Francesca Noardo

Francesca Noardo
OGC - Open Geospatial Consortium

PhD

About

63
Publications
22,572
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Introduction
Francesca Noardo currently works in the 3D geoinformation group, Delft University of Technology (https://3d.bk.tudelft.nl). Francesca does research in Geoinformatics (GIS) and 3D city modelling. The main interest is the harmonization and integration of open standards to represent high level of detail and complex buildings in maps, to foster interoperability between different application fields: the ones centered on the building itself and the ones focused on the study and management of the city. She is now working on GeoBIM projects for an interface to process complex architectural IFC models in an automated fashion, converting them to CityGML, in order to automatically analyze them in their context and update the CityGML city maps, enriching them with high level-of-detail information.

Publications

Publications (63)
Preprint
The reuse and integration of data give big opportunities, supported by the F.A.I.R. data principles. Seamless data integration from heterogenous sources has been interest of the geospatial community for long time. However, 3D city models, BIM and information supporting smart cities present higher semantic and geometrical complexity, which pose new...
Article
Municipalities invest a lot of time and person-hours into manual building permit checks. With the increase in computational power and the use of Building Information Models (BIM) in the building design life cycle, several municipalities are investing in automating these checks using BIM and geo-data sets. However, few examples exist of tools effect...
Article
Purpose The study, within the Increasing Resilience of Cultural Heritage (ResCult) project, aims to support civil protection to prevent, lessen and mitigate disasters impacts on cultural heritage using a unique standardised-3D geographical information system (GIS), including both heritage and risk and hazard information. Design/methodology/approac...
Article
To support building permit issuing with automatic digital tools, the reuse of models produced by designers would make the process quicker and more objective. However, current studies and pilots often leave a gap with respect to the models as actually provided by architects, having varying quality and content. In this study, rather than taking a top...
Article
Full-text available
Growing interest is awarded to the digitalization of the building permitting use case and many works are developed about the topic. However, the subject is very complex and many aspects are usually tackled separately, making it very hard for traditional literature reviews to grasp the actual progress in the overall topic. This paper unveils the det...
Chapter
In this chapter, we start from the typical concepts from Geographic Information System (GIS): data representation, acquisition, querying and analysis. We follow with the transition from 2 to 3D GIS and describe open standards such as CityGML and CityJSON and recent advances on 3D geospatial simulations, computing and real-time GIS and Internet of T...
Preprint
Full-text available
Big opportunities are given by the reuse and integration of data, which, nowadays, are more and more available, thanks to advances in acquisition and modelling technologies and the open data paradigm. Seamlessly integrating data from heterogenous data sources has been an interest of the geospatial community for long time. However, the higher semant...
Preprint
Full-text available
Growing interest is awarded to the digitalization of the building permitting use case and many works are developed about the topic. However, the subject is very complex and many aspects are usually tackled separately, making it very hard for traditional literature reviews to grasp the actual progress in the overall topic. This paper unveils the det...
Article
Full-text available
Because of the need for new sustainable future alternatives, the re-inhabitation of rural areas, hinterlands, small historical urban centres and villages has become a unique real opportunity. Therefore, it is necessary to define and adopt new sustainable urban planning and building permits to follow this path. These processes involve both various a...
Article
Full-text available
Nowadays, cultural and historical built heritage can be more effectively preserved, valorised and documented using advanced geospatial technologies. In such a context, there is a major issue concerning the automation of the process and the extraction of useful information from a huge amount of spatial information acquired by means of advanced surve...
Article
Full-text available
Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) is a complete, wide and complex open standard data model to represent Building Information Models. Big efforts are being made by the standardization organization buildingSMART, to develop and maintain this standard in collaboration with researchers, companies and institutions. However, when trying to use IFC models...
Article
Full-text available
Industry Foundation Classes (IFC), the buildingSMART open standard for BIM, is underused with respect to its promising potential, since, according to the experience of practitioners and researchers working with BIM, issues in the standard’s implementation and use prevent its effective use. Nevertheless, a systematic investigation of these issues ha...
