrites, Planolites,...
Article
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Integration of foraminiferal and geochemical data (stable isotope and elemental composition) from West Alboran Basin (WAB) ODP Site 976 allowed evaluation of the effects of the initial Mediterranean – Atlantic restriction event preceding the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) in a context of late Miocene cooling and diminishing water – mass exchange c...
Article
Long-chain unsaturated alkenones produced by haptophyte algae are widely used as paleotemperature indicators. The unsaturation relationship to temperature is linear at mid-latitudes, however, non-linear responses detected in subpolar regions of both hemispheres have suggested complicating factors in these environments. To assess the influence of bi...
Article
We present a high-resolution analysis of seven marine sediment records from the western Mediterranean in a transect from the Algero-Balearic basin to the Alboran Sea, spanning the last 20 ka, to decipher the paleoenvironmental and paleoceanographic evolution of the Western Mediterranean Sea. To do so, diverse elemental ratios have been used for rec...
Article
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A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00367-021–00,703-w
Article
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Planktonic foraminifer oxygen isotopes through MIS 12 were analysed from Ocean Drilling Program Site 977 in the Alboran Sea. After the correction of the sea surface temperature (SST) effect on the δ¹⁸O composition of foraminiferal calcite, the resulting seawater δ¹⁸O (δ¹⁸Ow) was used to reconstruct variations in the δ¹⁸Ow of the Atlantic inflow int...
Article
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Late Miocene contourite deposits related to the paleo-Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) were identified in the Betic and Rifian corridors prior to the restriction of the Mediterranean-Atlantic gateway during the latest Miocene. In this study, we identified for the first time their downstream continuation in the Gulf of Cádiz through seismic stratig...
Article
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The sensitivity of coccolithophores to changing CO2 and its role in modulating cellular photosynthetic carbon isotopic fractionation (εp) is crucial to understand i) the future adaptation of these organisms to higher CO2 world and ii) to assess the reliability of εp for past CO2 estimation. Here, we present εp measured on natural fossil samples acr...
Conference Paper
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Though the Strait of Gibraltar today is the only seaway that connects the Mediterranean Sea with the global ocean, in the late Miocene the Mediterranean-Atlantic gateway was composed of multiple connections through the Betic and Rifian corridors. Due to the position of the Gibraltar Arc in region of convergence of the African European plates, the a...
Article
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The Mediterranean-Atlantic water-mass exchange provides the ideal setting for deciphering the role of gateway evolution in ocean circulation. However, the dynamics of Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) during closure of the Late Miocene Mediterranean-Atlantic gateways are poorly understood. Here, we define the sedimentary evolution of Neogene basins...
Article
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Nowadays, primary productivity variations at the SW Iberian Margin (IbM) are primarily controlled by wind-driven upwelling. Thus, major changes in atmospheric circulation and wind regimes between the Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 12 and 9 could have driven substantial changes in phytoplankton productivity which remains poorly understood. We present a...
Conference Paper
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There is an increasing interest in understanding the role of coccolithophores, a group of major calcifying phytoplankton, in the marine carbon cycle: they have a dual contribution to the operation of the carbonate and biological pumps during their lifecycle. How the recent changes in seawater carbonate chemistry are affecting their production and c...
Conference Paper
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The Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC), still highly discussed within the scientific community, affected the Mediterranean Sea between 5.97 and 5.33 Ma and led to the deposition of huge evaporite accumulations both in its marginal and deep basins. During this profound palaeoecological change, the connections between the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranea...
Article
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Idealized facies of bottom current deposits (contourites) have been established for fine‐grained contourite drifts in modern deep‐marine sedimentary environments. Their equivalent facies in the ancient record however are only scarcely recognized due to the weathered nature of most fine‐grained deposits in outcrop. Facies related to the erosional el...
Conference Paper
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La Crisi di Salinità del Messiniano ha interessato il Mar Mediterraneo tra 5.97 e 5.33 Ma ed ha portato alla deposizione di enormi accumuli di depositi evaporitici sia nei bacini marginali che in quelli profondi. Anche se tuttora largamente dibattuto, questo evento paleo-ambientale estremo è stato probabilmente causato dalla riduzione o addirittura...
Article
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The late Miocene evolution of the Mediterranean Basin is characterized by major changes in connectivity, climate and tectonic activity resulting in unprecedented environmental and ecological disruptions. During the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC, 5.97-5.33 Ma) this culminated in most scenarios first in the precipitation of gypsum around the Mediter...
