Francisco Javier Castro Toledo

Francisco Javier Castro Toledo
Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche | UMH · CRIMINA. Center for the Study and Prevention of Crime

PhD, Assistant Professor

About

26
Publications
5,176
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53
Citations
Introduction
CEO & Ethics Developer at Plus Ethics (www.plusethics.com), Assistant Professor at Miguel Hernandez University (www.umh.es) and researcher at CRIMINA Research Center for the Study and Prevention of Crimen (www.crimina.es). My research interests are focused on experimental research designs in crime sciences, epistemology in social sciences and ethical analysis applied to ICT. I have participated in some of the most important criminological conferences and has published in high impact scientific journals, and I have recently finished his doctoral thesis funded by the Spanish Cybersecurity Institute (INCIBE).

Publications

Publications (26)
Article
Full-text available
Resumen: Los delitos de expresión política tipificados en el Código Penal español han incomodado especialmente a la doctrina penal desde que se popularizaron las redes sociales en línea y aumentaron las personas usuarias condenadas por los tribunales es-pañoles. En este contexto, se han intensificado tanto las críticas éticas sobre su crimi-nalizac...
Chapter
European Union (EU) research is based on the commitment to embed ethics from the first conceptual stage of the proposal through the implementation of the project. Given this background, and while the concern for ethics in crime research has been widely covered by the European Commission, few contributions have yet shifted their interest on this iss...
Article
Full-text available
The interest in developing an effective model of intellectual property protection is currently taking as a starting point the criticism of traditional preventive approaches, based mainly on the model of deterrence, from the identification of other factors more relevant in explaining intellectual property compliance. Therefore, the present study car...
Article
Full-text available
Interest in the development of evidence-based policies for the public management of the control and treatment of crime seems to be the position that will become dominant in the coming years. In this context, it is important for policy makers to know that while social research is surrounded by many ethical dilemmas, criminological research, because...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report compares the national legal frameworks of the European Member States and analyses the feasibility of harmonising anti-radicalisation legislation in the EU. Based on this comparison, recommendations for legal harmonisation of anti-radicalisation legislation are proposed. Specifically, the report firstly conducts a comparative analysis of...
Preprint
Full-text available
The scientific literature on crime prevention in urban contexts is very vast, nevertheless it is still limited in the Smart Cities context. With the aim of assessing how this phenomenon has been studied to date from an evidence-based approach, a quantitative systematic review has been conducted on the basis of gathering information from the most re...
Preprint
Full-text available
The online social network Twitter, apart from being one of the main vehicles of communication in the cyberspace, has become an effective diffusor of fear of crime. The latter phenomenon has caught the attention of researchers since the 1960’s, amongst other reasons due to the impact on the citizens’ quality of life and consequently the call for its...
Article
Full-text available
The interest in the development of effective models for the protection of intellectual property is currently shifting from the traditional eminently normative approaches to preventive proposals informed by empirical evidence. Therefore, within the framework of the InfractXr research project, the present study develops a systematic review of the sci...
Book
Full-text available
Desde hace algunas décadas, la investigación criminológica en España ha sido y está siendo un ámbito de investigación especialmente prolífico, y cada día son más los jóvenes que muestran su interés por iniciarse en la investigación académica en Criminología, síntoma de la buena salud de esta rama de las ciencias sociales. En este sentido, la Red Es...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The implementation of Virtual Reality (VR) tools in criminological research is very scarce, and almost non-existent in the fear of crime (FoC) field. Our objective is to assess the feasibility of Immersive Technologies for research on FoC. To do so, a simulation (360° video) grounded on the manipulation of environmental variables (street lighting)...
Book
Tras más de medio siglo, la investigación criminológica ha mostrado un creciente interés por el análisis del miedo al crimen. Desde su definición hasta la perfilación de sus dimensiones, pasando por la detección de fenómenos asociados o el establecimiento de las metodologías más apropiadas para su medición, lo que realmente sea el miedo al crimen h...
Article
Full-text available
Fear of crime has been one of the most compelling scientific phenomena since the 60s. Its scope has traditionally been limited to assess this emotional experience predominantly in physical space. However, studies on fear of crime experiences are gradually increasing in this new area of criminal opportunity, which is cyberspace. The aim of this pape...
Article
Full-text available
ResumenEl presente artículo desarrolla las principales características acerca del diseño e implementación del proyecto InfractorXs. Con este proyecto se pretende abordar y estudiar los factores que inciden en la infracción de los derechos de propiedad intelectual por parte de hombres y mujeres en Internet. El objetivo es adquirir el conocimiento re...
Preprint
