# Francisco S. N. LoboUniversity of Lisbon | UL · Department of Physics

Francisco S. N. Lobo

PhD (2005); Habilitation (2020) University of Lisbon

## About

315

Publications

40,589

Reads

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13,702

Citations

Introduction

My research interests focus on the following themes:
Modified theories of gravity;
Dark energy models;
Black Holes and Cosmology;
Gravitational waves;
Brane Cosmology;
Exact Solutions to the Einstein Field Equations;
Lorentzian Wormholes and the Causal Structure of Spacetime;
Energy Conditions and Closed Timelike Curves;
Analogue models;
Quantum Inequalities and Quantum Field Theory.
You can find a complete list of my publications at:
http://inspirehep.net/author/F.S.N.Lobo.1/

Additional affiliations

July 2015 - December 2018

**Institute of Astrophysics and Space Sciences**

Position

- Thematic Line Leader (Cosmology Group)

September 2013 - present

**Institute of Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of Lisbon**

Position

- Principal Investigator

September 2013 - present

## Publications

Publications (315)

The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) has the potential to reveal wonders about the fundamental theory of nature at play in the extreme gravity regime, where the gravitational interaction is both strong and dynamical. In this white paper, the Fundamental Physics Working Group of the LISA Consortium summarizes the current topics in fundament...

We explore the possibility of gravitationally generated particle production in the scalar-tensor representation of f(R,T) gravity. Due to the explicit nonminimal curvature-matter coupling in the theory, the divergence of the matter energy-momentum tensor does not vanish. We explore the physical and cosmological implications of this property by usin...

We explore the possibility of gravitationally generated particle production in the scalar-tensor representation of $f(R,T)$ gravity. Due to the explicit nonminimal curvature-matter coupling in the theory, the divergence of the matter energy-momentum tensor does not vanish. We explore the physical and cosmological implications of this property by us...

The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) has the potential to reveal wonders about the fundamental theory of nature at play in the extreme gravity regime, where the gravitational interaction is both strong and dynamical. In this white paper, the Fundamental Physics Working Group of the LISA Consortium summarizes the current topics in fundament...

In this work, we study the possibility of finite-time future cosmological singularities appearing in f ( R , T ) gravity, where R is the Ricci scalar and T is the trace of the stress-energy tensor. We present the theory in both the geometrical and the dynamically equivalent scalar–tensor representation and obtain the respective equations of motion....

In this proceeding, we review modified theories of gravity with a curvature-matter cou�pling between an arbitrary function of the scalar curvature and the Lagrangian density of matter. This explicit nonminimal coupling induces a non-vanishing covariant derivative
of the energy-momentum tensor, that implies non-geodesic motion and consequently leads...

The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) has two scientific objectives of cosmological focus: to probe the expansion rate of the universe, and to understand stochastic gravitational-wave backgrounds and their implications for early universe and particle physics, from the MeV to the Planck scale. However, the range of potential cosmological app...

In this work, we study the possibility of finite-time future cosmological singularities appearing in $f(R,T)$ gravity, where $R$ is the Ricci scalar and $T$ is the trace of the stress-energy tensor. We present the theory in both the geometrical and the dynamically equivalent scalar-tensor representation and obtain the respective equations of motion...

An alternative theory of gravity that has attracted much attention recently is the novel four-dimensional Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet (4D EGB) gravity. The theory is rescaled by the Gauss-Bonnet (GB) coupling constant α→α/(D−4) in D dimensions and redefined as four-dimensional gravity in the limit D→4. Thus, in this manner, the GB term yields a non-trivi...

The Big Bang initial singularity problem can be solved by means of bouncing solutions. In the context of extended theories of gravity, we will look for covariant effective actions whose field equations contain up to fourth-order derivatives of the metric tensor. In finding such bouncing solutions, we will make use of an order reduction technique ba...

In this proceeding, we review modified theories of gravity with a curvature-matter coupling between an arbitrary function of the scalar curvature and the Lagrangian density of matter. This explicit nonminimal coupling induces a non-vanishing covariant derivative of the energy-momentum tensor, that implies non-geodesic motion and consequently leads...

