Francesca Lo Cicero

Francesca Lo Cicero
INFN - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare | INFN · Rome I

About

73
Publications
9,282
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
498
Citations
Citations since 2016
30 Research Items
283 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220102030405060
20162017201820192020202120220102030405060
20162017201820192020202120220102030405060
20162017201820192020202120220102030405060
Additional affiliations
March 2016 - December 2018
INFN - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare
Position
  • Researcher

Publications

Publications (73)
Preprint
Full-text available
A timely and long-term programme of kaon decay measurements at a new level of precision is presented, leveraging the capabilities of the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). The proposed programme is firmly anchored on the experience built up studying kaon decays at the SPS over the past four decades, and includes rare processes, CP violation, dark...
Article
In the near future, Exascale systems will need to bridge three technology gaps to achieve high performance while remaining under tight power constraints: energy efficiency and thermal control; extreme computation efficiency via HW acceleration and new arithmetic; methods and tools for seamless integration of reconfigurable accelerators in heterogen...
Preprint
Full-text available
A new FPGA-based low-level trigger processor has been installed at the NA62 experiment. It is intended to extend the features of its predecessor due to a faster interconnection technology and additional logic resources available on the new platform. With the aim of improving trigger selectivity and exploring new architectures for complex trigger co...
Preprint
Full-text available
The APEnet+ board delivers a point-to-point, low-latency, 3D torus network interface card. In this paper we describe the latest generation of APEnet NIC, APEnet v5, integrated in a PCIe Gen3 board based on a state-of-the-art, 28 nm Altera Stratix V FPGA. The NIC features a network architecture designed following the Remote DMA paradigm and tailored...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
To achieve high performance and high energy efficiency on near-future exascale computing systems, three key technology gaps needs to be bridged. These gaps include: energy efficiency and thermal control; extreme computation efficiency via HW acceleration and new arithmetics; methods and tools for seamless integration of reconfigurable accelerators...
Article
Full-text available
EuroEXA is a major European FET research initiative that aims to deliver a proof-of-concept of a next generation Exa-scalable HPC platform. EuroEXA leverages on previous projects results (ExaNeSt, ExaNoDe and ECOSCALE) to design a medium scale but scalable, fully working HPC system prototype exploiting state-of-the-art FPGA devices that integrate c...
Article
Full-text available
The L0TP+ initiative is aimed at the upgrade of the FPGA-based Level-0 Trigger Processor (L0TP) of the NA62 experiment at CERN for the post-LS2 data taking, which is expected to happen at 100% of design beam intensity, corresponding to about 3.3 × 10 ¹² protons per pulse on the beryllium target used to produce the kaons beam. Although tests perform...
Preprint
Full-text available
We profile the impact of computation and inter-processor communication on the energy consumption and on the scaling of cortical simulations approaching the real-time regime on distributed computing platforms. Also, the speed and energy consumption of processor architectures typical of standard HPC and embedded platforms are compared. We demonstrate...
Article
Full-text available
The use of GPUs to implement general purpose computational tasks, known as GPGPU since fifteen years ago, has reached maturity. Applications take advantage of the parallel architectures of these devices in many different domains. Over the last few years several works have demonstrated the effectiveness of the integration of GPU-based systems in the...
Article
The ExaNeSt project started on December 2015 and is funded by EU H2020 research framework (call H2020-FETHPC-2014, n. 671553) to study the adoption of low-cost, Linux-based power-efficient 64-bit ARM processors clusters for Exascale-class systems. The ExaNeSt consortium pools partners with industrial and academic research expertise in storage, inte...
Article
Full-text available
The deployment of the next generation computing platform at ExaFlops scale requires to solve new technological challenges mainly related to the impressive number (up to 10^6) of compute elements required. This impacts on system power consumption, in terms of feasibility and costs, and on system scalability and computing efficiency. In this perspect...
Article
Full-text available
Efficient brain simulation is a scientific grand challenge, a parallel/distributed coding challenge and a source of requirements and suggestions for future computing architectures. Indeed, the human brain includes about 10^15 synapses and 10^11 neurons activated at a mean rate of several Hz. Full brain simulation poses Exascale challenges even if s...
