Francesco Bellotti

Francesco Bellotti
Università degli Studi di Genova | UNIGE · Dipartimento di Ingegneria Navale, Elettrica, Elettronica e delle Telecomunicazioni (DITEN)

About

232
Publications
101,270
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5,357
Citations
Citations since 2017
70 Research Items
3461 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600

Publications

Publications (232)
Chapter
Availability of realistic driver models, also able to represent various driving styles, is key to add traffic in serious games on automotive driving. We propose a new architecture for behavioural planning of vehicles, that decide their motion taking high-level decisions, such as “keep lane”, “overtake” and “go to rightmost lane”. This is similar to...
Conference Paper
The relationship between Decision-Making and emotions has been investigated in literature both through theoretical and empirical research. Particularly, some paradigms have been defined, rooted in the Game Theory, that use socio-economic and/or trust based contexts to produce specific emotional responses in people. However, experiments with such ga...
Article
Full-text available
This is a short introduction pecial issue of the International Journal of Serious Games dedicated to the selected best papers of the 2021 edition of the Games and Learning (GALA) 2021 conference. The three selected papers have undergone a regular review process. Covered topics range from cooperative games to mixed reality, from digital companions t...
Chapter
The quest for efficient Tiny Machine Learning on Microcontroller Units is increasing rapidly due to the vast application spectrum made possible with the advancement of Tiny ML. One application area that could benefit from such advancement is Electronic Skin systems, that are employed in several domains such as: wearable devices, robotics, prosthesi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Unlike conventional data such as natural images, audio and speech, raw multi-channel Electroencephalogram (EEG) data are difficult to interpret. Modern deep neural networks have shown promising results in EEG studies, however finding robust invariant representations of EEG data across subjects remains a challenge, due to differences in brain foldin...
Chapter
Rail line interruptions are rare but very costly events, as they require a complete re-definition not only of the timetable of the trains, but also of their path, with major variations at least in the hit area. To the best of our knowledge, the literature is rich of documentation on timetable re-scheduling in case of delays and/or disruption of tra...
Chapter
Detection of driving scenarios is getting ever more importance for assessment and control of automated driving functions. This paper investigates the performance of two versions of a high-end 3D convolutional network for scenario classification. The first one uses fully 3D kernels, the second one separates, in each constituting block, the 2D spatia...
Article
Full-text available
Availability of efficient development tools for data-rich IoT applications is becoming ever more important. Such tools should support cross-platform deployment and seamless and effective applicability in a variety of domains. In this view, we assessed the versatility of an edge-to-cloud system featuring Measurify, a framework for managing smart thi...
Chapter
Driving scenarios detection is an important aspect of the development of automated driving functions (ADF). Given the lack of publicly available datasets with driving scenario labels, we designed a toolchain for generating synthetic video datasets of driving scenarios, based on the OpenSCENARIO format, a well-established, public and vendor-independ...
Chapter
This article investigates the feasibility of implementing a reinforcement learning agent able to plan the trajectory of a simple automated vehicle 2D model in a motorway simulation. The goal is to use it to implement a non-player vehicle in serious games for driving. The agent extends a Deep Q Learning agent developed by Eduard Leurent in Stable Ba...
Article
Full-text available
The trend of bringing machine learning (ML) to the Internet of Things (IoT) field devices is becoming ever more relevant, also reducing the overall energy need of the applications. ML models are usually trained in the cloud and then deployed on edge devices. Most IoT devices generate large amounts of unlabeled data, which are expensive and challeng...
Article
Full-text available
This special issue of the International Journal of Serious Games offers very valuable extensions to the best papers of the 2020 edition of the GaLA conference. The local organization committee was composed of computer scientists of Laval (France), affiliated to Le Mans Université. From the 9th to the 10th of December 2020, 500 participants attend...
Conference Paper
Microcontroller Units (MCUs) are widely used for industrial field applications, and are now ever more being used also for machine learning on the edge, because of their reliability, low cost, and energy efficiency. Due to the MCU resource limitations, the deployed ML models need to be optimized particularly in terms of memory footprint. In this pap...
Article
One of the most striking characteristics of e-Learning audiences is their diversity. Native and non-native learners can be expected among such audiences and therefore, when developing e-Learning courses it is important to consider the impact of the language level on learning. Specifically, non-native learners are expected to have a diminished audit...
