Francis Fukuyama

Francis Fukuyama
Stanford University | SU · Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies

About

144
Publications
111,660
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
28,806
Citations
Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (144)
Article
Over the past decade, there has been an extremely rapid increase in bilaterally financed infrastructure projects globally, as part of China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). The BRI is a broad initiative involving many Chinese state-owned enterprises to develop transport and other infrastructure across the developing world, with bilateral financing...
Presentation
Full-text available
Article
Responding to COVID‐19 presents unprecedented challenges for public sector practitioners and addressing those challenges requires knowledge about the problems public sector workers face. This Viewpoint essay argues that timely, up‐to‐date surveys of public sector workers are an essential tool for identifying problems, resolving bottlenecks and enab...
Article
Against the Grain: A Deep History of the Earliest States. By James C. Scott. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2017. 336p. $26.00 cloth, $18.00 paper. - Volume 18 Issue 1 - Francis Fukuyama
Chapter
Particularly since the announcement in 2013 of China’s ambitious Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), infrastructure development has become one of the chief axes of competition between China and the West. Chinese infrastructure finance has gone from about 25% of total lending by international development institutions in 2002 to nearly 75% in 2016. The r...
Article
National identity has been pivotal to the fortunes of modern states. When channeled in the form of an exclusive and intolerant ethnonationalism, it can drive acts of persecution and aggression. Yet national identities can also be built around liberal and democratic political values, and around the shared experiences of diverse communities. Contrary...
Chapter
Corruption—the appropriate of public resources for private purposes—is a modern phenomenon insofar as modern states are founded on the principle of the strict separation of public and private. This was not the case for much of human history, where “patrimonial” rulers regarded the public domain as a species of private property. Corruption needs to...
Article
This essay examines why England experienced a civil war every fifty years from the Norman Conquest up until the Glorious Revolution of 1688-1689, and was completely stable after that point. The reasons had to do with, first, the slow accumulation of law and respect for the law that had occurred by the seventeenth century, and second, with the emerg...
Article
Response to Carles Boix’s review of Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalization of Democracy - Volume 15 Issue 2 - Francis Fukuyama
Article
A modern political system consists of three sets of institutions: a modern, impersonal state, rule of law, and mechanisms for democratic accountability. China developed the modern state more than two millennia ago, but has yet to achieve a real rule of law limiting state power, and has no democratic accountability. Current Chinese government under...
Article
Full-text available
The term governance does not have a settled definition today, and it has at least three main meanings. The first is international cooperation through nonsovereign bodies outside the state system. This concept grew out of the literature on globalization and argued that territorial sovereignty was giving way to more informal types of horizontal coope...
Article
This article is based on the Skytte Prize lecture delivered at the University of Uppsala in October 2015.
Chapter
The state, rule of law, and democratic accountability are the three basic components of a modern political order. The state concentrates and uses power, while law and democracy constrain the exercise of power, indicating that there is an inherent tension between them. This article looks at ways in which the state and liberal democracy interact in t...
Article
According to Jørgen Møller, democracy was not a latecomer on the European scene; it emerged in parallel with rule of law in a way that makes European development very different from that of Russia or China, but also from the vast majority of contemporary developing countries. Yet the crucial ingredient that permitted the evolution of medieval estat...
Article
The reputation of the philosopher Leo Strauss was besmirched in the course of the Iraq War by unwarranted charges that he promoted official lying. Philosophy Between the Lines provides a corrective to this view by explaining the role of esotericism in Strauss' thought. Arthur Melzer demonstrates that a wide variety of authors from the ancient Greek...
Article
The Journal of Democracy published its inaugural issue a bit past the midpoint of what Samuel P. Huntington labeled the “third wave” of democratization, right after the fall of the Berlin Wall and just before the breakup of the former Soviet Union. The transitions in Southern Europe and most of those in Latin America had already happened, and Easte...
Article
The state, rule of law, and democratic accountability are the three basic components of a modern political order. The state concentrates and uses power, while law and democracy constrain the exercise of power, indicating that there is an inherent tension between them. This article looks at ways in which the state and liberal democracy interact in t...
Article
The return of the Middle Kingdom to the center stage of history is the most significant geo-civilizaitonal development of the 21st Century. China's rise raises anew the great question, thought settled after the Cold War, of what system of governance will stand on the right or wrong side of history. In this section the leading ideologists of the Chi...
Article
Full-text available
Four leading experts on democracy—Larry Diamond, Francis Fukuyama, Donald L. Horowitz, and Marc F. Plattner—discuss the relevance of the "transition paradigm" in light of the "Arab Spring" and other developments in the world today.
Article
Why is it that some countries have been able to develop high-quality state administrations that deliver services to their populations with relative efficiency, while others are plagued by corruption, bloated or red-tape-ridden bureaucracies, and incompetence? And what is the relationship between the effectiveness of a state and democracy? Are the t...