Article
Full-text available
OGC CityGML is an open standard for 3D city models intended to foster interoperability and support various applications. However, through our practical experience and discussions with practitioners, we have noticed several problems related to the implementation of the standard and the use of standardized data. Nevertheless, a systematic investigati...
Preprint
Full-text available
The automation of building permits has great relevance within the worldwide digitalization efforts. The reuse of models produced by designers and the integration within geoinformation, necessary for many regulations, would make the process more effective. However, a gap is left by most of studies and pilots adopting conceptual approaches. In this p...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The digitalization of the process for building permit (involving the use of 3D information systems) is seen as a priority in a wide part of the world. Since it is a very multidisciplinary use case, involving a variety of stakeholders tackling complex issues and topics, some of them joined their efforts and skills in the European Network for Digital...
Article
Full-text available
Among the digitalization processes which are being raised in Europe and in the world, the building permit process is seen as one of the priorities by municipalities, governmental institutions and standardization organizations. However, in current practice, the building permit issuing as well as the integration of geoinformation with BIM (GeoBIM) su...
Article
Full-text available
Although the use of location-based data (location coupled with semantic information) within Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and from Earth Observation (e.g. satellite) sources has been long established for decision makers, this has only recently been reflected in the construction sector with a more recent move from Computer Aided Design (CAD...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Although the use of location-based data (location coupled with semantic information) within Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and from Earth Observation (e.g. satellite) sources has been long established for decision makers, this has only recently been reflected in the construction sector with a more recent move from Computer Aided Design (CAD...
Article
Full-text available
Architectural, built heritage and historical buildings embody cultural heritage value and - as known - they need to be studied, documented, persevered and represented. Although there are many fields involved in these activities, none of these considered individually can fully represent the heritage with a complete level of detail and information. T...
Article
Full-text available
This research aims at the study of the (dynamic) relationship between the World Heritage sites and the related human settlements development. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) can be useful to represent the involved information and to analyze such relationship. However, an effective harmonized structure and unique storage of possibly heterogen...
Article
Full-text available
Standardised data formats and data models are essential for data integration and interoperability, which in turn adds value to data by allowing its reuse in multiple contexts. For this reason, in recent years extensive efforts have been focused on standards development. When representing the built environment, 3D city models and Building Informatio...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Standardised data formats and data models are essential for data integration and interoperability, which in turn adds value to data by allowing its reuse in multiple contexts. For this reason, in recent years extensive efforts have been focused on standards development. When representing the built environment, 3D city models and Building Informatio...
Article
Full-text available
The integration of 3D city models with Building Information Models (BIM), coined as GeoBIM, facilitates improved data support to several applications, e.g., 3D map updates, building permits issuing, detailed city analysis, infrastructure design, context-based building design, to name a few. To solve the integration, several issues need to be tackle...
Preprint
Full-text available
IFC, buildingSMART open standard for Building Information Models, is underused with respect to its promising potential, since, according to the experience of practitioners and researchers working with BIM, issues in the standard's implementation and use prevent its effective use. Nevertheless, a systematic investigation of these issues has never be...
Preprint
Full-text available
OGC CityGML is an open standard for 3D city models intended to foster interoperability and support various applications. However, through our practical experience and discussions with practitioners, we have noticed several problems related to the implementation of the standard and the use of standardized data. Nevertheless, a systematic investigati...
Preprint
Full-text available
The integration of 3D city models with Building Information Models (BIM), abbreviated as GeoBIM, facilitates improved data support to several applications, e.g. 3D map updates, building permits issuing, detailed city analysis, infrastructure design, context-based building design, to name a few. To solve the integration, several issues need to be ta...
Article
Full-text available
An investigation into the implementation state of open standards in software is currently ongoing through the ISPRS/EuroSDR ‘GeoBIM benchmark 2019’ initiative, which kicked off earlier this year. The benchmark activity provides a way of assessing and comparing the functionality of different software packages in GIS and BIM in terms of their ability...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In both the Geo and BIM domains, it is widely acknowledged that the integration of geo-data and BIM-data is beneficial and a crucial step in facing the multi-disciplinary challenges of our built environment. The result of this integration – broadly termed as GeoBIM – has a range of potential uses from district study to road safety. However, from th...
