Francesco Boschin

Francesco Boschin
Università degli Studi di Siena | UNISI · Department of Environment, Earth and Physical Sciences

PhD

About

95
Publications
24,571
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896
Citations
Additional affiliations
November 2019 - present
Università degli Studi di Siena
Position
  • Researcher
March 2016 - October 2019
Università degli Studi di Siena
Position
  • PostDoc Position
October 2009 - December 2013
Università degli Studi di Siena
Position
  • PhD Student
Description
  • analysis on epigravettian animal remains from Grotta Paglicci (Southern Italy)
Education
October 2000 - December 2004
University of Trieste
Field of study
  • Natural Sciences

Publications

Publications (95)
Article
Most of the Middle Palaeolithic evidence of Central Italy still lacks a reliable chrono-cultural framework mainly due to research history. In this context Grotta dei Santi, a wide cave located on Monte Argentario, on the southern coast of Tuscany, is particularly relevant as it contains a very well preserved sequence including several Mousterian la...
Article
Data about exploitation of carnivore, rodent and lagomorph taxa from the Epigravettian of Grotta Paglicci are presented in this paper. Grotta Paglicci is characterized by a long term stratigraphy, whose Epigravettian part covers, quite continuously, a time span from about 20,000 years cal. BP to about 13,500 years cal. BP. During this time, among m...
Article
This paper poses a question on the interpretation of caprine “kill‐off patterns” in some prehistoric sites of the Caput Adriae (northern Adriatic region, Mediterranean area). In particular, caprine kill‐off data from layers 2 (Late Neolithic‐Copper Age) and 2a (Middle Neolithic) of Grotta dell’Edera (Trieste Karst, north‐eastern Italy) are presente...
Article
Full-text available
The identification of the earliest dogs is challenging because of the absence and/or mosaic pattern of morphological diagnostic features in the initial phases of the domestication process. Furthermore, the natural occurrence of some of these characters in Late Pleistocene wolf populations and the time it took from the onset of traits related to dom...
Article
The zooarchaeology and taphonomy of large mammal remains from Grotta dell’Edera (Trieste Karst, northern Italy) are presented in this paper. A Mesolithic (Sauveterrian) Preboreal assemblage testifies to a first human occupation, followed by a second longer Sauveterrian frequentation from the Boreal until the beginning of the Atlantic. The last Meso...
Conference Paper
Residue analysis in the study of Palaeolithic represents both a well-developed field of research and a discipline with a great deal of potential yet to be explored and understood. As proven by previous works (Sano et al. 2019; Dominici et al. 2022), the use of techniques based on Synchrotron Radiation (SR) in dealing with degraded traces of organic...
Article
Full-text available
Bones and teeth are biological archives, but their structure and composition are subjected to alteration overtime due to biological and chemical degradation postmortem, influenced by burial environment and conditions. Nevertheless, organic fraction preservation is mandatory for several archeometric analyses and applications. The mutual protection b...
Article
In the last few years several studies have reassessed the attraction and the role of small game in the subsistence economy of hunter-gatherers across Europe and the Mediterranean region since the Middle Paleolithic. The exploitation of small mammals intensified during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, when some unusual faunal assemblages were re...
Article
Neanderthal foot bone proportions and morphology are mostly indistinguishable from those of Homo sapiens, with the exception of several distinct Neanderthal features in the talus. The biomechanical implications of these distinct talar features remain contentious, fueling debate around the adaptive meaning of this distinctiveness. With the aim of cl...
Conference Paper
THE DIET DURING THE PALAEOLITHIC: A CASE STUDY FROM GROTTA PAGLICCI (RIGNANO GARGANICO – FG) – It is usually assumed that the diet of Palaeolithic hunter-gatherer communities was based almost exclusively on the consumption of meat and of other animal resources (e.g. marrow). Recent studies carried out on dental calculus, as well as on organic resid...
Article
Full-text available
The origin, development, and legacy of the enigmatic Etruscan civilization from the central region of the Italian peninsula known as Etruria have been debated for centuries. Here we report a genomic time transect of 82 individuals spanning almost two millennia (800 BCE to 1000 CE) across Etruria and southern Italy. During the Iron Age, we detect a...
Article
Full-text available
After the last interglacial [Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e] Europe was affected by several harsh climatic oscillations. In this context southern Italy acted, like the rest of peninsular Mediterranean Europe, as a 'glacial refugium', allowing the survival of various species, and was involved in the spread of 'cold taxa' (e.g. woolly mammoth and wool...