Article
This paper points to the poor state of empirical measures of the quality of states, that is, executive branches and their bureaucracies. Much of the problem is conceptual, since there is very little agreement on what constitutes high-quality government. The paper suggests four approaches: (1) procedural measures, such as the Weberian criteria of bu...
Article
Full-text available
This report summarizes the issues that arose and the discussions held during the meetings of a 1998-1999 study group focusing on global governance of information technology and biotechnology. The goal was to bring a policy perspective LONG RANGE(DISTANCE),XTto bear on a discussion of new technological developments through a series of free-flowing a...
Article
Full-text available
The contemporary problems of democracy in East Asia and its ability to deal with future challenges cannot be understood except in the context of a region whose largest player is a rapidly growing and relatively successful authoritarian regime—China. The field of comparative politics has not developed an adequate conceptual framework for categoriz...
Article
Stable democracy does not depend on a rigid set of preconditions, and has emerged in many surprising circumstances.
Article
This article explores the relationship between liberal democracy and socioeconomic equality, both on a theoretical and a practical level. It recounts both liberal and non-liberal arguments why democracies should or should not worry about de facto inequality, and then goes through a series of consequentialist arguments about why, alternatively, demo...
Article
The American version of capitalism is no longer dominant around the world. In the next decade, developing countries are likely to continue to trade the flexibility and efficiency associated with the free-market model for domestic policies meant to ensure greater resilience in the face of competitive pressures and global economic trauma.
Article
Francis Fukuyama is Bernard L. Schwartz Professor of International Political Economy at the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) of Johns Hopkins University, and Director of SAIS' International Development program. He is also Chairman of the editorial board of a new magazine, The American Interest. His latest book is Americ...
Article
Twenty years after the fall of the Berlin Wall and the triumphant celebrations of the West, a new chapter of history has opened featuring the rising powers of Asia, led by China. Though embracing free markets, China has looked to its Confucian traditions instead of liberal democracy as the best route to good governance. Will China manage to achieve...
Article
Full-text available
A frontier challenge for development strategy is to move beyond prescribing optimal economic policies, and instead – taking a broad view of the interactions between economic, political and social constraints and dynamics -- to identify entry points capable of breaking a low-growth logjam, and initiating a virtuous spiral of cumulative change. The p...
Data
I explore how the horizon of the future has shifted dramatically from Bertrand Russell's grim early 20th century prognostications based on the Second Law of Thermodynamics to the Transhumanist early 21st century predictions based on the Law of Technology's Accelerating Returns. I argue that Transhumanism combines the values of the developed world's...
Article
While we have witnessed many transitions to multiparty systems, it has proven much harder for countries to attain a genuine rule of law. We need to know more about the origins of the rule of law in order to promote it successfully today.
Article
Globalization may not be coming apart at the seams—yet—but the seams are ever more apparent. Rising fuel prices challenge a model of global transportation based on cheap energy, reinforcing the possibility of decoupling through great regionaliza-tion of trade. Already, 50 percent of trade among ASEAN plus China and Japan is among each other.The Wal...
Article
“The Latin American Experience” argues that democratic stability requires policies that limit the society’s degree of substantive economic and social inequality. A case in point is Latin America, long recognized as having one of the world’s most unequal distributions of income and wealth. Observing growth patterns over the long run reveal that whil...
Article
Full-text available
The tragic result of the gap between declared objectives and strategies on democracy promotion is that many Americans are starting to view this goal as no longer desirable or attainable. A more effective strategy for promoting democracy and human rights is both needed and available.
Article
Full-text available
Gregory Clark's book, A Farewell to Alms, described on the jacket by the New York Times as "the next blockbuster in economics," makes three startling assertions. The first is that living standards for the average human being showed virtually no increase between hunter-gatherer times and the year 1800, and turned sharply upwards thereafter, leading...
Article
Addressing long-term strategies for state-building in the Solomons, Professor Fukuyama underlines the need for nation-building efforts to create a sense of a common Solomon Islands identity. Pessimistic about current progress, he makes suggestions for international donors on how to support nation-building efforts, such as the creation of national s...
Article
Thomas Carothers' "The 'Sequencing Fallacy" is largely correct in its criticisms of the argument that democratic reforms ought to be delayed until after a liberal rule of law and economic growth have been achieved. However, Carothers does not take sufficiently into account the need to create a coherent nation as the beginning point of the state-bui...
Article
The technologies at the intersection of assisted reproduction and genetics call for a new regulatory approach, say Franco Furger and Francis Fukuyama, authors of the recent report Beyond Bioethics. In the essay below they map out their recommendation. In the following essays, James Fossett argues that regulation is likelier—and would be better—at t...
Article
Full-text available
Modern liberal societies have weak collective identities. Postmodern elites, especially in Europe, feel that they have evolved beyond identities defined by religion and nation. But if our societies cannot assert positive liberal values, they may be challenged by migrants who are more sure of who they are Francis Fukuyama is professor of internation...
