Francis Raoul

Francis Raoul
University of Franche-Comté | UFC · UMR 6249 Laboratoire Chrono-Environnement

PhD

About

159
Publications
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3,341
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Publications

Publications (159)
Article
Full-text available
Pollution with trace metals (TM) has been shown to affect diversity and/or composition of plant and animal communities. While ecotoxicological studies have estimated the impact of TM contamination on plant and animal communities separately, ecological studies have widely demonstrated that vegetation is an important factor shaping invertebrate commu...
Preprint
Full-text available
Pollution with trace metals (TM) has been shown to affect diversity and/or composition of plant and animal communities. While ecotoxicological studies have estimated the impact of TM contamination on plant and animal communities separately, ecological studies have widely demonstrated that vegetation is an important factor shaping invertebrate commu...
Article
Assessing the genetic diversity of the parasite Echinococcus multilocularis provides key information about the temporal and spatial strain flow in a given area. Previous studies indicated that a historical endemic area conventionally presents a relatively high genetic diversity, whereas peripheral or newly endemic areas exhibit a more restricted va...
Article
The eggs of Echinococcus multilocularis, the infectious stage, are spread into the environment through wild and domestic carnivore faeces. The spatial location of the faeces containing infective E. multilocularis eggs is a key parameter for studying areas of exposure and understanding the transmission processes to the intermediate hosts and humans....
Article
Exposure of terrestrial mammals to chemical contaminants like trace metals (TMs) is considered to be mainly based on trophic transfer. Although relationships between TM transfer to animals and identity of contaminated food have been studied, the variation of the TM transfer with respect to diet diversity has been poorly documented. In this study, t...
Article
In wildlife ecotoxicology, the rationale for using blood rather than other body fluids or tissues is that sampling blood is a minimally invasive technique without animal mortality, providing both ethical and scientific benefits. To date, few studies are available on the relationships between blood and organ metal concentrations of small mammals liv...
Article
Full-text available
Mammals are mainly exposed to trace metals via consuming contaminated food. Several studies have demonstrated relationships between metal concentrations in food and in animal tissues. However, potential effects of trace metals on feeding behaviour of wildlife have been poorly documented under field conditions, despite experimental evidence showing...
Article
In zoonotic infections, the relationships between animals and humans lead to parasitic disease with severity that ranges from mild symptoms to life-threatening conditions. In cities and their surrounding areas, this statement is truer with the overcrowding of the protagonists of the parasites' life cycle. The present study aims to investigate the d...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The eastern part of the Tibetan Plateau is now recognized as an endemic region with the highest reported human infection rates in the world of human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by Echinococcus multilocularis. Existing epidemiological studies on AE have mainly focused on the synanthropic environment, while basic parasitological...
Article
Full-text available
The new recent genus and species of three-toed jerboas (Rodentia: Dipodinae), from southern Ningxia, China, is described. This form demonstrated a unique mixture of external, cranial, and dental characters that individually are typical for one or another of all known genera of Dipodinae. Based on morphological characters, it is recovered as the par...
Article
Full-text available
Evolution and dispersion history on Earth of organisms can best be studied through biological markers in molecular epidemiological studies. The biological diversity of the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis was investigated in different cladistic approaches. First the morphological aspects were explored in connection with its ecology. More recentl...
Data
EmsB guidelines. Description of the EmsB microsatellite and guide to perform the analysis without the EWET website application. (PDF)
Article
With the ongoing spread of Echinococcus multilocularis in Europe, sanitary authorities are looking for the most efficient ways of reducing the risk for human populations. Fox culling is one particular tool that has recently shifted from predation control to population health management. Our study aims to assess the effectiveness of this tool in lim...
Article
Full-text available
Palm oil is nowadays the first vegetable oil consumed worldwide. Given the world population growth and the increasing demand in fat for food and fuel, the increase in oil palm production is expected to continue. It is thus important to find ways of reducing the ecological impact of oil palm plantations at both the agroecosystem and the mill supply...
Article
Alveolar echinococcosis is considered to be the most serious zoonosis in the Northern Hemisphere’s cold or temperate regions. In Europe, the parasite has a sylvatic life cycle based on predator–prey interactions, mainly between red foxes and small rodents. Echinococcus multilocularis has been observed to have spread across Europe over the last thre...
Article
The ability for a generalist consumer to adapt its foraging strategy (the multi-species functional response, MSFR) is a milestone in ecology as it contributes to the structure of food webs. The trophic interaction between a generalist predator, as the red fox or the barn owl, and its prey community, mainly composed of small mammals, has been em...
