Francesca Rosi

Francesca Rosi
Italian National Research Council | CNR · Institute of Chemical Sciences and Technologies Giulio Natta SCITEC

PhD

About

87
Publications
32,956
Reads
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2,606
Citations
Citations since 2017
32 Research Items
1608 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250300
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250300
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250300
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250300
Additional affiliations
October 2011 - March 2020
Italian National Research Council
Position
  • Researcher
January 2004 - October 2010
Università degli Studi di Perugia

Publications

Publications (87)
Chapter
Most inorganic pigments, as earths and ochres, have no luminescence emission. Sporadically, the literature has reported the presence of a weak optical emission for some of these pigments. However, this should be attributed to the presence of material impurities within pigments. In addition to this, a small number of inorganic pigments exhibit a cle...
Article
Correlative Brillouin and Raman microspectroscopy (BRaMS) is applied for the in situ monitoring of the chemical and physical changes of linseed oil during polymerization. The viscoelastic properties of the drying oil throughout the phase transition were determined by Brillouin light scattering (BLS) and joined to the Raman spectroscopic information...
Article
Full-text available
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been used in numerous paintings since its creation in the early 1920s. However, due to this relatively recent adoption by the art world, we have limited knowledge about the nature and risk of degradation in museum environments. This study expands on the existing understanding of TiO2 facilitated degradation of linseed oi...
Article
Full-text available
Cadmium red is the name used for denoting a class of twentieth century artists’ pigments described by the general formula CdS 1− x Se x . For their vibrant hues and excellent covering power, a number of renowned modern and contemporary painters, including Jackson Pollock, often used cadmium reds. As direct band gap semiconductors, CdS 1− x Se x com...
Article
In this review, the main technological processes involved in the production of color in glasses, ceramics and pigments are reported. Iron (as oxides or dispersed ion) is the main responsible of the color in archeological and historical ceramics and glasses, but other d-metals can be also found (Cu, Ag, Co, Cr, Ni) as nano-particles or dispersed ion...
Article
The present research exploits the strengths of external reflection FT-IR spectroscopy to non-invasively study heritage plastic objects through inspection, for the first time, of the wide spectral range including the near- and mid-IR (12500-350cm⁻¹). Unlike most of previous works on historical plastic objects, reflection-mode spectra were not correc...
Article
Full-text available
Among the artists’ materials of the nineteenth century, pastel crayons merit scientific interest since their early commercial formulations are mostly unknown and, until now, have been considerably less studied with respect to other contemporary painting materials. In this framework, research herein reports the results of a comprehensive multi-analy...
Article
Full-text available
In Heritage Science, the evaluation of stone consolidation treatments by investigating the nature of in situ newly formed products and their penetration depth within the consolidated matrix is a grand challenge. A number of analytical methods have been proposed, but, currently, most of them are not able to supply a full overview of the spatial, str...
Article
The electronic and vibrational properties of red lead pigment, the mixed valence lead oxide compound Pb3O4, known as minium, have been studied by means of first principle calculations based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Fourier Transform–Infra Red (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopies. The aim of the present investigation is to validate an inte...
Chapter
Full-text available
The aim of the present chapter is to evaluate the introduction of oil-modified alkyd resins in the painting practice of Jackson Pollock. Using a non-invasive approach based on FT-IR reflection spectroscopy measurements, eleven works by the artist dated from 1942 to 1947 have been examined at the Peggy Guggenheim Collection (PGC, Solomon R. Guggenhe...
Article
Full-text available
The degradation of cadmium sulfide (CdS)–based oil paints is a phenomenon potentially threatening the iconic painting The Scream (ca. 1910) by Edvard Munch (Munch Museum, Oslo) that is still poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence for the presence of cadmium sulfate and sulfites as alteration products of the original CdS-based paint and explor...
Article
The control of surface cleaning procedures of paintings is difficult and residues of cleaning materials can remain on the surface as potential risk factors for the integrity of the original paint layers. Therefore, the development of a suitable analytical strategy for in situ detection of cleaning residues directly on the painting surface is essent...
Chapter
The relevance of FT-IR spectroscopy in heritage science has experienced a constant grow in the last two decades owing to analytical peculiarities that make it an extremely useful tool to answer the questions posed by the study and conservation of art-historical and archaeological materials. High versatility, sensitivity and molecular specificity ar...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Maya blue is a hybrid pigment where an organic component, indigo, is incorporated in a porous clay. Despite its widespread use in the Mesoamerican artistic production and numerous studies devoted to understand the type of interactions between indigo and the host framework, its technology has not been completely unravelled yet. In this stud...