Article
Full-text available
The dilemma of immigration and identity ultimately converges with the larger problem of the valuelessness of postmodernity. That is, the rise of relativism has made it impossible for postmodern people to assert positive values for which they stand, and therefore the kinds of shared beliefs they demand as a condition for citizenship. If postmodern s...
Article
Full-text available
Indonesia, the Philippines, South Korea, and Taiwan all have presidential systems, and in recent years have experienced many of the ills attributed to presidentialism by critics like Juan Linz, such as weak legitimacy, rigid terms, deadlock with the legislature, and efforts to impeach unpopular presidents. This article concludes that while Asian pr...
Article
Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 48.2 (2005) 195-200 I appreciate the opportunity given me by the editors of Perspectives on Biology and Medicine to reflect on my experience on the President's Council on Bioethics and the work it has produced. In light of the fact that I never submitted a personal statement at the time of the publication of the...
Article
Full-text available
Rebuilding political orders after conflict faces two conundrums. The first is that externally-provided governance can undermine the long-term ability of societies to develop their own self-sustaining indigenous political institutions. This was a problem faced by both the Coalition Provisional Authority in Iraq and the High Representative in Bosnia....
Article
A KEY TASK facing the second Bush administration is devising the proper security architecture for eastern Asia. The United States is confronting several immediate problems, including the North Korean nuclear standoff, tension between China and Taiwan, and Islamist terrorism in Southeast Asia. But a forward-looking foreign policy does not simply man...
Article
Full-text available
State-building—the creation of new governmental institutions and the strengthening of existing ones—is a crucial global issue. Weak or failed states are at the root of many of the world's most serious problems, from poverty and AIDS, to drug trafficking and terrorism, to the failure of democracies. While we know much about state-building, there is...
Article
SO ME new technologies are frightening from the start, and the need to establish political controls over their development and use is obvious to all. When the first atomic bomb was detonated at Alamogordo, New Mexico, in the summer of 1945, not one of the witnesses to this event failed to understand that a terrible new potential for destruction had...
Article
Imagine the World Trade Organization (WTO) striking down a national ban on importing cloned embryos because it is a barrier to trade. Neither the WTO, nor individual governments, nor scientists, nor ethicists can effectively regulate human biotechnology on a global scale. So who will settle the troubling questions it raises?
Article
Full-text available
SAIS Review 22.1 (2002) 23-37 This article addresses the concept of social capital: in particular, where social capital stands today, how it interacts with other factors in international development, and how it will contribute to economic growth and poverty alleviation in the future. The term "social capital" reentered the social science lexicon in...
Article
Full-text available
Incl. bibl. notes, abstract. Social capital is an instantiated informal norm that promotes co-operation between individuals. In the economic sphere it reduces transaction costs and in the political sphere it promotes the kind of associational life which is necessary for the success of limited government and modern democracy. While it often arises f...
Article
Full-text available
Journal of Democracy 11.4 (2000) 80-94 It is of course very difficult to compare two regions as large, varied, and complex as East Asia and Latin America. Each region contains within it as much variation as exists between the regions as a whole; Burma and Japan are as dissimilar as Haiti and Argentina. Nonetheless, regions do matter, and it is poss...
Article
Full-text available
Social capital is an instantiated informal norm that promotes cooperation between individuals. In the economic sphere it reduces transaction costs, and in the political sphere it promotes the kind of associational life that is necessary for the success of limited government and modern democracy. Although social capital often arises from iterated Pr...
Article
Journal of Democracy 11.1 (2000) 11-17 Alexis de Tocqueville virtually begins his Democracy in America with the apparently unqualified assertion that the advance of democracy is inevitable. This striking passage from the Introduction is worth quoting at length: Tocqueville notes that his book has been written "under the influence of a kind of relig...
Article
To some degree, biology is destiny. The feminist school of international relations has a point: a truly matriarchal world would be less prone to conflict and more cooperative than the one we now inhabit. And world politics has been gradually feminizing over the past century. But the broader scene will still be populated by states led by men like Mo...
Article
Journal of Democracy 8.3 (1997) 146-149 It is striking that in all of the rich literature on democracy and democratic transitions published in recent years, including in the Journal of Democracy, it is difficult to find a single social scientist who will any longer admit to being a "modernization theorist." I find this odd because most observers of...
Article
Competitiveness debates have contrasted countries that have industrial policies, like Japan, with more laissez-faire countries like the United States. But the pivotal difference is the level of a people's trust. High-trust societies are interlaced with voluntary organizations--Rotary clubs, Bible study groups, private schools--and thus have "social...
Article
The argument contained in The End of History and the Last Man (New York, 1992) consists of an empirical part and a normative part: critics have confused the two and their proper relationship. The assertion that we have reached the "end of history" is not a statement about the empirical condition of the world, but a normative argument concerning the...

Network

Cited By