Article
Full-text available
In both the Geo and BIM domains, it is widely acknowledged that the integration of geo-data and BIM-data is beneficial and a crucial step in facing the multi-disciplinary challenges of our built environment. The result of this integration – broadly termed as GeoBIM – has a range of potential uses from district study to road safety. However, from th...
Article
Full-text available
The integration of geoinformation with BIM (GeoBIM) is critical to underpin solutions to many city-related challenges. However, to achieve an effective integration it is necessary to consider not only data and technical options but also current practice and users’ needs. This paper describes work carried out within the EuroSDR-GeoBIM project to add...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
GeoBIM, the integration of 3D geoinformation (Geo) with building information models (BIM), is a subject of increasing attention in both domains. A well-known practical challenge for this integration is the mixed state of software support for open standards in each domain that would ease the integration. This is often known by practitioners but poor...
Article
Full-text available
Historical small urban centres are of increasing interest to different interacting fields such as architectural heritage protection and conservation, urban planning, disaster response, sustainable development and tourism. They are defined at different levels (international, national, regional), by various organizations and standards, incorporate nu...
Article
Full-text available
The set of laws, actions and organizations for Cultural Heritage (CH) protection is born in the different countries of the European Union from local cultural situations, so the ability to cope with the emergency is certainly different. In addition to the damages that can occur to cultural assets after a disaster, an inadequate emergency interventio...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
An investigation into the implementation state of open standards in software is currently ongoing through the ISPRS/EuroSDR ‘GeoBIM benchmark 2019’ initiative, which kicked off earlier this year. The benchmark activity provides a way of assessing and comparing the functionality of different software packages in GIS and BIM in terms of their ability...
Article
Full-text available
The need to share information about architectural heritage effectively after a disaster event, in order to foster its preservation, requires the use of a common language between the involved actors and stakeholders. A database able to connect the architectural heritage representation with the data useful for hazard and risk analysis can thus be a p...
Article
The documentation of cultural heritage is acknowledged as a fundamental instrument to guarantee the monument preservation and promotion, and to educate people towards these aims. The recently evolved potentialities of information technologies and communication (standard data models, ontologies and formats, web technologies) permit the development o...
Article
Full-text available
The techniques of measuring and 3D modelling based on images, as is typical in photogrammetry, grew in interest again in recent years, since a new generation of software tools has spread. These ones implement in different measure the algorithms developed by computer vision, increasing the automation of the standard photogrammetric process. This mad...
Article
Full-text available
Every year, there are almost 50,000 forest fires in Europe (127/day), which have burned an area equal to more than 450,000 ha. An effective management of forest fires is therefore fundamental in order to reduce the number of the fires and, especially, the related burned areas, preserving the environment and saving human lives. However, some problem...
Article
Full-text available
Given the growing needs of renewable energy in urban areas, identifying suitable installation locations for solar systems is increasingly important. Existing energetic cadastres often have a limited level of detail in the analysed geometry, which needs to be rapidly updated following any changes to the buildings. The required 3D data can be generat...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The monitoring of air quality parameters is a fundamental requirement for smart cities development and it is of primary importance for the quality of human life. In fact, the knowledge of air quality parameters along the days and in different areas of the city is essential to monitor its behavior and to take some preventive measurements to limit th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The evolved potentialities of information technologies permit data disambiguation, interoperability and sharing through the web to reach an effective comprehensive knowledge. International standards are published as a reference for integrating data in a common framework and in an open perspective. Standard ontologies exist both in the cartographic...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, many studies revealed the advantages of using airborne oblique images for obtaining improved 3D city models (including façades and building footprints). Here the acquisition and use of oblique images from a low cost and open source Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) for the 3D high-level-of-detail reconstruction of historical architectu...
Article
Full-text available
An accurate description of watercourses helps to easily understand their behaviour both for routine hydrological investigations and in disasters cases. Knowing the position and the dimension of the supply sources of the river is crucial, since they have a direct influence on its behaviour; however, they are not often easily identified, and almost a...