Chapter
In accordance with a well-established working method based on an interdisciplinary approach, in 2008 the ISCR (Istituto Superiore per la Conservazione e il Restauro, the former Istituto Centrale del Restauro) started a study project regarding Alberto Burri's artworks belonging to the Fondazione Palazzo Albizzini-Collezione Burri in Città di Castell...
Article
Full-text available
Calcium acetoacetate, Ca(OAcAc)2, was exposed 7, 30 and 365 days to different values of relative humidity(33%, 48%, 75% and 96%) at 40 °C in order to study its transformation to CaCO3. The resulting Ca(OAcAc)2 decomposition and the time dependence of the phase transformations were monitored and critically evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spe...
Article
The present study focuses on the chemical characterisation of the bricks and mortars of a Roman Imperial building, the Atrium Vestae, characterised at least by five building phases. From each phase, brick and mortar samples were selected in order to emphasise compositional differences and/or possible evolutions in the materials employed and in the...
Article
The relevance of FT-IR spectroscopy in heritage science has experienced a constant grow in the last two decades owing to analytical peculiarities that make it an extremely useful tool to answer the questions posed by the study and conservation of art-historical and archaeological materials. High versatility, sensitivity and molecular specificity ar...
Article
The Leman Album is Europe’s earliest group of dated designs for woven silk known to survive. For the past two years it has been studied by scientists, conservators, curators, archivists, makers and historians, using a truly interdisciplinary approach under the auspices of the V&A Research Institute (VARI), generously funded by the Andrew W. Mellon...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the potential of reflection mid-FTIR spectroscopy for in situ identification and localization of metal oxalates and carboxylates in paintings. The infrared reflection profiles of the most common metal oxalates and carboxylates are discussed through the direct comparison with reference powders and model samples demonstrating t...
Chapter
During the conservation treatment of Memling’s Christ with Singing and Music-making Angels, three panel paintings that are among the most monumental works in early Netherlandish art, the conservators came across insoluble surface layers containing calcium oxalates. A very thin and irregular layer of this type, hardly visible to the naked eye, was s...
Article
Full-text available
The composition of the ancient wax-based painting technique known as encaustic has long been the subject of debate. Ancient sources provide few details of the technology, and modern understanding of the medium is restricted to theoretical interpretation and experimental observation. In this multi-analytical collaborative study, a number of analytic...
Article
The paintings by Édouard Manet in The Courtauld Gallery Déjeuner sur l'herbe (1863–68), Marguerite de Conflans en Toilette de Bal (1870–1880), Banks of the Seine at Argenteuil (1874), and A Bar at the Folies–Bergère (1882) were investigated for the first time using a range of non‐invasive in situ analyses. The aims of the study were to investigate...
Conference Paper
Paintings by Édouard Manet from the Courtauld Gallery including Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe (1863-68), Marguerite de Conflans en Toilette de Bal (1870-1880), Banks of the Seine at Argenteuil (1874), and A Bar at the Folies–Bergère (1882) have been investigated for the first time using a combination of non-invasive in situ analytical methods. These incl...
Article
A new analytical approach, based on micro-transflection measurements from a diamond-coated metal sampling stick, is presented for the analysis of painting varnishes. Minimally invasive sampling is performed from the varnished surface using the stick, which is directly used as a transflection substrate for micro Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) mea...
Article
CRONO is a new portable and easy reconfigurable macro X-ray fluorescence scanner based on the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique, which has been specifically designed for in-situ, fast, and non-invasive elemental mapping of polychrome surfaces. The main components are fully integrated into the detection head which includes an X-ray tube...
Chapter
The in situ non invasive methods have experienced a significant development in the last decade because they meet specific needs of analytical chemistry in the field of cultural heritage where artworks are rarely moved from their locations, sampling is rarely permitted, and analytes are a wide range of inorganic, organic and organometallic substance...
Article
Protrusions, efflorescence, delamination and opacity decreasing are severe degradation phenomena affecting oil-paints with zinc oxide, one of the most common white pigments of the 20th century. Responsible of these dramatic alterations are the Zn-carboxylates (also known as Zn-soaps) originated by the interaction of the pigment and the fatty acids...
Article
The introduction of synthetic dyes and pigments into commerce in the late 19th century was a stimulating time for experimental scientists in their laboratory formulations and for artists in their usage. Nowadays, the period of pioneering syntheses and employment of synthetic organic colouring materials is highly intriguing for scientific research a...
Article
A complete non-invasive characterization by XRF, XRD, near-FTIR and UV–Vis reflectance spectroscopy has been performed on some commercially available violet pigments as well as on pure violet Co-salts also known to be used as pigments. The obtained results show that, after a preliminary elemental characterization, the studied pigments can be easily...
Article
Full-text available
Six early portraits from 1895 to 1900/1 by Pablo Picasso were comprehensively examined using complementary non-destructive techniques provided by the MOLAB Transnational Access Service as part of the European Cultural Heritage Advanced Research Infrastructures (CHARISMA) project. The paintings were selected by the Museu Picasso, Barcelona, as repre...