Article
Full-text available
Background Recently, the study of mitochondrial variability in ancient humans has allowed the definition of population dynamics that characterised Europe in the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene. Despite the abundance of sites and skeletal remains few data are available for Italy. Aim We reconstructed the mitochondrial genomes of three Upper Pal...
Article
Full-text available
The analysis of bone-surface modifications (BSM), such as butchering marks, is necessary to better understand how the exploitation of animal resources by past hominins influenced their biological and cultural evolution. In this paper, we try to quantify to what extent the depth of the cut marks influences the shape of their cross sections. This is...
Preprint
Full-text available
An understanding of how ecological niches can change through time is key to predicting the effect of future global change. Past climatic fluctuations provide a natural experiment to assess the extent to which species can change their niche. Here we use an extensive archaeological database to formally test whether the niche of four European ungulate...
Article
Full-text available
Clastic successions in rock shelters commonly host important archaeological findings, especially of prehistoric and protostoric times. The understanding of depositional and post-depositional processes in these environments is crucial to understand the lifestyle settings of humans, as well as the reliability of archaeological data obtained during ex...
Article
Full-text available
The Oscurusciuto rock shelter (southern Italy) is crucial for the understanding of Neanderthals’ subsistence and settlement strategies as it contains a ~ 6-m-thick reliable deposit made up of several Middle Palaeolithic levels. This paper focuses on level SU 14, a 60-cm-thick deposit of volcanic tephra containing traces of human occupation only in...
Article
Full-text available
The role of small game in prehistoric hunter-gatherer economy is a highly debated topic. Despite the general assumption that this practice was uneconomic, several studies have underlined the relevance of the circumstance of capture – in terms of hunting strategies and technology – in the evaluation of the actual role of small mammals in human forag...
Article
Full-text available
PurposeIn the past, a role of thyroid hormones in human evolution has been hypothesized. T3, the metabolically active form, derives from extrathyroidal conversion of T4 by deionidase 2 (D2) enzyme encoded by DIO2 gene. In thyroid-deficient patients, decreased levels of free T3 have been associated with the polymorphism rs225014 A/G in DIO2, which c...
Article
Full-text available
The Molare Rock shelter (S. Giovanni a Piro, Salerno, Italy) is a key site to carry out high-resolution chronological studies in the broader context of Italian Mousterian peopling dynamics. The stratigraphic sequence is to be referred to MIS 5 and is characterized by the presence of a number of thin anthropic levels (often consisting of largely und...
Article
Grotta dei Santi represents a very suitable investigation field for carrying out an inquiry into the Neandertal behaviour at a high-resolution time scale, in order to obtain data useful for the "functional" reading of the economic and settling strategies. This cave opens into the Monte Argentario Promontory (southern coast of Tuscany, central Italy...
Article
Full-text available
Personal ornaments are commonly linked to the emergence of symbolic behavior. Although their presence in Africa dates back to the Middle Stone Age, evidence of ornament manufacturing in Eurasia are sporadically observed in Middle Palaeolithic contexts, and until now, large-scale diffusion has been well documented only since the Upper Palaeolithic....
Preprint
Most of the Middle Palaeolithic evidence of Central Italy still lacks a reliable chrono-cultural framework mainly due to research history. In this context Grotta dei Santi, a wide cave located on Monte Argentario, on the southern coast of Tuscany, is particularly relevant as it contains a very well preserved sequence including several Mousterian la...
Article
Full-text available
The Oscurusciuto Rockshelter (Ginosa, Southern Italy) is a perfect sample-site for the reconstruction of multiple aspects of the last Neanderthals life. Different settlement strategies are attested in the excavated portion of the stratigraphic sequence, dated between ~ 55 and 43 ka BP. As a first goal, the reconstruction of the site spatial organiz...
Preprint
The arrival of Modern Humans (MHs) in Europe between 50 ka and 36 ka coincides with significant changes in human behaviour, regarding the production of tools, the exploitation of resources and the systematic use of ornaments and colouring substances. The emergence of the so-called modern behaviours is usually associated with MHs, although in these...
Preprint
Defining the processes involved in the technical/cultural shifts from the Late Middle to the Early Upper Palaeolithic in Europe (~50-39 thousand years BP) is one of the most important tasks facing prehistoric studies. In this debate Italy plays a pivotal role, due to its geographical position between eastern and western Mediterranean Europe as well...
Preprint
Evidence of human activities during the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition is well represented from rock_shelters, caves and open_air sites across Italy. Over the past decade, both the revision of taphonomic processes affecting archaeological faunal assemblages and new zooarchaeological studies have allowed archaeologists to better understand...