The Big Bang initial singularity problem can be solved by means of bouncing solutions. In the context of extended theories of gravity, we will look for covariant effective actions whose field equations contain up to fourth-order derivatives of the metric tensor. In finding such bouncing solutions, we will make use of an order reduction technique ba...

The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) has the potential to reveal wonders about the fundamental theory of nature at play in the extreme gravity regime, where the gravitational interaction is both strong and dynamical. In this white paper, the Fundamental Physics Working Group of the LISA Consortium summarizes the current topics in fundament...

We consider the possible existence of gravitationally bound stringlike objects, and approximation of local U(1) Abelian-Higgs strings, in the framework of the generalized hybrid metric-Palatini gravity theory, in which the gravitational action is represented by an arbitrary function of the Ricci and of the Palatini scalars, respectively. The theory...

We consider cosmology in the recently proposed hybrid metric-Palatini gravity theory, which is a hybrid combination of the metric and Palatini f(R) theories, containing elements from both formalisms. It turns out that the theory is very successful in accounting for the observed phenomenology, since it unifies local constraints at the Solar System l...

In this work we explore the dynamics of the generalized hybrid metric-Palatini theory of gravity in the weak-field, slow-motion regime. We start by introducing the equivalent scalar-tensor representation of the theory, which contains two scalar degrees of freedom, and perform a conformal transformation to the Einstein frame. Linear perturbations of...

In this work we made use of a general static cillindrically symmetric metric to find $U(1)$ local cosmic string solutions in the context of the hybrid metric-Palatini theory of gravity in it's scalar-tensor representation. After finding the dynamical equations for this particular case, we imposed boost invariance along $t$ and $z$ directions, which...

In this work we will explore $U(1)$ local cosmic string solutions in the context of the generalized hybrid metric-Palatini theory of gravity in its scalar-tensor representation. Using a general static cylindrically symmetric metric to find the dynamical equations for this particular case, we will simplify the equations by imposing boost invariance...

We apply cosmological reconstruction methods to the $f(R,T)$ modified gravity, in its recently developed scalar-tensor representation. We do this analysis assuming a perfect fluid in a Friedmann-Lema\^{i}tre-Robsertson-Walker (FLRW) universe. In this contribution we show the equations of motion obtained and we present the solutions found for one of...

In this work, we use reconstruction methods to obtain cosmological solutions in the recently developed scalar-tensor representation of $f(R,T)$ gravity. Assuming that matter is described by an isotropic perfect fluid and the spacetime is homogeneous and isotropic, i.e., the Friedmann-Lema\^itre-Robsertson-Walker (FLRW) universe, the energy density,...

Loop quantum cosmology (LQC) is a theory which renders the Big Bang initial singularity into a quantum bounce, by means of short-range repulsive quantum effects at the Planck scale. In this work, we are interested in reproducing the effective Friedmann equation of LQC, by considering a generic f ( R , P , Q ) theory of gravity, where $$R=g^{\mu \nu...

Braneworld scenarios consider our observable universe as a brane embedded in a five-dimensional bulk. In this work, we consider thick braneworld systems in the recently proposed dynamically equivalent scalar–tensor representation of f ( R , T ) gravity, where R is the Ricci scalar and T the trace of the stress–energy tensor. In the general $$f\left...

In this work, we investigate the effects of the torsion–fermionic interaction on the energy levels of fermions within a Riemann–Cartan geometry using a model-independent approach. We consider the case of fermions minimally coupled to the background torsion as well as non-minimal extensions via additional couplings with the vector and axial fermioni...

Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC) is a theory which renders the Big Bang initial singularity into a quantum bounce, by means of short range repulsive quantum effects at the Planck scale. In this work, we are interested in reproducing the effective Friedmann equation of LQC, by considering a generic $f(R,P,Q)$ theory of gravity, where $R=g^{\mu\nu}R_{\mu...

We investigate the possibility of gravitationally generated particle production via the mechanism of nonminimal torsion–matter coupling. An intriguing feature of this theory is that the divergence of the matter energy–momentum tensor does not vanish identically. We explore the physical and cosmological implications of the nonconservation of the ene...