Article
Full-text available
Alchemy (1947, Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice) is one of the most materic works by J. Pollock, whose palette is extensive, ranging from white to yellow, red, green, violet, blue, black, and silver. Each layer of color was laid on top of a previously dried one and effectively separated from the lower one forming a quite complex stratigraphy wit...
Article
Full-text available
The in situ non invasive methods have experienced a significant development in the last decade because they meet specific needs of analytical chemistry in the field of cultural heritage where artworks are rarely moved from their locations, sampling is rarely permitted, and analytes are a wide range of inorganic, organic and organometallic substance...
Chapter
Questo studio presenta l’analisi scientifica dei colori su una tavolozza di celluloide, esaminata nell’ambito di un progetto interdisciplinare più ampio, Futurhama, insieme a altri materiali artistici dell’atelier di Vittore Grubicy e Benvenuto Benvenuti conservati alla Fondazione Livorno. La metodologia si basa sull’integrazione di indagini non-i...
Article
Cd-based pigments share a common hexagonal wurtzite CdS structure in which cadmium and sulfur can be partially substituted to generate ternary phases with a wide range of colors from pale yellow to deep red. Among them, in the CdS1-xSex solid solutions the substitution of sulfur by selenium decreases the valence-to-conduction energy tuning the colo...
Article
Full-text available
In this work, we propose an integrated approach, based on synchrotron analysis with micrometric spatial resolution and sub-ppm sensitivity and µ-Raman mapping, for investigating impurities and heterogeneous inclusions in historical samples of Zn-based white pigments. Analysis was performed at the LUCIA beamline at the Soleil synchrotron radiation f...
Article
A rich and non invasive multi-technique study has been carried out on two ancient Moroccan manuscripts, dealing with theology, written in the 19th century and belonging to different scribal schools of the western Arabic Mediterranean region. Currently, Moroccan manuscripts investigations are limited to codicological studies in which reports on illu...
Article
Ultraviolet and visible (UV-vis) fluorescence and subtracted shifted Raman spectroscopy have exploited to identify orchil in a fragment from the ninth century Bible de Théodulphe and a parchment fragment sampled from a 16th century map of Auvergne. Orchil is a purple lichen dye widely used since ancient times in place of the more expensive Tyrian p...
Article
The purpose of the present research was to compare the effect of different embedding and polishing procedures on the performances achievable with Fourier Transformed Infrared (FTIR) microscopy in Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) mode. The attention was specifically focused on this technique since it is generally considered one of the most appropri...
Article
The Musée Picasso in Antibes (France) houses a unique collection of 23 paintings and 44 works on paper by Pablo Picasso, completed during the fall of 1946 by the artist, working on the same premises occupied today by the Museum. Picasso painted with readily available materials including oleoresinous enamel paints, fibrocement, wood panels, paper sh...
Article
In this work a reflection mid-infrared spectroscopy study of twelve metal-oxalate complexes, of interest in art conservation science as alteration compounds, was performed. Spectra of the reference materials highlighted the presence of derivative-like and/or inverted features for the fundamental vibrational modes as result of the main contribution...
Article
Cultural detective work: Remote hyperspectral imaging in the mid-infrared region enables the identification and localization of the painting materials used by artists (see brightness temperature difference image overlayed with the corresponding portion of the painting Sestante 10 by Alberto Burri and IR reflection spectra for this area). The result...
Article
A novel hyperspectral imaging system (HI90, Bruker Optics), working in the mid-infrared range and recently developed for the remote identification and mapping of hazardous compounds, has here been optimized for investigating painting surfaces. The painting Sestante 10 (1982) by Alberto Burri has been spectrally and spatially investigated with the H...
Article
Full-text available
In this work non-invasive reflection infrared spectroscopy was used to discriminate between different Cu-based green pigments (namely, malachite, verdigris, chrysocolla, emerald green and phthalo green). The pigments, chosen because of their historical widespread use in artworks, were investigated as pure powders and in situ on painted models by re...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports on a preliminary evaluation of a degradation process that may affect mural paintings created with emulsion products: the phase separation of paint additives towards film-environment and film-support interfaces. A number of mock-ups were prepared by brushing five acrylic, five vinyl and five styrene-acrylic paints on cement-lime m...
Article
Zinc oxide has been widely used as a white artist pigment since the end of the eighteenth century. The luminescence properties of this compound have received great interest during the last decades for promising applications in different fields of material science, but their diagnostic implications in the cultural-heritage context have been poorly e...
Article
The potential of fibre optic reflection infrared spectroscopy for the non-invasive identification of artists’ pigments is presented. Sixteen different carbonate, sulphate and silicate-based pigments are taken into account considering their wide use during the history of art and their infrared optical properties. The infrared distortions mainly gene...