Article
Defining the processes involved in the technical/cultural shifts from the Late Middle to the Early Upper Palaeolithic in Europe (~50-39 thousand years BP) is one of the most important tasks facing prehistoric studies. Apart from the technological diversity generally recognised as belonging to the latter part of the Middle Palaeolithic, some assembl...
Article
The arrival of Modern Humans (MHs) in Europe between 50 ka and 39 ka coincides with significant changes in human behaviour, notably regarding the production of tools, the exploitation of resources and the systematic use of ornaments and colouring substances. The emergence of the so-called modern behaviour is usually associated with MHs, although cl...
Article
Evidence of human activities during the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition is well represented from rock-shelters, caves and open-air sites across Italy. Over the past decade, both the revision of taphonomic processes affecting archaeological faunal assemblages and new zooarchaeological studies have allowed archaeologists to better understand...
Article
Full-text available
Microscopic analysis of backed lithic pieces from the Uluzzian technocomplex (45–40 thousand yr ago) at Grotta del Cavallo (southern Italy) reveals their use as mechanically delivered projectile weapons, attributed to anatomically modern humans. Use-wear and residue analyses indicate that the lithics were hunting armatures hafted with complex adhes...
Article
Grotta di Castelcivita (Campania, Southern Italy) is a cave-site containing a key archaeological sequence for the study of the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition in Southern Italy. A Late Mousterian occupation, whose modelled dates span from 47.6 to 41.1 ka cal BP, is followed by layers bearing evidence of the Uluzzian techno-complex, which un...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the reason(s) behind changes in human mobility strategies through space and time is a major challenge in palaeoanthropology. Most of the time this is due to the lack of suitable temporal sequences of human skeletal specimens during critical climatic or cultural shifts. Here, we present temporal variations in the Sr isotope composition...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the widespread application of high-resolution quantitative methods in bone taphonomy, very few studies have focused on projectile impact marks. Therefore, in a previous work, we explored the potential of 3D microscopy in distinguishing bone hunting injuries from other taphonomic marks, developing a widely-applicable diagnostic framework bas...
Article
The Middle Bronze Age site of Gorgo del Ciliegio is located in the Afra valley (Upper Tiber basin) in the proximity of strategic trans-Apennine passes connecting the Tyrrhenian regions of Central Italy to the Po plain and the Umbrian-Marches territories. At Gorgo del Ciliegio a Middle Bronze Age small settlement composed of a single house and vario...
Chapter
The Mesolithic faunal record recovered from the Galgenbühel/Dos de la Forca rock-shelter at Salorno/Salurn (Bolzano/South Tyrol, Italy, Eastern Alps) allows the reconstruction of the landscape and local environmental conditions in the Adige valley bottom during the Early Holocene thanks to the analysis of the species ecology. The predominance of a...
Article
Bone accumulation in Palaeolithic archaeological sites is often the result of activities carried out by hunter-gatherer groups. Cultural choices may have influenced prey representation in archaeological assemblages, distorting their palaeoecological meaning. We present a comparison between large mammal and small mammal assemblages from the Upper Pa...
Article
The surface texture of a stone represents a sensitive parameter in evaluating its conservation state. In monuments and sculptures, in fact, external agents continuously alter the appearance of stones, determining peculiar weathering patterns and modifying properties such as retention of water and particles, interaction with light, color, and finish...
Article
Stratigraphic Unit 13 of Oscurusciuto Rockshelter (Ginosa, Taranto, Southern Italy) is a short Mousterian palimpsest representing the first stable occupation of the site soon after the deposition of a thick layer of tephra (Mt. Epomeo Green Tuff - Ischia datable around 55 kya BP). Different activities were identified by integrating the study of lit...
Article
Full-text available
The Uluzzian techno-complex is commonly considered to be a "transitional industry" mostly on the basis of some inferred characteristics such as a chiefly flake-based production, a small amount of Upper Palaeolithic-like tools and a combination of Middle and Upper Palaeolithic elements both in the toolkit and in the technical systems. Following its...
Article
Full-text available
Wild horses thrived across Eurasia until the Last Glacial Maximum to collapse after the beginning of the Holocene. The interplay of climate change, species adaptability to different environments, and human domestication in horse history is still lacking coherent continental-scale analysis integrating different lines of evidence. We assembled tempor...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Despite the widespread application of high-resolution quantitative methods in bone taphonomy, very few studies have focused on projectile impact marks (PIMs). Therefore, in a previous work, we explored the potential of 3D microscopy in distinguishing bone hunting injuries from other taphonomic marks, developing a widely-applicable diagnostic framew...