Article
Effectiveness of Serious Games (SG) depends very much on their capacity to provide the right balance be- tween gaming and educational experience. This require- ment raises challenges regarding realization of their in- telligence and personalization. We aim to overcome the problems of research fragmentation and identify some of the main issues by pr...
Article
Full-text available
Internet of Things technologies are spurring new types of instructional games, namely reality-enhanced serious games (RESGs), that support training directly in the field. This paper investigates a key feature of RESGs, i.e., user performance evaluation using real data, and studies an application of RESGs for promoting fuel-efficient driving, using...
Chapter
This paper focuses on position estimation of a small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) using a monocular camera. Features from accelerated segment test (FAST) descriptors are used as a matched pattern to estimate differential change in position of the UAV. Visual simultaneous localization and mapping (V-SLAM) is a probabilistic filter-based method and...
Chapter
Maintenance plays a fundamental role for the safety and efficiency of the railway infrastructure. This document analyzes the state of the art of technological solutions for indoor positioning, which has recently had significant developments, particularly with ultra-wide band (UWB), and can be taken into account to manage the positioning of teams of...
Chapter
This paper investigated the application of unsupervised learning on a mainstream microcontroller, like the STM32 F4. We focused on the simple K-means technique, which achieved good accuracy levels on the four test datasets. These results are similar to those obtained by training a k-nearest neighbor (K-NN) classifier with the actual labels, apart f...
Chapter
Full-text available
Statistical procedures for missing data imputation techniques have vastly improved, yet selection and suitability of optimal imputation technique for particular application\datasets\context still confusing. This works frames the missing-data problem in building energy measurement systems, review different imputation methods and suggest the optimal...
Chapter
The diffusion of Internet of Things (IoT) technologies has paved the way to new applications and services. In this context, developers need tools for efficient design and implementation. This paper proposes Edgine (Edge engine), a cross-platform open-source edge computing system. The system is the edge computing extension of Measurify, a cloud Appl...
Article
Full-text available
This Editorial analyzes the manuscripts accepted, after a careful peer-reviewed process, for the Special Issue “Applications in Electronics Pervading Industry, Environment and Society—Sensing Systems and Pervasive Intelligence” of the Sensors MDPI journal [...]
Chapter
Full-text available
This paper proposes the use of a new data toolchain for serious games analytics. The toolchain relies on the open source Measurify Internet of Things (IoT) framework, and particularly takes advantage of its edge computing extension (namely, Edgine), which can be seamlessly deployed cross-platform on embedded devices and PCs as well. The Edgine is p...
Article
Full-text available
While extracting meaningful information from big data is getting relevance, literature lacks information on how to handle sensitive data by different project partners in order to collectively answer research questions (RQs), especially on impact assessment of new automated driving technologies. This paper presents the application of an established...
Preprint
Full-text available
Auditory attention to natural speech is a complex brain process. Its quantification from physiological signals can be valuable to improving and widening the range of applications of current brain-computer-interface systems, however it remains a challenging task. In this article, we present a dataset of physiological signals collected from an experi...
Article
Full-text available
As industrial research in automated driving is rapidly advancing, it is of paramount importance to analyze field data from extensive road tests. This paper investigates the design and development of a toolchain to process and manage experimental data to answer a set of research questions about the evaluation of automated driving functions at variou...
Article
Full-text available
The ever more extensive data collection from IoT devices stresses the need for efficient application development tools. State of the art IoT cloud services are powerful, but the best solutions are proprietary, and there is a growing demand for interoperability and standardization. We have investigated how to develop a non vendor-locked framework, w...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the Edge Learning Machine (ELM), a machine learning framework for edge devices, which manages the training phase on a desktop computer and performs inferences on microcontrollers. The framework implements, in a platform-independent C language, three supervised machine learning algorithms (Support Vector Machine (SVM) with a line...
Chapter
As connected and, even more, autonomous vehicles are expected to bring significant novelties in the future road traffic patterns, we have investigated the control of a specific, yet very common topology, such as the intersection between two 2-lane roads. We have addressed the issue with a novel, fine-grain control approach, and proposed an adaptive...
Chapter
In the Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystem, sensors and actuators represent the edge that is the source of data. The amount of data being generated by edge devices is exploding. Storage and processing of all the data in the cloud has become too slow and costly to meet the requirements of the end user. Edge computing presents a substantial solution t...