Article
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Late Miocene sedimentary records in the Gibraltar arch region hold fundamental information on the Atlantic-Mediterranean connectivity before, during and after the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC; 5.96-5.33 Ma). In this work we tackle this still unresolved problem through a detailed foraminifer-based biostratigraphy, micro- paleontological and geoche...
Article
Full-text available
Late Miocene sedimentary records in the Gibraltar arch region hold fundamental information on the Atlantic-Mediterranean connectivity before, during and after the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC; 5.96-5.33 Ma). In this work we tackle this still unresolved problem through a detailed foraminifer-based biostratigraphy, micropaleontological and geochemi...
Article
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During each Heinrich stadial (HS), temperatures in southern Europe typically dropped several degrees during several hundred to few thousand years. We have developed a one-dimensional thermal conduction model that transfers the typical surface temperature anomaly of a HS to a series of hypothetical underlying caves. The results show that with increa...
Article
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Despite numerous efforts to properly differentiate between contourites and other deep-water deposits in cores and outcrops, reliable diagnostic criteria are still lacking. The co-occurrence of downslope and along-slope sedimen-tary processes makes it particularly difficult to differentiate these relatively homogeneous deposits. The main aim of this...
Article
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A high-resolution study of the MIS 12/MIS 11 transition and the MIS 11 (430–376 kyr) coccolithophore assemblages at Ocean Drilling Program Site 977 was conducted to reconstruct the palaeoceanographic and climatic changes in the Alboran Sea from the variability in surface water conditions. The nannofossil record was integrated with the planktonic ox...
Conference Paper
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A high-resolution coccolithophore analysis, along with oxygen and carbonate isotopes and UK´37 alkenone-derived sea-surface temperatures (SSTs), was carried out on western Mediterranean ODP Site 977 (Alborán Sea) sediments, with the aim of reconstructing changes in palaeoproductivity and surface dynamics at the millennial scale during Marine Isotop...
Conference Paper
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The Lutetian to Priabonian strata of the Jaca Basin record the transition from deep-marine to terrestrial environments, while passing through intermediate deltaic systems. In this work, we summarise the calcareous nannoplankton content from the Jaca town transect. The sedimentary succession starts with the Roncal-Fiscal megaturbidite (Mt-5), contin...
Article
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To investigate past changes in the Mediterranean Overflow Water (MOW) to the Atlantic, we analyzed the strength of the MOW and benthic δ13C along the last 250 kyr at Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site U1389 in the Gulf of Cadiz, near the Strait of Gibraltar. Both the strength of the MOW and the benthic δ13C were mainly driven by precessi...
Article
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Paleoceanographic information from submarine overflows in the vicinity of oceanic gate- ways is of major importance for resolving the role of ocean circulation in modulating Earth’s climate. Earth system models are currently the favored way to study the impact of gateways on global-scale processes, but studies on overflow-related deposits are more...
Article
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The Southern Ocean is warming faster than the average global ocean and is particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification due to its low temperatures and moderate alkalinity. Coccolithophores are the most productive calcifying phytoplankton and an important component of Southern Ocean ecosystems. Laboratory observations on the most abundant coccolit...
Article
The massive North Atlantic iceberg discharges of the last glacial period, the so-called Heinrich events (HE), resulted in atmospheric and oceanic responses of the Mediterranean region that remain poorly documented and understood. This paper focuses on the climatic phases termed Heinrich stadials (HS) 4 and 5 generated by the HE 4 and 5 that occurre...
Conference Paper
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In August of 1970, during Mediterranean Sea Leg 13, when the Glomar challenger ventured Mediterranean waters, nobody was expecting to run into one of the most exiting scientific discoveries regarding the Mediterranean Sea evolution. Cores and seismic surveys made possible the discovery of a basin-wide Messinian evaporitic deposit buried beneath the...
Article
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Sea surface temperature (SST) are used to infer past changes in the state of the climate system. Here we use a combination of newly generated and published organic paleothermometer records, together with novel high‐resolution benthic foraminiferal δ18O stratigraphy, from four sites in the mid‐latitude North Atlantic (41‐58 °N) to reconstruct the lo...
Conference Paper
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Coccolithophores play an important dual role in ocean biogeochemistry: they use dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the surface for both photosynthesis and coccolith calcification. Stable isotopes in coccoliths are the result of various effects, including different vital effects, allowing hypotheses about the varying active carbon acquisition strat...
