Francesco Sessa

Francesco Sessa
University of Catania | UNICT · Department of Medical, Surgical Sciences and Advanced Technologies "G.F. Ingrassia"

Master of Science PhD

About

133
Publications
27,586
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2,582
Citations
Citations since 2017
114 Research Items
2354 Citations
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Publications

Publications (133)
Article
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Penetrating injuries of the heart, named penetrating cardiac injury (PCI), may cause hemorrhagic shock as well as cardiac tamponade, leading to death if not treated immediately. This systematic review aims to highlight the main aspects of penetrating cardiac injuries after firearm wounds. The cases of 39 subjects (age 37.05 + 15.4) were selected (6...
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A correctly implemented and widely accepted vaccination campaign was the only truly effective weapon to reduce mortality and hospitalizations related to COVID-19. However, it was not 100% effective and has not eliminated COVID-19. Even though more than 60% of the worldwide population is fully vaccinated (meaning that these subjects have completed t...
Article
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Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM) is a developmental lesion of the lungs and terminal respiratory structures, which is characterized by pseudocysts, lesions, and cystically dilated airways. CCAM is also known as congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM). Various classification systems for CCAM have been described, and based on...
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Determining whether an injury was sustained in life or not is one of the most important topics in forensic medicine. Morphological, cytological, and biological techniques are used to assess wound vitality. Several markers involved in vital and supravital reactions increase the accuracy of wound age estimation. This systematic review aimed to invest...
Article
Cocaine, also known as methyl benzoylecgonine, is one of the most famous drugs of abuse and one of the most ancient; however, there has been a recent increase in consumption of this substance. This trend has once again caught the attention of the scientific community. We discuss the current knowledge about this drug, focusing our attention on the f...
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Study purpose. The aim of this study was to verify the effect of three sessions of aerobic training, for a period of 12 weeks, on VO2max and on the distance covered during the test. Materials and Methods. Fifteen sedentary males were recruited in this study. VO2max was investigated using Cooper test. Aerobic intervention lasted for 12 weeks. The e...
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The identification of a reliable and accurate post-mortem interval (PMI) is a major challenge in the field of forensic sciences and criminal investigation. Several laboratory techniques have recently been developed that offer a better contribution to the estimation of PMI, in addition to the traditional physical or physico-chemical (body cooling, l...
Article
Purpose of review: This review aims to report the most recent (2020-2022) experimental scientific studies conducted on animal models, in order to highlight the relevant findings on the adverse effects related to androgen administration. Recent findings: Forty-one studies published between January 2020 and July 2022 were selected. The majority of...
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The heart rate variability (HRV) changes under different situations such as physical exercise, stress and in obese/ overweight subjects. It is considered a noninvasive marker of autonomic nervous system function. The aim of this narrative review was to discuss the relationship between HRV and physical exercise. Moreover, we will make an overview ab...
Article
The purpose of this study is to show a very rare complication of acute cocaine poisoning, namely heart rupture. In the present case report, acute cocaine intoxication caused massive myocardial infarction, resulting in heart rupture and cardiac tamponade. A crime scene investigation found a dead body on the street in a drug dealing district. Examina...
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During the COVID-19 pandemic, forensic sciences, on the one hand, contributed to gaining knowledge about different aspects of the pandemic, while on the other hand, forensic professionals were called on to quickly adapt their activities to respond adequately to the changes imposed by the pandemic. This review aims to clarify the state of the art in...
Article
This case report describes a fatal case of a young woman with superior sagittal, transverse and sigmoid sinus thrombosis after administration of the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccination. Eleven days post-vaccination she was found unconscious and transferred to the Emergency Department. Blood parameters showed low platelets, and a CT scan showed an extensive...
Article
Introduction: Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) are a complex cluster of synthetic derivatives of testosterone. AAS abuse is considered a major public health issue since it has increased among young/adolescent males. The use of steroids has a prevalence rate of 14% in young athletes and 30-75% in professional athletes or bodybuilders. AASs simul...
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Health risks within prisons are well known and have worsened with the 2019 coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19), becoming a public health emergency. To date, there are more than 10 million inmates in the world; in most cases, conditions are bad and health care is scarce. A SARS-CoV-2 outbreak inside a prison is extremely rapid. The aim of this systemati...