We investigate the possibility of gravitationally generated particle production via the mechanism of nonminimal torsion--matter coupling. An intriguing feature of this theory is that the divergence of the matter energy--momentum tensor does not vanish identically. We explore the physical and cosmological implications of the nonconservation of the e...

In this work, we explore cosmological sudden singularities arising in the dynamically equivalent scalar-tensor representation of generalized hybrid metric-Palatini gravity. Using a FLRW background, we show that the structure of the field equations prevents sudden singularities from arising at time derivatives of the scale factor of orders lower tha...

In this work, we consider a recent novel regular black hole solution, which we denote the Simpson-Visser black-bounce model and investigate circular null geodesics to find the connection between the photon sphere, the event horizon and the black hole shadow radii. We also study the energy emission rate for this geometry and discuss how the paramete...

General Relativity and the $\Lambda$CDM framework are currently the standard lore and constitute the concordance paradigm. Nevertheless, long-standing open theoretical issues, as well as possible new observational ones arising from the explosive development of cosmology the last two decades, offer the motivation and lead a large amount of research...

Braneworld scenarios consider our observable universe as a brane embedded in a five-dimensional bulk. In this work, we consider thick braneworld systems in the recently proposed dynamically equivalent scalar-tensor representation of $f(R,T)$ gravity, where $R$ is the Ricci scalar and $T$ the trace of the stress-energy tensor. In the general $f\left...

We develop a number of novel “black-bounce” spacetimes. These are specific regular black holes where the area radius always remains nonzero, thereby leading to a “throat” that is either timelike (corresponding to a traversable wormhole), spacelike (corresponding to a “bounce” into a future universe), or null (corresponding to a “one-way wormhole”)....

General Relativity is an extremely successful theory, at least for weak gravitational fields, however, it breaks down at very high energies, such as in correspondence of the initial singularity. Quantum Gravity is expected to provide more physical insights concerning this open question. Indeed, one alternative scenario to the Big Bang, that manages...

We consider the possible existence of gravitationally bound stringlike objects in the framework of the generalized hybrid metric-Palatini gravity theory, in which the gravitational action is represented by an arbitrary function of the Ricci and of the Palatini scalars, respectively. The theory admits an equivalent scalar-tensor representation in te...

In this work we explore the dynamics of the generalized hybrid metric-Palatini theory of gravity in the weak-field, slow-motion regime. We start by introducing the equivalent scalar-tensor representation of the theory, which contains two scalar degrees of freedom, and perform a conformal transformation to the Einstein frame. Linear perturbations of...

In this work, we analyse the evolution of time-dependent traversable wormhole geometries in a Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker background in the context of the scalar–tensor representation of hybrid metric-Palatini gravity. We deduce the energy–momentum profile of the matter threading the wormhole spacetime in terms of the background quantities,...

In this paper, we consider black holes in the consistent Aoki-Gorji-Mukohyama theory of the four-dimensional Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet (4D EGB) gravity in thepresence of Born-Infeld (BI) nonlinearelectrodynamics. We study several optical features of these black holes such as the shadow radius,energy emission rate and deflection angle, and analyse the e...

We consider interior static and spherically symmetric solutions in a gravity theory that extends the standard Hilbert–Einstein action with a Lagrangian constructed from a three-form field $$A_{\alpha \beta \gamma }$$ A α β γ , which generates, via the field strength and a potential term, a new component in the total energy-momentum tensor of the gr...

"Warp drive" spacetimes and wormhole geometries are useful as "gedanken-experiments" that force us to confront the foundations of general relativity, and among other issues, to precisely formulate the notion of "superluminal" travel and communication. Here we will consider the basic definition and properties of warp drive spacetimes. In particular,...

In this work, we explore cosmological sudden singularities arising in the dynamically equivalent scalar-tensor representation of generalized hybrid metric-Palatini gravity. Using a FLRW background, we show that the structure of the field equations prevents sudden singularities from arising at time derivatives of the scale factor of orders lower tha...