Article
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Ocean acidification is expected to have detrimental consequences for the most abundant calcifying phytoplankton species Emiliania huxleyi. However, this assumption is mainly based on laboratory manipulations that are unable to reproduce the complexity of natural ecosystems. Here, E. huxleyi coccolith assemblages collected over a year by an autonomo...
Article
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The calcareous nanoplankton is studied from the base of the turbidite systems of the Upper Hecho Group (Jaca Basin, middle Eocene of the South-central Pyrenean Basin) up to the Gracionepel instabilities, within the Larrés slope Marls. This new chronostratigraphic contribution is of crucial importance for the improvement of the detailed temporal and...
Article
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Southern Ocean waters are projected to undergo profound changes in their physical and chemical properties in the coming decades. Coccolithophore blooms in the Southern Ocean are thought to account for a major fraction of the global marine calcium carbonate (CaCO3) production and export to the deep sea. Therefore, changes in the composition and abun...
Article
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The accumulation of an Organic Rich Layer (ORL) during the last deglaciation in the Alboran Sea (western Mediterranean Sea) and its link to changes in deep and intermediate water circulation are here investigated. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages and the shallow infaunal foraminifer Uvigerina peregrina d 13 C record support the establishment of su...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Dolomite is a common accessory mineral, widely dispersed in deep-marine sediment, but rarely occurs as distinct layers in this setting. Hence, the nature and formation of dolomite layers in deep marine sediments are very poorly understood. Here, we present new data from three separate dolomite layers that occur within the Pliocene-Quaternary contou...
Article
This study explores the climatic variability in the Iberian Peninsula (IP) and its surrounding seas from 140 to 65 kyr BP. Marine sediment cores and cave speleothems are used to reconstruct changes in sea surface water conditions, deep sea current intensities and atmospheric moisture availability based on stable isotopes, trace elements, grain size...
Poster
The development of the SW Iberian Margin since the Late Miocene is a result of an intricate interplay between tectonic, sedimentary and paleoceanographic processes. It has undergone a complex tectonic evolution related to the Betic-Rif Orogenic Arc and its proximity to the Eurasian-African plate boundary. As a result of the westward migration of th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
One of the defining characteristics of contourite systems is the marked cyclicity in grain-size and related sediment properties. This property led to the definition of the bi-gradational contourite sequence (C1-C5) as the standard facies model for mixed grade mud/sand contourites. Drilling in the Gulf of Cadiz during IODP 339 recovered over 4.5 km...
Article
Full-text available
Southern Ocean waters are projected to undergo profound changes in their physical and chemical properties in the coming decades. Coccolithophore blooms in the Southern Ocean are thought to account for a major fraction of the global marine calcium carbonate (CaCO3) production and export to the deep sea. Therefore, changes in the composition and abun...
Chapter
This chapter deals with the two Alpine Foreland Basins of the Iberian Peninsula. The first part of the chapter refers to the South Pyrenean Foreland Basin and its westward prolongation, the Basque–Cantabrian Paleogene Basin. It includes: (1) the introductory concepts about the basin extend, margins, sedimentary systems, basin evolution and segmenta...
Article
Planktonic foraminifera are widely used for biostratigraphy and correlation of Mediterranean Neogene marine sediments, and are a fundamental component in the astronomical tuning of the Neogene Time Scale. Recent developments in high-resolution studies, focused on the astronomical calibration of cyclically marine sediments cropping out in land-based...
Article
The Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) approach to define stage boundaries leaves the unit or body of the stage undefined. At the same time, previous arguments against the use of unit-stratotypes have been invalidated for the younger Cenozoic part of the geological record through the revolutionary advance in integrated high-resolution strat...
Article
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A global Neogene cooling trend culminated ~7 million years ago with the onset of Greenland glaciation. Increased ocean-atmosphere interaction and low- to high-latitude circulation are thought to be key factors in reorganizing late Miocene global temperature and precipitation patterns, but the drivers of this reorganization have yet to be identified...
Article
Changes in paleoclimate and paleoproductivity patterns have been identified by analyzing the coccolithophore assemblages from the IODP Site U1314, located in the subpolar North Atlantic, together with other proxy data available during the time interval from the Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 14 to MIS 11 (ca. 540 to 400 ka). The comparison of this dat...