Article
Objectives Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a new and rare syndrome resulting from the largest vaccination campaign against SARS-CoV-2 in the history of mankind. The aim of this review is to clarify underlying mechanisms, pathology, diagnosis, and therapy, with the related clinical implications. Methods We performed a c...
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Prenatal alcohol exposure is considered one of the main causes of preventable birth disorders; however, it represents the main form of developmental delay in the world. Among the so-called secondary disabilities related to fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), there is a close connection with criminal behavior. This systematic review aims to prov...
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The current challenge worldwide is the administration of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine. Considering that the COVID-19 vaccination represents the best possibility to resolve this pandemic, this systematic review aims to clarify the major aspects of fatal adverse effects related to COVID-19 vaccines, with th...
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Molecular chaperones, many of which are heat shock proteins, play a role in cell stress response and regulate the immune system in various ways, such as in inflammatory/autoimmune reactions. It would be interesting to study the involvement of these molecules in the damage done to COVID-19-infected lungs. In our study, we performed a histological an...
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Pharmacogenetics analyzes the individual behavior of DNA genes after the administration of a drug. Pharmacogenetic research has been implemented in recent years thanks to the improvement in genome sequencing techniques and molecular genetics. In addition to medical purposes, pharmacogenetics can constitute an important tool for clarifying the inter...
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To date, little is known regarding the transmission risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection for subjects involved in handling, transporting, and examining deceased persons with known or suspected COVID-19 positivity at the time of death. This experimental study aims to define if and/or how long SARS-CoV-2 persists with replication capacity in the tissues of...
Article
Introduction: Smart drugs are among the most common drugs used by students. It is estimated that they are second in incidence after cannabis. Although they are usually used for diseases such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and dementia, in most cases the use of smart drugs is illegal and without a prescription. Methodological iss...
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Anabolic–androgenic steroids (AASs) are a group of synthetic molecules derived from testosterone and its precursors. AASs are widely used illicitly by adolescents and athletes, especially by bodybuilders; AASs are among the most used drugs for improving physical performance, as well as for aesthetic purposes. The use of AASs by professional and rec...
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The medico-legal term “sudden death (SD)” refers to those deaths that are not preceded by significant symptoms. SD in apparently healthy individuals (newborn through to adults) represents a challenge for medical examiners, law enforcement officers, and society as a whole. This review aims to introduce a useful flowchart that should be applied in al...
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The Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused an unexpected death toll worldwide. Even though several guidelines for the management of infectious corpses have been proposed, the limited number of post-mortem analyses during the pandemic has led to inaccuracies in the counting of COVID-19 deaths and contributed to a lack of important inf...
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The current challenge worldwide is the administration of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines. Even if rarely, severe vascular adverse reactions temporally related to vaccine administration have induced diffidence in the population at large. In particular, researchers worldwide are focusing on the so-called “th...
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Glycophorins are an important group of red blood cell (RBC) transmembrane proteins. Monoclonal antibodies against GPA are employed in immunohistochemical staining during post-mortem examination: Through this method, it is possible to point out the RBC presence in tissues. This experimental study aims to investigate anti-GPA immunohistochemical stai...
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Transcranial magnetic stimulation, since its introduction in 1985, has brought important innovations to the study of cortical excitability as it is a non-invasive method and, therefore, can be used both in healthy and sick subjects. Since the introduction of this cortical stimulation technique, it has been possible to deepen the neurophysiological...
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In the last two decades, three unknown pathogens have caused outbreaks, generating severe global health concerns. In 2003, after nucleic acid genotyping, a new virus was named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). After nine years, another coronavirus emerged in the middle east and was named MERS-CoV (Middle East Respiratory Syn...
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At the end of 2019, a new coronavirus (COVID-19) appeared on the world scene, which mainly affects the respiratory system, causing pneumonia and multi-organ failure, and, although it starts with common symptoms such as shortness of breath and fever, in about 2–3% of cases it leads to death. Unfortunately, to date, no specific treatments have been f...
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To date, there is poor evidence on the transmission of infection in individuals handling the bodies of deceased persons infected with SARS-CoV-2 and in particular, during autopsies. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that when appropriate strategies are adopted autopsy is a safe procedure with a minimal infection risk for all subjects involve...
Article
Objectives The aim of this feasibility study was to investigate the potential role of ex-situ heart MRI and angiography (MRA) after formalin fixation. Materials and Methods The heart of a 22-year-old dead male was explanted and placed inside a container, filled with 10% formalin solution. MRI was performed with 1.5 T scanner at three different tim...
