Francis Schaffner

Francis Schaffner
University of Zurich | UZH · Institute of Parasitology

MSc, PhD
Consultant and researcher in medical and veterinary entomology

About

224
Publications
83,690
Reads
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9,136
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Introduction
CONSULTANT in Medical and Veterinary Entomology: expertise, training (biology and taxonomy), assistance for risk assessment and risk management for insect vectors and diseases they provoke, assistance for designing field studies and performing sample identification (both morphology and molecular)...
Additional affiliations
June 2016 - present
Francis Schaffner Consultancy
Position
  • Consultant, Expert in medical and veterinary entomology
Description
  • Consultancy in surveillance, control, and research on insect vectors
November 2009 - May 2016
Avia-GIS
Position
  • Senior Entomologist
Description
  • Research and development of insect vector surveillance tools
January 2007 - present
Universität Zürich
Position
  • Research Associate
Description
  • Research on insect vectors of veterinary and medical importance

Publications

Publications (224)
Article
There are currently five invasive Aedes mosquito species known to be established in Europe, namely Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti, Aedes japonicus, Aedes atropalpus and Aedes koreicus. Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti are the incriminated vectors in the recent outbreaks of chikungunya and dengue fever in Europe. However, both laboratory experime...
Article
Full-text available
Background The recent notifications of autochthonous cases of dengue and chikungunya in Europe prove that the region is vulnerable to these diseases in areas where known mosquito vectors (Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti) are present. Strengthening surveillance of these species as well as other invasive container-breeding aedine mosquito species...
Article
Among the invasive mosquitoes registered all over the world, Aedes species are particularly frequent and important. As several of them are potential vectors of disease, they present significant health concerns for 21st century Europe. Five species have established in mainland Europe, with two (Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus) becoming widespre...
Article
Full-text available
The knowledge of the mosquito distribution in the Western Palaearctic region has significantly improved in recent decades. We here synthesise published records in an updated distribution chart. The western Palaearctic region is divided into 5 areas and 75 geographical units, the latter mainly considered on a country basis or on a geographical basis...
Article
Full-text available
The Mosquito Alert dataset includes occurrence records of adult mosquitoes collected worldwide in 2014–2020 through Mosquito Alert, a citizen science system for investigating and managing disease-carrying mosquitoes. Records are linked to citizen science-submitted photographs and validated by entomologists to determine the presence of five targeted...
Article
Full-text available
The Mosquito Alert dataset includes occurrence records of adult mosquitoes collected worldwide in 2014–2020 through Mosquito Alert, a citizen science system for investigating and managing disease-carrying mosquitoes. Records are linked to citizen science-submitted photographs and validated by entomologists to determine the presence of five targeted...
Article
Full-text available
Field observation of occurrences of mosquito species in various environments in Luxembourg, between 1997 and 2018. Larval sampling and adult catches performed within an intuitive sampling strategy throughout the country, inspecting places that look suitable for mosquito occurrence. Samples identified by morphology, PCR and sequencing, or MALDI-TOF...
Article
Full-text available
Public and animal health authorities face many challenges in surveillance and control of vector-borne diseases. Those challenges are principally due to the multitude of interactions between vertebrate hosts, pathogens, and vectors in continuously changing environments. VectorNet, a joint project of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the...
Article
Full-text available
The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus , is an invasive mosquito species that is considered a potential vector of about 22 arboviruses, among which dengue, chikungunya and Zika. Here we report the first record of Aedes albopictus in the territory of the Republic of Kosovo. The first finding, in July 2020, was driven by a photo of an adult mosqu...
Article
Full-text available
In Albania, mosquito fauna studies have been carried out since 1918 by foreign researchers and in 1950-1979 by J. Adhami. Additional research studies on mosquito fauna and its role in public health in Albania were carried out by the Laboratory of Medical Entomology at IPH during the period 2001-2009. Here we report afield survey implemented through...
Article
Full-text available
Mosquito-borne infections have considerable consequences for public health. The mere presence of a single case of vector-borne disease (VBD) introduces a risk to the local community particularly when associated with the compatible vector, host, and suitable environmental factors. Presently, there is no well-established vector control and surveillan...