Chapter
Full-text available
Machine learning in embedded systems has become a reality, with the first tools for neural network firmware development already being made available for ARM microcontroller developers. This paper explores the use of one of such tools, namely the STM X-Cube-AI, on mainstream ARM Cortex-M microcontrollers, analyzing their performance, and comparing s...
Article
Full-text available
As dynamic inductive power transfer for electric vehicles is growing in relevance, it is important to analyze solutions towards its deployment and integration in the cloudbased services for electric mobility. In this paper we present an Internet-enabling platform for Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment, which features a high-level Charging Station Co...
Book
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Games and Learning Alliance, GALA 2020, held in Laval, France, in December 2020. The 35 full papers and 10 short papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 77 submissions. The papers cover a broad spectrum of topics: Serious Game Design; Serious Game Analyti...
Chapter
Reality-enhanced serious games (RESGs) incorporate data from the real world to enact training in the wild. This – with the proper cautions due to safety - can be done also for daily activities, such as driving. We have developed two modules that may be integrated as field user performance evaluators in third-party RESGs, aimed at improving driver’s...
Article
Pervasive games are an emerging genre combining reality and computing. This paper presents a suite of simple pervasive serious games we have developed to explore the concept of “reality-enhanced gaming”, a pattern to tie game play mechanics to the outcomes/measurements of real-world activities. The prototype games were realized in the context of TE...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Analyzing road-test data is important for developing automated vehicles. L3Pilot is a European pilot project on level 3 automation, including 34 partners among manufacturers, suppliers and research institutions. Targeting around 100 cars and 1000 test subjects, the project will generate large amounts of data. We present a data format, allowing effi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
There is a trend in industries towards adoption of new technologies coming from Industry 4.0 to improve operational automation, efficiency, maintenance, by interconnecting sensors, devices, machines, and processes, increasing data availability for automation and decision support. These changing scenarios need to be addressed also in terms of instru...
Chapter
Full-text available
With the appearance of tools to support the emerging paradigm of edge computing, we expect that low cost microcontrollers will become appealing execution platforms also for machine learning. To explore this field, we implemented Machine Learning eMbedded Library (ML)² and tested it in a simple case (classifying human movement as normal or not) and...
Chapter
Artificial vision is a key factor for new generation automotive systems. This paper focuses on a module aimed at maximizing the energy flow between the transmitting and receiving grids, in the context of dynamic wireless charging of electrical vehicles. The output of the module helps the driver to keep a precise alignment between the vehicle and th...
Chapter
Electric vehicle (EV) limited range is a serious concern for its wide scale commercialization. Dynamic battery charging is being developed as a promising technology for increasing the range, vehicles are charged through inductive points placed in the net. The choice of a proper navigation route becomes essential, and algorithms must be identified f...
Chapter
Auditory attention is fundamental also in serious games. This paper synthetizes the results of a recent statistical analysis of auditory attention of non-native learners and proposes indications for serious game design. We propose a 3-dimensional difficulty level model that can be applied both for designing game levels and adaptivity to keep a play...
Conference Paper
"Medical software simulators are used to teach specific procedures that allow the user to follow only a strict sequence of steps without the possibility of alternative, avoiding considering the consequence of an error and then potentially admitting its tolerance. Usually these applications are a state machine implementation where learners must make...
Article
Full-text available
Reality-enhanced gaming is an emerging serious game genre, that could contextualize a game within its real instruction-target environment. A key module for such games is the evaluator, that senses a user performance and provides consequent input to the game. In this project, we have explored an application in the automotive field, estimating driver...
Conference Paper
Artificial vision is a key factor for new generation automotive systems. This paper focuses on a module aimed at maximizing the energy flow between the transmitting and receiving grids, in the context of dynamic wireless charging of electrical vehicles. The output of the module helps the driver to keep a precise alignment between the vehicle and th...
Conference Paper
Artificial vision is a key factor for new generation automotive systems. This paper focuses on a module aimed at maximizing the energy flow between the transmitting and receiving grids, in the context of dynamic wireless charging of electrical vehicles. The output of the module helps the driver to keep a precise alignment between the vehicle and th...