Article
Full-text available
Air quality is a factor of primary importance for the quality of life. The increase of the pollutants percentage in the air can cause serious problems to the human and environmental health. For this reason it is essential to monitor its values to prevent the consequences of an excessive concentration, to reduce the pollution production or to avoid...
Article
Full-text available
Air quality is a factor of primary importance for the quality of life. The increase of the pollutants percentage in the air can cause serious problems to the human and environmental health. For this reason it is essential to monitor its values to prevent the consequences of an excessive concentration, to reduce the pollution production or to avoid...
Article
RIASSUNTO Il lavoro riassume i risultati ottenuti da diversi partecipanti alla sessione “benchmark” - uso di immagini UAV per la ricostruzione 3D: esperienze condivise tra utenti, svoltasi nell’ambito del 61° convegno nazionale SIFET (Lecce 8-10 giugno 2016). L’iniziativa ha previsto l’elaborazione di un dataset comune, rappresentato da immagini ac...
Article
Full-text available
An essential support for environmental monitoring activities is a rigorous definition of a homogeneous cartographic system, required to correctly georeference and analyse the acquired data. Furthermore, since 2007, the European Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community (INSPIRE) Directive affirms the necessity to harmonise th...
Article
Full-text available
(TLS, Terrestrial Laser Scanning), and large scale mapping derived by UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) survey. This paper refers an example of 3D survey and reality based modelling applied on landscape and architectural assets. The choice of methods for documentation, in terms of survey techniques, depends primarily on issues and features of the area....
Article
Full-text available
(TLS, Terrestrial Laser Scanning), and large scale mapping derived by UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) survey. This paper refers an example of 3D survey and reality based modelling applied on landscape and architectural assets. The choice of methods for documentation, in terms of survey techniques, depends primarily on issues and features of the area....
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, many studies revealed the advantages of using airborne oblique images for obtaining improved 3D city models (e.g. including façades and building footprints). Expensive airborne cameras, installed on traditional aerial platforms, usually acquired the data. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the possibility of acquire and use o...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, many studies revealed the advantages of using airborne oblique images for obtaining improved 3D city models (e.g. including façades and building footprints). Expensive airborne cameras, installed on traditional aerial platforms, usually acquired the data. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the possibility of acquire and use o...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Interoperability has become fundamental to the management and sharing of the data. For this reason, international standards are published and ontologies are proposed and used for structuring databases in order to assure information retrieval, improved analysis and correct interpretation of the data, besides the interoperability of compliant databas...
Article
Full-text available
Il volume è l’esito scientifico di una serie di indagini di scavo su Piazza Savoia e nell’area del Castello in Susa, eseguiti tra il 2002 e il 2009 sotto la direzione dalla Soprintendenza Archeologica del Piemonte e sull’Arco augusteo avviati in occasione del bimillenario delle morte di Augusto. Due le sezioni di rilievi di fotogrammetria digitale...
Article
Full-text available
The Semantic Web introduces new exigencies for Cultural Heritage (CH) data managing and sharing, and such requests have to be considered for structuring the databases and Geographical Information System applications purposed to CH preservation strategies. Data semantics should be explicit, and formally specified by standard ontologies, and some pro...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
GIS can be effective instruments for managing Architectural Heritage data, in order to query the data for preservation purposes and to realize advanced analysis. These capabilities can be improved using some tools developed by the fields of informatics and internet services such as standards, ontologies and object-oriented programming. The official...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The great potential of GIS to manage and analyse georeferenced information is well-known. The last several years of development of ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) saw a necessity of interoperability arise, from which the Semantic web standards and domain ontologies are derived. Specific application field ontologies are often insuff...
Article
Full-text available
Dense matching techniques, implemented in many commercial and open source software, are useful instruments for carrying out a rapid and detailed analysis of complex objects, including various types of details and surfaces. For this reason these tools were tested in the metric survey of a frescoed ceiling in the hall of honour of a baroque building....
Conference Paper
The presented proposals concern the use of GIS technologies (Geographical Information Systems) for CH conservation data storage and management in order to arrange permanent and useful archives, even at the architectural scale, making controllable, correctable and improvable all the archived data. Such applications intend to satisfy some relevant an...