Article
2021 is a landmark year for the Journal of the European Mosquito Control Association (JEMCA)! In the last 12 months we moved from self-publishing to the professional publisher Wageningen Academic Publishers (WAP). This is intended to gain efficiency in the submission, reviewing and publishing process, and also to get better indexed and evaluated, t...
Article
Full-text available
The current study presents a success story where through a small network of citizen scientists original information regarding the occurrence of Aedes cretinus was received, suggesting the absence of invasive Aedes species on the island of Cyprus. Citizen science records show that Ae. cretinus most likely has an island wide spatial distribution whil...
Poster
Full-text available
Aedes japonicus has established in many European countries. Our study had two objectives: (1) investigate the origin of new introductions in eastern Belgium; and (2) verify the origin of specimens that were recently recorded at Natoye, while the species was declared eliminated after control campaigns. To this end, genotypic variation at 7 microsate...
Presentation
Full-text available
Steeds meer mensen melden invasieve steekmuggen, niet louter professionals of amateurs met een achtergrond in de entomologie. Er zijn goede Engelstalige determinatiewerken voor het op naam brengen van steekmuggen, maar die sleutels zijn vooral bedoeld voor getrainde entomologen. Deze soortzoeker richt zich op geïnteresseerden zonder voorkennis en b...
Article
Full-text available
The common house mosquito, Culex pipiens s. l. is part of the morphologically hardly or non-distinguishable Culex pipiens complex. Upcoming molecular methods allowed us to identify members of mosquito populations that are characterized by differences in behavior, physiology, host and habitat preferences and thereof resulting in varying pathogen loa...
Article
Full-text available
Aedes albopictus was recorded in Vienna, Austria, in August 2020 for the first time. The species was found to occur in three sites within the city; morphology-based monitoring was followed by DNA-barcoding. Mitochondrial COI barcode sequences recovered three different haplotypes, however this data does not reveal whether single or multiple introduc...
Presentation
Full-text available
More and more people are getting involved in the surveillance of invasive mosquito species in the EU/EEA, not just professionals with formal training in entomology. There are many taxonomic keys available for identifying mosquitoes of medical and veterinary importance, but they are almost all designed for professionally trained entomologists.The cu...
Article
Full-text available
Aedes albopictus is a known vector of dengue and chikungunya. Understanding the population dynamics characteristics of vector species is of pivotal importance to optimise surveillance and control activities, to estimate risk for pathogen-transmission, and thus to enhance support of public health decisions. In this paper we used a seasonal activity...
Article
Full-text available
Background Aedes japonicus japonicus has expanded beyond its native range and has established in multiple European countries, including Belgium. In addition to the population located at Natoye, Belgium, locally established since 2002, specimens were recently collected along the Belgian border. The first objective of this study was therefore to inve...
Article
Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) have re-emerged worldwide due to urbanisation, increase in travel and climate change, becoming a major and serious threat to global public health. In Qatar, the concern has recently risen because of the attribution of the soccer 2022 FIFA World Cup Qatar ™ , which necessitates fulfilling requirements in terms of prevent...
Article
Full-text available
Rodents carry many ectoparasites, such as ticks, lice, fleas, and mites, which have potential public health importance. Middle Eastern countries are hotspots for many emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, such as plague, leishmaniasis, Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever, and Q fever, due to their ecological, socioeconomic, and political divers...
Article
Full-text available
The overwintering strategy of the mosquito Culex modestus, an important West Nile virus (WNV) vector in Europe, was explored under field conditions in reedbed (Phragmites australis) ecosystems in early 2019. A total of 30 Cx. modestus females were found in a BG-Sentinel trap placed in a plastic greenhouse as well as in a reference BG-Sentinel trap...
Research Proposal
Ectoparasites are the organisms, such as tick, lice, flea, and mite, which infest the external surface of a host. These parasites can cause a number of physical disorders to the host, including hypersensitivity and skin lesions. They can act as vectors of a number of pathogens including Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Borrelia, and Rickettsia. Rod...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Since the huge epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Brazil in 2015, questions were raised to understand which mosquito species could transmit the virus. Aedes aegypti has been described as the main vector. However, other Aedes species (e.g. Ae. albopictus and Ae. japonicus) proven to be competent for other flaviviruses (e.g. West Nile, den...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Aedes invasive mosquitoes COST Action (AIM–COST) is a gender, age and geographically balanced network of members from critical stakeholder sectors in EU and neighbouring countries. The Action assesses and reviews current Aedes mosquito surveillance, control and analysis practices, and aims to 1) harmonise best practice guidelines, surveillance...