Article
Zinc oxide has been widely used as a white artist pigment since the end of the eighteenth century. The luminescence properties of this compound have received great interest during the last decades for promising applications in different fields of material science, but their diagnostic implications in the cultural-heritage context have been poorly e...
Article
The purpose of the present research was to compare the effect of different embedding and polishing procedures on the performances achievable with Fourier Transformed Infrared (FTIR) microscopy in Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) mode. The attention was specifically focused on this technique since it is generally considered one of the most appropri...
Article
Full-text available
X-Ray absorption spectroscopy investigations combined with ab initio structural simulations of ternary forms (Pb–Sb–Zn and Pb–Sb–Fe) of the pigment Naples yellow (Pb2Sb2O7) allowed to achieve a detailed insight into the incorporation route of Zn and Fe ions inside the pigment lattice. The study of newly synthesised yellow pyroantimonates provided d...
Article
Full-text available
In cultural heritage science, compositional data is traditionally obtained from works of art through the analysis of samples by means of various bench-top instruments (scanning electron microscope, Raman spectrometer, etc.). Alternatively, the object can be transported to a laboratory where it may be examined, usually by spectroscopic methods worki...
Article
The spectroscopic properties of indigo, one of the most important natural dyes present in nature, have been investigated by means of DFT and TD-DFT calculations and Raman and IR spectroscopies. The absorption spectra of this dye, in vacuo and in different solvents, have been computed. The formation of aggregates in solvent have been investigated by...
Article
The effectiveness of Raman spectroscopy (using a bench-top system on standard pigments) for the characterisation of modified lead antimonate yellows was demonstrated in the already published Part I. The knowledge gained is employed here for the study of yellow glazes on genuine Renaissance plates with the aim of identifying non-invasively lead pyro...
Article
The effectiveness of Raman spectroscopy (using a bench-top system on standard pigments) for the characterisation of modified lead antimonate yellows was demonstrated int he already published Part I.The knowledgegained is employedhere for the study of yellow glazes on genuine Renaissance plates with the aim of identifying non-invasively lead pyroant...
Article
Raman mapping can provide molecular information to complement data derived from other analytical techniques in works of art and other objects of cultural significance. Raman mapping can be performed using a motorized microscope stage that moves a sample or an object point by point in two spatial directions. The method can be used both noninvasively...
Article
Paintings are composed of superimposed layers of inorganic and organic materials (pigments and binders). Knowledge of the stratigraphic sequence of these heterogeneous layers is fundamental for understanding the artist’s painting technique and for conservation issues. In this study, micro-IR mapping experiments in reflection mode have been carried...
Article
With the aim of characterizing ground preparations of paintings by infrared reflection spectroscopy, the CaSO(4)-H(2)O system (gypsum/bassanite/anhydrite) has been re-investigated, evaluating and assigning the SO(4)(2-) and OH overtone and combination bands, respectively, in the ranges 1900-2700 cm(-1) and 5000-6000 cm(-1) resulting from reflection...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction Twentieth century paintings have often been restored without a thorough knowledge of the chemical and physical properties of the industrial paints. In particular, contemporary paintings have been often retouched using materials rather similar to the originals, thus compromising the actual reversibility of the overpainting. Therefore, t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the present work conservation issues on laser cleaning of modern and contemporary painting are studied in order to assist the conservator’s work in choosing right cleaning methodologies. Therefore, an analytical method is presented using micro-FTIR and micro-Raman assisted with optical microscopy on mock-ups with different commercial paint formu...
Article
A non-invasive study has been carried out on 18 paintings by Alberto Burri (1915–1995), one of Italy’s most important contemporary painters. The study aims to demonstrate the appropriate and suitable use of portable non-invasive instrumentation for the characterization of materials and techniques found in works dating from 1948 to 1975 belonging to...
Article
The aim of this study is to develop a method for the non-invasive and in situ identification of organic binders in wall paintings by fiber optic mid-FTIR reflectance spectroscopy. The non-invasive point analysis methodology was set-up working on a wide set of wall painting replicas of known composition and using statistical multivariate methods, in...
Article
Yellow pyroantimonates PbSb, PbSbSn and PbSbZn were synthesized by solid-state reactions at high temperature and characterized by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The lattice size of cubic pyrochlores increases with Sn and Zn doping and with Pb overstoichiometry, indicating the replacement of Sb5+ by the larger cations. This fact permits t...
Article
Resonance Raman spectroscopy has been utilized to identify vegetal and animal dyes and lakes. These compounds have been used by artists since antiquity, and their identification has important implications in art history and conservation. The resonance condition is useful when working with real ancient objects so as to enhance the Raman scattering o...