Article
Full-text available
The TEAM industrial research project developed eleven collaborative mobility apps addressing various traffic issues and scenarios. The apps, involving different aspects and degrees of collaboration (e.g., direct user participation, shared objectives, coordination), aim at increasing the driver/traveler awareness and support a better behavior. This...
Article
Physiotherapy and rehabilitation are getting ever more relevance as an integral part of healthcare devising and employing new, effective methodologies and tools. However, not seldom are such tools boring and difficult to use properly for achieving the given training and therapeutic goals. Exergaming, the combination of physical exercise and video g...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Dynamic charging technology has the potential to solve the range anxiety problem of electric vehicles. The FABRIC project is assessing the feasibility of using the dynamic charging technology on a large scale. The project developed the ICT platform to support dynamic charging. This paper presents some ICT systems developed within FABRIC.
Conference Paper
Dynamic (on the go) wireless electrical charging is a new, challenging frontier for vehicular technologies, as it would allow a dramatic increase in the feasible distance range of electrical vehicles. This paper presents a system under development for optimizing the power transfer for dynamic charging vehicles. The system relies on a coil coupling...
Conference Paper
This paper presents an ongoing work towards the realization of a virtual reality system providing an advanced visualization of the access of trucks to a critical road segment, such as a tunnel. The system is currently based on optical and laser sensors, and is able to recognize a truck in a dedicated road lane, and to produce a 3D model of the iden...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Good driving behavior is a significant factor for road safety and green mobility. A countermeasure to overcome the coarse driving behavior and a methodology to captivate optimal driving traits are discussed in this work. For which, the serious games concept was exploited to improvise the driver performance by deploying diversified game logics (scor...
Article
Full-text available
Present public transport services still suffer from issues such as time deviations from the static timetable, overcrowded buses, increased on board time, and long wait at bus stops. This work studies the experimental implementation of an on-demand public bus transportation service in Trikala, a medium-sized Greek city. With a view to optimize the s...
Conference Paper
This paper presents a motion sensing and graphical user interface system as an add-on for the balance board. Our system adds kinetic sensing to the board in order to record its rotation in the 3D space. A sports game, a 3D video game for ski training, is set to be controlled by the rotation of the balance board. The system thus adds to the balance...
Article
Full-text available
Traffic safety and efficiency are major objectives for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) [item 1) in the Appendix], [item 2) in the Appendix]. A lot of research has been done on autonomous vehicles and Advanced Driver Assistance Systems, which exploit a variety of sensors in order to support the driver and/or autonomous driving (e.g., [item...
Chapter
The chapter’s idea stems from the observation that technology is difficult to learn in an abstract way (books, lectures, etc.) and practical activities are needed not only to apply concepts but also to help learning itself. This is particularly challenging in a younger age where this concern is often neglected frequently, leading to poor instructio...
Conference Paper
The paper presents a low-cost solution to the problem of remote control in agricultural applications. This choice is due to the growing importance of agriculture in modern times and so to the need of subsidizing this field. Keeping in mind the constraint of low-cost, we propose the design of a flexible embedded system architecture, based on the Ard...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The estimation of user performance analytics in the area of car driver performance was carried out in this paper. The main focus relies on the descriptive analysis with our approaches emphasizing on educational serious games, in order to improvise the driver’s behavior (specifically green driving) in a pleasant and challenging way. We also propose...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper concerns the development of new tangible game tools for learning basic mathematic concepts. The prototypes can be easily implemented by exploiting new open source electronic hardware technologies, such as Arduino and related sensors and actuators, combing simplicity, wide diffusion and low cost. Two simple proof of concepts are presented...
Conference Paper
In recent years designing a game for education has become very popular. Neuroscience has developed many theories of learning, based on how brain learns. We discuss a design approach for conventional teaching methods. The proposed approach illustrates the opportunities to exploit the concept of neuroscience and combine it with game for educational p...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The potential of serious games can be used to captivate the road users in exhibiting green driving behavior. Serious games can be an engaging medium in conveying information effectively. We exploited the pervasiveness of smartphone and serious games concept to develop a gamified environment for the road users. Our approach comprises two games that...
Article
Full-text available
Despite their potential, the market for educational serious games (SGs) is still limited, partly because of the high design and production costs. In this paper, we propose a game-engine plug-in for efficient development of a format of investigation in SGs that we designed in order to support discovery-learning in information-rich virtual environmen...