Article
Résumé En plus d'être vecteur des virus du chikungunya, de la dengue et du Zika, le moustique tigre asiatique, Aedes albopictus, est également l'une des espèces les plus invasives au monde. Ainsi ses caractéristiques biologiques (œufs résistants et diapausants) et comportementale (suivre l'Homme dans les véhicules) lui ont permis de coloniser tous...
Article
Résumé Parmi les nombreuses espèces de moustiques décrites, seule une petite proportion est responsable de transmissions d’agents pathogènes à l’homme. Les espèces invasives comme le moustique tigre comptent parmi les vecteurs les plus efficaces (dengue, chikungunya, Zika). L’identification précise des espèces, indispensable, n’est pas aisée. La mé...
Article
Full-text available
Background: In 2016, a field study was implemented in all Armenian provinces in order to update knowledge on the presence and distribution of both native and invasive mosquito species. Larvae and adult mosquitoes were sampled and identified on the basis of their morphology. Supplementary field surveys were performed in 2017-2018. Results: Betwee...
Article
Full-text available
Assessing mosquito biodiversity is important for disease surveillance and ecosystem health assessments. Such studies are particularly needed in regions like the Caribbean, which have experienced a series of recent mosquito borne disease outbreaks but received little attention regarding its invertebrate biodiversity. Here, we report on results from...
Article
Aedes albopictus, also known as the “Asian Tiger Mosquito”, is an invasive mosquito species to Europe causing high concern in public health due to its severe nuisance and its vectorial capacity for pathogens such as dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever and Zika. Consequently, the responsible authorities implement management activities to reduce its po...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Standard Operational Procedures – Public tender template for the selection of Pest Control Operators, as an Annex to the article "Practical management plan for invasive mosquito species in Europe: I. Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus)", published in Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 2020.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Standard Operational Procedures for bioassays, as an Annex to the article "Practical management plan for invasive mosquito species in Europe: I. Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus)", published in Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 2020.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Standard Operational Procedures for quality control on emergency treatments, as an Annex to the article "Practical management plan for invasive mosquito species in Europe: I. Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus)", published in Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 2020.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Standard Operational Procedures for quality control on larval treatment of road drains, as an Annex to the article "Practical management plan for invasive mosquito species in Europe: I. Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus)", published in Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 2020.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Standard Operational Procedures for emergency vector control in case of dengue, chikungunya and Zika detection, as an Annex to the article "Practical management plan for invasive mosquito species in Europe: I. Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus)", published in Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 2020.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Standard Operational Procedures – Template for mayor ordinance, as an Annex to the article "Practical management plan for invasive mosquito species in Europe: I. Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus)", published in Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 2020.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Standard Operational Procedures for quality control of Aedes albopictus monitoring, as an Annex to the article "Practical management plan for invasive mosquito species in Europe: I. Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus)", published in Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 2020.
Technical Report
Full-text available
EFSA has commissioned the VectorNet consortium to undertake a series of spatial distribution models for seven potential mosquito vectors of Rift Valley fever virus, namely Aedes albopictus, Aedes caspius, Aedes detritus, Aedes japonicus, Aedes vexans, Culex pipiens and Culex theileri. The modelling used the distribution data held within the VectorN...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Standard Operational Procedures for egg counting, as an Annex to the article "Practical management plan for invasive mosquito species in Europe: I. Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus)", published in Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 2020.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Standard Operational Procedures for ovitrap field management, as an Annex to the article "Practical management plan for invasive mosquito species in Europe: I. Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus)", published in Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 2020.