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Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor (ED) frequently used in food packaging. BPA is used as a monomer in the manufacture of some food packaging. This study aimed to evaluate the urinary BPA concentration in an Italian pediatric cohort, testing the levels of this ED over a period of 6 months, evaluating the effects of a diet regimen with a re...
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Epidural hematomas (EDHs) and subdural hematomas (SDHs), or so-called extra-axial bleedings, are common clinical entities after a traumatic brain injury (TBI). A forensic pathologist often analyzes cases of traumatic EDHs or SDHs due to road accidents, suicides, homicides, assaults, domestic or on-the-job accidents, and even in a medical responsibi...
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Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening or fatal clinical emergency characterized by rapid onset, and death may be sudden. The margin of certainty about the diagnosis of anaphylactic death is not well established. The application of immunohistochemical techniques combined with the evaluation of blood tryptase concentrations opened up a new field of inves...
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Background and objectives: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious infectious disease, responsible for a global pandemic that began in January 2020. Human/COVID-19 interactions cause different outcomes ranging from minor health consequences to death. Since social interaction is the default mode by which individuals communicate w...
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Despite safety recommendations for the management of corpses with COVID-19 infection and the high number of deaths worldwide, the post-mortem investigation rate is extremely low as well as the scientific contributions describing the pathological features. The first results of post-mortem investigations provided interesting findings and contributed...
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The accumulation of adipose tissue represents one of the characteristics of obesity, increasing the risk of developing correlated obesity diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer, and immune diseases. Visceral adipose tissue accumulation leads to chronic low inflammation inducing an imbalanced adipokine secretion. Among thes...
Article
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Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) etiopathogenesis is still unclear and no effective preventive and treatment measures have been identified. Research has focused on the potential role of neuroinflammation and the Kynurenine pathway; here we review the nature of these interactions. Pre-natal or neonatal infections would induce microglial activation, wi...
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miRNAs are a family of 20–22 non-coding nucleotides that control gene expression by inhibiting the translation of their target messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Two models have been proposed to elucidate the mechanism of action: they act either hindering mRNA translation or enhancing mRNA degradation. Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids (AASs) represent a class of...
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(1) Background: The current outbreak of COVID-19 infection is an ongoing challenge and a major threat to public health that requires surveillance, prompt diagnosis, as well as research efforts to understand the viral pathogenesis. Despite this, to date, very few studies have been performed concerning autoptic specimens. Therefore, this study aimed:...
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Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) can be used to treat both hormonal diseases and other pathologies characterized by muscle loss (aging, cancer, and AIDS). Even if the adverse effects related to the misuse of AASs have been well studied in different systems and apparatuses, knowledge about brain damage is poor.In this scenario, this experimental...
Preprint
Autism Spectrum Disorder etiopathogenesis is still unclear and no effective preventive and treatment measures have been identified. Research has focused on the potential role of neuroinflammation and kynurenine pathway. Here we review the nature of these interactions. Pre-natal or neonatal infections would induce microglial activation, with seconda...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Aerobic exercise can greatly assist in reducing collateral effects of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Moreover, aerobic exercise is associated with sympathetic activation and adaptive responses to sustain muscle engagement, changes in the release of Orexin A, a pleiotropic neuropeptide. Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze the benefi...
Article
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The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 was identified for the first time in China, in December 2019. Confirmed cases of COVID-19 have been reported around the world; indeed, this infection has been declared a pandemic. Consequently, the scientific community is working hard to gain useful information about the history of this virus, its...
Article
Accident prevention is certainly the topic of greatest interest in the football medical field. Data literature reported that the risk of injuries is approximately 1000 times greater in professional football than in other occupations; for these reasons, it is very important the prevention. The costs of an accident, both in economic terms and in term...
Article
Background: Regular physical activity or aerobic exercise is well known to increase brain plasticity. Recent studies have reported that aerobic exercise enhances neuroplasticity and motor learning. The aim of this study was to investigate if 12 weeks' aerobic training can modify cortical excitability and motor evoked potential (MEP) responses. Me...
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Pediatrics, among all the branches of medicine, is a sector not particularly affected by a high number of claims. Nevertheless, the economic value of the compensation is significantly high, for example, in cases of children who suffered multiple disabilities following perinatal lesions with a long life expectancy. In Italy, most of the claims for c...