In this work, using two scalar fields (ϕ, ψ) coupled to 4 + 1 dimensional gravity, we construct novel topological brane solutions through an explicit U(1) symmetry breaking term. The potential of this model is constructed so that two distinct degenerate vacua in the ϕ field exist, in analogy to the ϕ4 potential. Therefore, brane solutions appear du...

In this work, we deal with thick brane solutions in the warped five-dimensional braneworld scenario with a single extra spatial dimension of infinite extent, for a class of modified theories of gravity with a Lagrange multiplier. We first present the action, describe the gravity and field equations, outline a strategy to find explicit solutions and...

In this work, we explore wormhole geometries in a recently proposed modified gravity theory arising from a nonconservative gravitational theory, tentatively denoted action-dependent Lagrangian theories. The generalized gravitational field equation essentially depends on a background four-vector λμ, that plays the role of a coupling parameter associ...

In this work, we investigate the effects of the torsion-fermionic interaction on the energy levels of fermions within a Riemann-Cartan geometry using a model-independent approach. We consider the case of fermions minimally coupled to the background torsion as well as non-minimal extensions via additional couplings with the vector and axial fermioni...

We consider the evolution of traversable wormhole geometries in the inflationary, radiation– and matter–dominated eras, and dynamic wormholes with a traceless energy–momentum tensor (EMT), within the recently proposed pole dark energy model. We show that the evolving radiation– and matter–dominated wormhole spacetimes satisfy the null energy condit...

We consider interior static and spherically symmetric solutions in a gravity theory that extends the standard Hilbert-Einstein action with a Lagrangian constructed from a three-form field $A_{\alpha \beta \gamma}$, which generates, via the field strength and a potential term, a new component in the total energy-momentum tensor of the gravitational...

In this work, we study 5-dimensional braneworld scenarios in the scalar-tensor representation of the generalized hybrid metric-Palatini gravitational theory. We start by considering a model for a brane supported purely by the gravitational scalar fields of the theory and then consider other distinct cases where the models are also supported by an a...

Gravity can be formulated as a gauge theory by combining symmetry principles and geometrical methods in a consistent mathematical framework. The gauge approach to gravity leads directly to non-Euclidean, post-Riemannian spacetime geometries, providing the adequate formalism for metric-affine theories of gravity with curvature, torsion and non-metri...

Gravity can be formulated as a gauge theory by combining symmetry principles and geometrical methods in a consistent mathematical framework. The gauge approach to gravity leads directly to non-Euclidean, post-Riemannian spacetime geometries, providing the adequate formalism for metric-affine theories of gravity with curvature, torsion and non-metri...

In this work, we explore wormhole geometries in a recently proposed modified gravity theory arising from a non-conservative gravitational theory, tentatively denoted action-dependent Lagrangian theories. The generalized gravitational field equation essentially depends on a background four-vector $\lambda^\mu$, that plays the role of a coupling para...

Wormholes made their first appearance in gravitational physics as soon as in 1916 but, as with their black hole cousins, it took a long time and effort for their true nature to be properly understood [...]

In this work we deal with thick brane solutions in the warped five-dimensional braneworld scenario with a single extra spatial dimension of infinite extent, for a class of modified theories of gravity with a Lagrange multiplier. We first present the action, describe the gravity and field equations, outline a strategy to find explicit solutions and...

An interesting class of scalar-tensor models, denoted by kinetic gravity braiding (KGB), has recently been proposed. These models contain interactions of the second derivatives of the scalar field that do not lead to additional degrees of freedom and exhibit peculiar features, such as an essential mixing of the scalar ϕ and tensor kinetic X terms....

In this work, we analyse the evolution of time-dependent traversable wormhole geometries in a Friedmann-Lema\^{i}tre-Robertson-Walker background in the context of the scalar-tensor representation of hybrid metric-Palatini gravity. We deduce the energy-momentum profile of the matter threading the wormhole spacetime in terms of the background quantit...

In this work, we study 5-dimensional braneworld scenarios in the scalar-tensor representation of the generalized hybrid metric-Palatini gravitational theory. We start by considering a model for a brane supported purely by the gravitational scalar fields of the theory and then consider other distinct cases where the models are also supported by an a...