Article
Full-text available
Wetlands provide multiple services to human societies. Despite policies dedicated to their protection, current European policies do not address the need to balance mosquito management approaches to mitigate dis‐services to human health and well‐being while ensuring that wetland conservation goals are met. Herein, we outline criteria for considerati...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Since the huge epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Brazil in 2015, questions were raised to understand which mosquito species could transmit the virus. Although Aedes aegypti has been described as the main vector, other Aedes species (e.g. Ae. albopictus and Ae. japonicus) which can potentially transmit viruses from the same family (Flavivi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Since the huge epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Brazil in 2015, questions were raised to understand which mosquito species could transmit the virus. Aedes aegypti has been described as the main vector. However, other Aedes species (e.g. Ae. albopictus and Ae. japonicus) proven to be competent for other Flaviviruses (e.g.West Nile, dengue...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Since the huge epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Brazil in 2015, questions were raised to understand which mosquito species could transmit the virus. Aedes aegypti has been described as the main vector. However, other Aedes species (e.g. Ae. albopictus and Ae. japonicus) proven to be competent for other Flaviviruses (e.g.West Nile, dengue...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Since the huge epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Brazil in 2015, questions were raised to understand which mosquito species could transmit the virus. Aedes aegypti has been described as the main vector. However, other Aedes species (e.g. Ae. albopictus and Ae. japonicus) proven to be competent for other flaviviruses (e.g. West Nile, deng...
Article
Full-text available
Currently, five invasive Aedes mosquito species are of concern in Europe according to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control: Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Ae. atropalpus, Ae. japonicus, and Ae. koreicus. Among these, only Ae. albopictus was reported to occur in Romania, in Bucharest. The aim of this study was to update the knowled...
Article
Full-text available
EFSA has requested the Vextornet consortium to undertake a series of spatial distribution models for seven potential mosquito vectors of Rift Valley fever virus, namely Aedes albopictus, Aedes caspius, Aedes detritus, Aedes japonicus, Aedes vexans, Culex pipiens and Culex theileri. The modelling used the distribution data held within the VectorNet...
Article
Full-text available
The invasive mosquito species Aedes japonicus (Theobald, 1901) was first recorded in Luxembourg on 4 July 2018 in Stolzembourg in the middle Our valley on the German border. During three consecutive field missions in 2018, 106 sites were inspected, including 91 in Luxembourg, 12 in Germany, 2 in Belgium and 1 in France. Aedes japonicus was detected...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The intensification of trade and travel is linked to the growing number of imported cases of dengue, chikungunya or Zika viruses into continental Europe and to the expansion of invasive mosquito species such as Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus. Local outbreaks have already occurred in several European countries. Very little informa...
Article
Full-text available
Mosquito‐borne diseases resulting from the expansion of two key vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), continue to challenge whole regions and continents around the globe. In recent years there have been human cases of disease associated with Chikungunya, dengue and Zika viruses. In Europe, the expansion of Ae. albopictus...
Technical Report
Full-text available
From July to October 2016 mosquito collections were conducted at ten different sites throughout Luxembourg using CO2-baited traps. In total, seven mosquito species were recorded with Culex pipiens/torrentium exhibiting the widest distribution and highest frequency (175 specimens, including 46 Culex pipiens and 26 Cx. torrentium). The other taxa wer...
Article
Full-text available
The present study aimed to update the list of Aedes mosquito species occurring in Tunisia and to test the vector competence of Aedes (Ochlerotatus) caspius (Pallas) and Ae. (Ochlerotatus) detritus (Haliday), the locally most abundant and widespread species, to transmit Zika virus (ZIKV). In 2017–2018, mosquito larvae were collected from 39 differen...
Article
Full-text available
The global population at risk from mosquito-borne diseases—including dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya and Zika—is expanding in concert with changes in the distribution of two key vectors: Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. The distribution of these species is largely driven by both human movement and the presence of suitable climate. Using statis...
Article
Full-text available
The global population at risk from mosquito-borne diseases-including dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya and Zika-is expanding in concert with changes in the distribution of two key vectors: Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. The distribution of these species is largely driven by both human movement and the presence of suitable climate. Using statis...
Article
Full-text available
This Article was mistakenly not made Open Access when originally published; this has now been amended, and information about the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License has been added into the ‘Additional information’ section.
Article
p>In the version of this Article originally published, the affiliation for author Catherine Linard was incorrectly stated as ‘<sup>6</sup>Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK’. The correct affiliation is ‘<sup>9</sup>Spatial Epidemiology Lab (SpELL), Universite Libre de Bruxelles,...
Article
Full-text available
Human malaria, which remains a major public health problem, is transmitted by a subset of Anopheles mosquitoes belonging to only three out of eight subgenera: Anopheles, Cellia and Nyssorhynchus. Unlike almost every other insect species, males of some Anopheles species produce steroid hormones which are transferred to females during copulation to i...