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Background: The current outbreak of COVID-19 infection, which started in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, in December 2019, is an ongoing challenge and a significant threat to public health requiring surveillance, prompt diagnosis, and research efforts to understand a new, emergent, and unknown pathogen and to develop effective therapies. Despite the...
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Adipose tissue is a multifunctional organ involved in many physiological and metabolic processes through the production of adipokines and, in particular, adiponectin. Caloric restriction is one of the most important strategies against obesity today. The very low-calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD) represents a type of caloric restriction with very or ex...
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Background: On the 31 December 2019, the World Health Organization (WHO) was informed of a cluster of cases of pneumonia of unknown origin detected in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. The infection spread first in China and then in the rest of the world, and on the 11th of March, the WHO declared that COVID-19 was a pandemic. Taking into conside...
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Exercise represents the most important integrative therapy in metabolic, immunologic and chronic diseases; it represents a valid strategy in the non-pharmacological intervention of lifestyle linked diseases. A large body of evidence indicates physical exercise as an effective measure against chronic non-communicable diseases. The worldwide general...
Article
Dog attacks today represent a health hazard considering that prevention strategies have not always been successful. The identification of the dog that attacked the victim is necessary, considering the civil or criminal consequences for the animal’s owner. An accurate scene analysis must be performed collecting a series of important information. For...
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Functional non-retentive fecal incontinence (FNRFI) is a common problem in pediatric age. FNRFI is defined as unintended loss of stool in a 4-year-old or older child after organic causes have been excluded. FNRFI tends to affects up to 3% of children older than 4 years, with males being affected more frequently than females. Clinically, children af...
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Nandrolone is a testosterone analogue with anabolic properties commonly abused worldwide, recently utilized also as therapeutic agent in chronic diseases, cancer included. Here we investigated the impact of nandrolone on the metabolic phenotype in HepG2 cell line. The results attained show that pharmacological dosage of nandrolone, slowing cell gro...
Article
Many athletes are concerned about attaining or maintaining optimal body weight and composition for their sport. Athletes may want to reduce body weight to ensure optimal performance, to improve aesthetic appearance, or to compete in weight category sports. This leads to efforts to reduce body fat without losing muscle mass and often to nutritional...
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Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease, representing one of the most severe pathologies in developed countries. Based on a report of the World Health Organization (WHO), it affects about 300 million people worldwide. Few studies have analyzed the effects of daily life physical activity (PA) levels in patients with asthma: moreover, little...
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Personality disorders (PDs) are one of the major problems for the organization of public health systems. Deepening the link between personality traits and psychopathological drifts, it seems increasingly essential for the often dramatic repercussions that PDs have on social contexts. Some of these disorders, such as borderline PD, antisocial PD, in...
Conference Paper
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The Orexin-A (hypocretin-1) is a neuropeptide secreted by neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. This protein regulates physiological and behavioural processes that have an essential impact on energy balance and metabolic status, physical activity, blood glucose levels, and food intake. Furthermore, that orexin-A regulates insulin sensitivity, energy...
Conference Paper
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Recent studies have demonstrated that obesity is a significant risk factor for the development of several malignancies such as cancer. Colorectal cancer is among the most common cancers worldwide and is strong linked to obesity. A healthy lifestyle, characterized by hypocaloric diet and physical activity, is important to reduce a chronic inflammati...
Conference Paper
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The lateral hypothalamus products various neuropeptides, among of these the Orexin-A (hypocretin-1) is a protein that regulates numerous physiological and behavioural processes involving in energy balance and metabolic status, physical activity, blood glucose levels, and food intake. Many data literature reported that the production of Orexin-A inc...
Conference Paper
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Obesity is a long-term multifactorial chronic disease, characterized by energy imbalance, due to an excess of caloric intake compared to energy expenditure and deregulation of other metabolic parameters, as, altered lipid profile, increased insulin resistance and chronic pro-inflammatory state. A healthy lifestyle, characterized by hypocaloric diet...
Article
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Background: Caloric restriction is a valid strategy to reduce the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) content in obese persons. Hypocretin-1 (orexin-A) is a neuropeptide synthesized in the lateral hypothalamus that strongly modulates food intake, thus influencing adipose tissue accumulation. Therapeutic diets in obesity treatment may combine the advanta...