In this paper, we consider black holes in four-dimensional Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet (4D EGB) gravity in the presence of Born-Infeld (BI) nonlinear electrodynamics. We study several optical features of these black holes such as the shadow radius, energy emission rate and deflection angle, and analyse the effect of the coupling constants, the electric c...

Einstein-Cartan theory is an extension of the standard formulation of general relativity characterized by a nonvanishing torsion. The latter is sourced by the matter fields via the spin tensor, and its effects are expected to be important at very high spin densities. In this work, we analyze in detail the physics of Einstein-Cartan theory with Dira...

An alternative theory of gravity that has attracted much attention recently is the novel four-dimensional Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet (4D EGB) gravity. The theory is rescaled by the Gauss-Bonnet (GB) coupling constant $\alpha \rightarrow \alpha/(D - 4)$ in $D$ dimensions and redefined as four-dimensional gravity in the limit $D \rightarrow 4$. Thus, in t...

We develop a number of novel "black-bounce" spacetimes. These are specific regular black holes where the "area radius" always remains non-zero, thereby leading to a "throat" that is either timelike (corresponding to a traversable wormhole), spacelike (corresponding to a "bounce" into a future universe), or null (corresponding to a "one-way wormhole...

We study the structure and stability of traversable wormholes built as (spherically symmetric) thin shells in the context of Palatini $f(\mathcal{R})$ gravity. Using a suitable junction formalism for these theories we find that the effective number of degrees of freedom on the shell is reduced to a single one, which fixes the equation of state to b...

An interesting class of scalar-tensor models, denoted by kinetic gravity braiding (KGB), has recently been proposed. These models contain interactions of the second derivatives of the scalar field that do not lead to additional degrees of freedom and exhibit peculiar features, such as an essential mixing of the scalar $\phi$ and tensor kinetic $X$...

In this paper, which is of programmatic rather than quantitative nature, we aim to further delineate and sharpen the future potential of the LISA mission in the area of fundamental physics. Given the very broad range of topics that might be relevant to LISA, we present here a sample of what we view as particularly promising directions, based in par...

This report is based on the Parallel Session AT3 ``Wormholes, Energy Conditions and Time Machines'' of the Fifteenth Marcel Grossmann Meeting - MG15, held at the University of Rome ``La Sapienza'', Rome, in 2018.

Recently, a novel model for a regular black hole was advocated which possesses an asymptotically Minkowski core implemented via an exponential suppression (in the core region) of the Misner-Sharp quasi-local mass. Using this regular black hole as a template, we shall construct a spherically symmetric thin-shell traversable wormhole using the "cut-a...

We consider the evolution of traversable wormhole geometries in the inflationary, radiation- and matter-dominated eras, and dynamic wormholes with a traceless energy-momentum tensor (EMT), within the recently proposed pole dark energy model. We show that the evolving radiation- and matter-dominated wormhole spacetimes satisfy the null energy condit...

Einstein’s General Relativity (GR) is possibly one of the greatest intellectual achievements ever conceived by the human mind. In fact, over the last century, GR has proven to be an extremely successful theory, with a well established experimental footing, at least for weak gravitational fields. Its predictions range from the existence of black hol...

Einstein's General Relativity (GR) is possibly one of the greatest intellectual achievements ever conceived by the human mind. In fact, over the last century, GR has proven to be an extremely successful theory, with a well established experimental footing. However, the discovery of the late-time cosmic acceleration, which represents a new imbalance...

We investigate static and spherically symmetric solutions in a gravity theory that extends the standard Hilbert–Einstein action with a Lagrangian constructed from a three-form field \(A_{\alpha \beta \gamma }\), which is related to the field strength and a potential term. The field equations are obtained explicitly for a static and spherically symm...

We consider static and cylindrically symmetric interior string-type solutions in the scalar-tensor representation of the hybrid metric-Palatini modified theory of gravity. As a first step in our study, we obtain the gravitational field equations and further simplify the analysis by imposing Lorentz invariance along the t and z axes, which reduces t...