Poster
Full-text available
Small carnivores contribute to rat control in oil palm plantations
Poster
Full-text available
Spatial distribution of small carnivores within oil palm plantations
Article
The life cycle of the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis primarily involves canids and small mammals (rodents, lagomorphs) as definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively. Several surveys have identified marked temporal and geographical variations at different scales in the parasite's prevalence in both types of hosts, suggesting variations in...
Article
Full-text available
Human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a severe hepatic disease caused by Echinococcus multilocularis. In France, the definitive and intermediate hosts of E. multilocularis (foxes and rodents, respectively) have a broader geographical distribution than that of human AE. In this two-part study, we describe the link between AE incidence in France betw...
Article
Full-text available
Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is an endemic zoonosis in France due to the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis. The French National Reference Centre for Alveolar Echinococcosis (CNR-EA), connected to the FrancEchino network, is responsible for recording all AE cases diagnosed in France. Administrative, epidemiological and medical information on the F...
Article
Full-text available
The oncosphere stage of Echinococcus multilocularis in red fox stools can lead, after inges-tion, to the development of alveolar echinococcosis in the intermediate hosts, commonly small mammals and occasionally humans. Monitoring animal infection and environmental contamination is a key issue in public health surveillance. We developed a quantitati...
Article
Alveolar echinococcosis, caused by the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis, is the most serious parasitic disease for humans in Europe, with a sylvatic life cycle generally between small rodents and red foxes. General expansion of the range of E. multilocularis has been observed across Europe over the last fifteen years. In France, a westward sprea...
Article
Full-text available
For sustainable oil palm production, barn owl (Tyto alba) predation should be enhanced and monitored to better understand its impact on rodent population dynamics, notably for selective predation based on age or size. Our aim was to assess the best combination of osteometric variables that predict eye lens weight and thus the relative age of an ind...
Chapter
Trace metals (TMs) are naturally present in the environment, however, soils can exhibit high levels of these persistent pollutants due to anthropogenic activities, and such contamination is recognised as a subject of concern for both organism and ecosystem health [1], [2]. Assessment of the environmental and ecological factors that may influence th...
Article
The oncosphere stage of Echinococcus multilocularis in red fox stools can lead, after ingestion, to the development of alveolar echinococcosis in the intermediate hosts, commonly small mammals and occasionally humans. Monitoring animal infection and environmental contamination is a key issue in public health surveillance. We developed a quantitativ...
Article
Pest control is a global issue for agriculture, health, biodiversity conservation and economy. Anticoagulant rodenticides are used over large areas to control rodent pests and can cause widespread poisoning of nontarget wildlife. In France, bromadiolone is the only pesticide authorized to control the water vole Arvicola terrestris Scherman, in gras...
Article
Full-text available
SUMMARY Human cysticercosis, caused by accidental ingestion of eggs of Taenia solium, is one of the most pathogenic helminthiases and is listed among the 17 WHO Neglected Tropical Diseases. Controlling the life-cycle of T. solium between humans and pigs is essential for eradication of cysticercosis. One difficulty for the accurate detection and ide...
Article
Full-text available
SUMMARY Recent changes in the epidemiology of alveolar echinococcosis (AE) in Eurasia have led to increasing concerns about the risk of human AE and the need for a thorough evaluation of the epidemiological situation. The aim of this study was to explore the use of a National Register to detect complex distribution patterns on several scales. The d...
Article
Full-text available
SUMMARY Detection of taeniasis carriers of Taenia solium is essential for control of cysticercosis in humans and pigs. In the current study, we assessed the positive detection rate of a self-detection tool, stool microscopy with direct smear and coproPCR for taeniasis carriers in endemic Tibetan areas of northwest Sichuan. The self-detection tool t...
Article
Full-text available
Il est maintenant établi que les changements anthropiques d'utilisation des terres (déforestation, irrigation, agriculture ...), les modifications de la biodiversité et les changements climatiques sont autant de facteurs qui, seuls ou en combinaison, sont à la base de modifications de l'équilibre des écosystèmes qui peuvent contrôler l'émergence de...
Article
Full-text available
SUMMARY From continental to regional scales, the zoonosis alveolar echinococcosis (AE) (caused by Echinococcus multilocularis) forms discrete patches of endemicity within which transmission hotspots of much larger prevalence may occur. Since the late 80s, a number of hotspots have been identified in continental Asia, mostly in China, wherein the ec...
Article
Full-text available
A 43-year-old Tibetan woman living in northwest Sichuan, China, confirmed to be a taeniasis carrier of Taenia solium was treated with pumpkin seeds combined with Areca nut extract in October 2009. All 20 tapeworms except one without scolex were expelled under good conditions. She was free of secondary cysticercosis within one year follow up. Althou...