Con objeto de evaluar la percepción de ofensividad de contenidos comunicativos online violentos y de odio en Facebook, se desarrolló un estudio piloto en el que los participantes valoraron 14 mensajes (que fueron clasificados previamente como incitación/amenaza directa a la violencia física; enaltecimiento a la violencia física; ataques contra el h...
Article
15 años después, la estela de los atentados del 11 de marzo en Madrid, así como sus efectos, siguen estando presentes no sólo en la realidad social española, sino también en su ordenamiento jurídico. Es por ello que, con el propósito de analizar la evolución del tratamiento jurídico-penal del terrorismo en España desde 2004 hasta la actualidad, est...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The present report presents and analyses the most relevant legislation affecting radicalisation in nine European Member States. This report considers two kinds of legislation against radicalisation. Firstly, Member States legislation against terrorist offences. Specifically, it analyses three kinds of terrorist offences: 1) Terrorist offences in st...
Article
Full-text available
The process of radicalization in the context of Islamist terrorism has been analysed from the most varied disciplines. In all of them a series of categories have been defined to describe the level of radicalization of the individuals, starting from the mere sympathizers to the active members of terrorist organizations. Each of these categories is c...
Thesis
Full-text available
Tras más de medio siglo, la investigación criminológica ha mostrado un creciente interés por el análisis del miedo al crimen. Desde su definición hasta la perfilación de sus dimensiones, pasando por la detección de fenómenos asociados o el establecimiento de las metodologías más apropiadas para su medición, lo que realmente sea el miedo al crimen h...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of attitudinal and sociodemographic variables on the perceived offensiveness of online communication and hate speech. We conducted an experimental study in which 373 participants rated their perception of offensiveness of four kinds of violent content (direct incitement to violence/threat, exaltatio...
Article
Full-text available
In the literature on fear of crime in physical space, there is a well-established relationship between direct experiences of victimization, the environmental characteristics of the place of victimization and its impact on the perceived risk of future victimization. However, nowadays there is very limited evidence about this relationship in cyberspa...
Article
The focus on radicalisation has increased in recent years in response to incidents of international terrorism. European countries have boosted funding into various prevention policies and counterradicalisation tools in an attempt to tackle the everincreasing threat of broader social problems, political extremism and home-grown terrorism. However, t...
Article
RESUMEN: Desde hace más de medio siglo existe un creciente interés en la literatura científica por el análisis del miedo al crimen: su definición, sus dimensiones, los fenómenos asociados o las metodologías más apropiadas para su medición. No obstante, lo que realmente sea el miedo al crimen ha resistido cualquier intento de reducción, conceptualiz...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Self-reports and questionnaires have been the preferred research methods in the criminological field of “fear of crime” (FOC) since its rise in the 1960s. Our study had two main goals: (1) to measure the physiological indicators of fear in real time and (2) to compare these data with those obtained through self-reports, designed also to...
Article
Full-text available
As happens with any kind of terrorism, jihadism is characterized, among other things, by the pursue of a general audience or public recognition that will be perceivably affected by their attacks and will, in turn, satisfy their political and social demands. This article aims to complement crime science by analyzing this notion of ‘recognition’ from...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The aim of the following essay is to explain a panoramic overview of an integral and interdisciplinary research about the phenomenon of jihadist terrorism. In this case, it is analyzed the most productive points of convergence between the reflection in Philosophy of Religion and Criminology with the intent of answering the questions about the funda...

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Projects

Projects (5)
Project
Impacto de la “tuiterización” de la opinión pública sobre el Derecho penal y las consecuencias para el debate en torno a su democratización
Project
Reconstruction of processes of radicalisation leading to the development of a deradicalisation model and construction of counter-radicalisation tools for different forms of extremism Biographic interviews carried out among political and religious extremists, and families of those who have been radicalised will provide evidence of needs of vulnerable groups and set the basis for the development of a deradicalisation model. Quantitative surveys are implemented to explore the current prevention landscape in selected European countries and provide insights into the methodologies of prevention programmes and interventions. The results are used to establish end-user requirements and to develop five specific prevention tools: a cyberspace detection tool, an enhanced platform, a vulnerability assessment tool, a family care package, and a skills and competencies training tool for professionals in the field of prevention. Using gap analyses, the project identifies areas in current prevention strategies that require further attention. International networks within the project are used to present policy recommendations and other project findings to frontline practitioners involved in the prevention of radicalisation.