Article
The site of Ficoncella is located to the north of Rome (Central Italy). It is an alluvial context where animal bones and lithic remains were buried over a short space of time in a floodplain environment during the Lower Palaeolithic. The main faunal evidence is represented by parts of a straight-tusked elephant carcass, but remains belonging to oth...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
La caccia alle marmotte sulle Prealpi italiane durante il Tardoglaciale: dati sperimentali e analisi morfometrica 3D di impatti di proiettile su resti faunistici Parole chiave: Tafonomia, Lesioni da impatto, Marmotta, Proiettili litici, Microscopia 3D, Epigravettiano Recente. Nonostante la sempre più vasta applicazione di metodi quantitativi ad alt...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Il sito pluristratificato all'aperto di Arco via Serafini (Trento), posto alla quota di 80 m s.l.m., è collocato sulla porzione distale del conoide colluviale del Rio Bordellino, in prossimità della pianura alluvionale del fiume Sarca. Le indagini archeologiche iniziate nel febbraio del 2013 in un'area già nota per il ritrovamento di importanti evi...
Raw Data
Full-text available
The site of Elvas-Kreuzwiese p. f. 574 is located near Brixen-Bressanone (BZ) on the NatzSchabs plateau at about 600 m a.s.l. Excavations carried out at the beginning of this century attested the presence of Late Bronze Age, Iron Age and Roman Age materials. Almost 10,000 animal remains from all chronological phases are presented in this paper. Fau...
Article
Full-text available
The site of Elvas-Kreuzwiese p. f. 574 is located near Brixen-Bressanone (BZ) on the Natz-Schabs plateau at about 600 m a.s.l. Excavations carried out at the beginning of this century attested the presence of Late Bronze Age, Iron Age and Roman Age materials. Almost 10,000 animal remains from all chronological phases are presented in this paper. Fa...
Article
Changes in large mammal population and biotic regionalism of the Italian Peninsula during Upper Pleistocene have been well documented over the last twenty years. On the other hand, only few studies have focused on the changes in small mammal fossil assemblages. Grotta Paglicci is a key archaeological site for Italian prehistory. It is well dated an...
Poster
Full-text available
Objectives: Early evidence for the treatment of dental pathology is found primarily among food-producing societies associated with high levels of oral pathology. However, some Late Pleistocene hunter-gatherers show extensive oral pathology, suggesting that experimentation with therapeutic dental interventions may have greater antiquity. Here we rep...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Early evidence for the treatment of dental pathology is found primarily among food-producing societies associated with high levels of oral pathology. However, some Late Pleistocene hunter-gatherers show extensive oral pathology, suggesting that experimentation with therapeutic dental interventions may have greater antiquity. Here, we r...
Article
This paper focuses on the techno-functional study of a tool with a smooth end, typologically classifiable as spatula, made from a red deer metatarsal recovered at the early Mesolithic rock-shelter Galgenbühel/Dos de la Forca. The site is located in the middle Adige Valley at Salurn/Salorno (South Tyrol – Northern Italy) and was dwelled by Sauveterr...
Article
This paper deals with two teeth (an upper right M1 and an upper right dM2) from the Epigravettian found in the site of Paglicci (Southern Italy) showing interproximal grooves that are situated below the crown, on the root walls just apical to the cementum–enamel junction. This grooves have been examined on a digital microscope which displays 3D ima...
Article
In this article we present evidence of the hard animal tissue exploitation at Paglicci Cave (Rignano Garganico, Foggia, southern Italy).The analysis of the 104 bone and antler tools found in the Upper Palaeolithic sequence of the cave, as well as recent studies on faunal remains, have allowed us to reconstruct the choices made by the prehistoric hu...
Article
Full-text available
MicroCT imaging is increasingly used in paleoanthropological and zooarchaeological research to analyse the internal microstructure of bone, replacing comparatively invasive and destructive methods. Consequently the analytical potential of this relatively new 3D imaging technology can be enhanced by developing discipline specific protocols for archa...
Article
Full-text available
This study uses a combination of digital microscopic analysis and experimental archaeology to assess stone tool cut marks on animal bones. We used two un-retouched flint flakes and two burins to inflict cut marks on fresh, boiled, and dry ungulate bones. The experiment produced three series of three engravings on each bone with each of the experime...
Article
Full-text available
Summary - Several recent studies are based on microCT analyses of the bone structure at micro- and meso-scales. Most of them are carried out in the field of biomedical research (particularly for bioengineering applications) and, increasingly, in palaeoanthropology and palaeontology. The potentiality of microCT structural analysis of archaeozoologic...