Conference Paper
Wildlife is considered to be mainly exposed to environmental contaminants via oral route. Food web analysis is therefore crucial in environmental risk assessment and management. In this context, diet information is commonly obtained from literature and little attention has been given to site-specific considerations (habitat, season…), which might c...
Data
Rainfall statistics (logarithm) in continental China (in a 100 km radius buffer) and human alveolar echinococcosis distribution (red lines). (TIF)
Data
Average temperature in continental China (in a 100 km radius buffer) and human alveolar echinococcosis distribution (red lines). (TIF)
Data
Land cover in continental China (ratio of total land in a 100 km radius buffer) according to GLOBAL land cover 2000 nomenclature and human alveolar echinococcosis distribution (red lines). V1, needleleaved deciduoud forest; V2, needleleaved evergreen forest; V3, broadleaved evergreen forest; V4, broadleaved deciduoud forest; V5, bush; V6, sparse wo...
Data
Model comparison with deviance information criterion. Spatial and random effects are depicted by spatial and pixel respectively. Tibetan, Female, Herdpeople are factors coded 0/1; ratio meadows and ratio forests are the ratio of Alpine meadows and of forest to total land within a 100 km radius buffer. P-spline term was added on age, altitude, rainf...
Data
Altitude statistics in continental China (in a 100 km radius buffer) and human alveolar echinococcosis distribution (red lines). (TIF)
Article
Full-text available
Background: Human alveolar echinococcocosis (AE) is a highly pathogenic zoonotic disease caused by the larval stage of the cestode E. multilocularis. Its life-cycle includes more than 40 species of small mammal intermediate hosts. Therefore, host biodiversity losses could be expected to alter transmission. Climate may also have possible impacts on...
Article
Full-text available
Westward spread of Echinococcus multilocularisin foxes in France. From 2005 to 2011, fox (Vulpes vulpes) infection by the parasite Echinococcus multilocularis (Em) was investigated in 44 French departments. Geographic expansion and increased prevalence have been evidenced. Em is now located over a large area including the western part of France. It...
Article
Full-text available
During 2005-2010, we investigated Echinococcus multilocularis infection within fox populations in a large area in France. The parasite is much more widely distributed than hitherto thought, spreading west, with a much higher prevalence than previously reported. The parasite also is present in the large conurbation of Paris.
Article
In France, the monitoring of human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is organized by the FrancEchino network, and fox infection surveillance mostly by the Entente de Lutte Interdépartementale contre les Zoonoses (ELIZ). A retrospective analysis of the patient data (1982-2011) indicates that the disease occurs in nested spatial clusters, the geographical...
Poster
Full-text available
The lesser horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus hipposideros, was formerly widespread in north-western Europe, but has undergone a dramatic decline from the 1960s. Ecological disturbances, largely due to human intervention, have been related to this decline. Habitat loss and environmental contamination by chemical substances are regularly cited as being the...
Article
Full-text available
Taeniasis refers to the infection with adult tapeworms of Taenia spp. in the upper small intestine of humans, which is also a cause of cysticercosis infection in either both humans and/or animals. Currently the most commonly applied anthelminthics for treatment of taeniasis are praziquantel and niclosamide. Praziquantel is very effective, but has t...
Article
In this study, we applied a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for identification of human Taenia tapeworms in Tibetan communities in Sichuan, China. Out of 51 proglottids recovered from 35 carriers, 9, 1, and 41 samples were identified as Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica and Taenia saginata, respectively. Same results were obtained afterw...
Conference Paper
Arsenic (As) is a chemical element naturally occurring in soils but industrial and mining activities have long been releasing high As levels into the environment. These elevated concentrations might affect directly exposed organisms and also organisms that feed on them along the food chain. Despite this, little is known about As behaviour in the en...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Small mammals such as the European rabbits, the plateau pikas, the prairie dogs have been traditionally perceived as pests and targeted for control on a large scale despite their importance as key-stone species in their native ecosystem. This is also the case for the fossorial form of the water vole (Arvicola terrestris). This species can reach lar...
Conference Paper
Knowing the network of interactions between organisms is essential to understand ecosystem functioning. In particular, documenting food web structure allows to understand transfers of energy and matters. Among them, many pollutants, especially metallic trace elements, are transferred via food between organisms. Diet of animals and its spatial and t...
Article
The channelizing of the minor bed of the Drugeon river and the drainage of adjacent marshes were carried out from 1961 to 1973 in the hope of gaining 2000 ha of farmland. Those works led to important damage to the wetlands of the Drugeon basin, a Ramsar site since 2003, under the protection of several national and European laws since 1992. Actually...