Article
Full-text available
We measured the impact of long-range exponentially decaying intra-areal lateral connectivity on the scaling and memory occupation of a distributed spiking neural network simulator compared to that of short-range Gaussian decays. While previous studies adopted short-range connectivity, recent experimental neurosciences studies are pointing out the r...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we present the status of the 3rd generation design of the APEnet board (V5) built upon the 28nm Altera Stratix V FPGA; it features a PCIe Gen3 x8 interface and enhanced embedded transceivers with a maximum capability of 12.5Gbps each. The network architecture is designed in accordance to the Remote DMA paradigm. The APEnet+ V5 prototy...
Article
Full-text available
With processor architecture evolution, the HPC market has undergone a paradigm shift. The adoption of low-cost, Linux-based clusters extended the reach of HPC from its roots in modelling and simulation of complex physical systems to a broader range of industries, from biotechnology, cloud computing, computer analytics and big data challenges to man...
Article
Full-text available
Energy consumption is today one of the most relevant issues in operating HPC systems for scientific applications. The use of unconventional computing systems is therefore of great interest for several scientific communities looking for a better tradeoff between time-to-solution and energy-to-solution. In this context, the performance assessment of...
Article
NaNet is a framework for the development of FPGA-based PCI Express (PCIe) Network Interface Cards (NICs) with real-time data transport architecture that can be effectively employed in TRIDAQ systems. Key features of the architecture are the flexibility in the configuration of the number and kind of the I/O channels, the hardware offloading of the n...
Article
This project aims to exploit the parallel computing power of a commercial Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) to implement fast pattern matching in the Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector for the level 0 (L0) trigger of the NA62 experiment. In this approach, the ring-fitting algorithm is seedless, being fed with raw RICH data, with no previous inform...
Article
The parallel computing power of commercial Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) is exploited to perform real-time ring fitting at the lowest trigger level using information coming from the Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector of the NA62 experiment at CERN. To this purpose, direct GPU communication with a custom FPGA-based board has been used to redu...
Article
Full-text available
A commercial Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) is used to build a fast Level 0 (L0) trigger system tested parasitically with the TDAQ (Trigger and Data Acquisition systems) of the NA62 experiment at CERN. In particular, the parallel computing power of the GPU is exploited to perform real-time fitting in the Ring Imaging CHerenkov (RICH) detector. Dire...
Article
Full-text available
Over the last few years the GPGPU (General-Purpose computing on Graphics Processing Units) paradigm represented a remarkable development in the world of computing. Computing for High-Energy Physics is no exception: several works have demonstrated the effectiveness of the integration of GPU-based systems in high level trigger of different experiment...
Article
Full-text available
A GPU-based low level (L0) trigger is currently integrated in the experimental setup of the RICH detector of the NA62 experiment to assess the feasibility of building more refined physics-related trigger primitives and thus improve the trigger discriminating power. To ensure the real-time operation of the system, a dedicated data transport mechanis...
Article
Full-text available
The KM3NeT-Italia underwater neutrino detection unit, the tower, consists of 14 floors. Each floor supports 6 Optical Modules containing front-end electronics needed to digitize the PMT signal, format and transmit the data and 2 hydrophones that reconstruct in real-time the position of Optical Modules, for a maximum tower throughput of more than 60...
Article
General-purpose computing on GPUs is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to employ GPUs as accelerators in offline computations. With the steady decrease of GPU latencies and the increase in link and memory throughputs, time is ripe for real-time applications using GPUs in high-en...
Article
Full-text available
NaNet-10 is a four-ports 10GbE PCIe Network Interface Card designed for low-latency real-time operations with GPU systems. To this purpose the design includes an UDP offload module, for fast and clock-cycle deterministic handling of the transport layer protocol, plus a GPUDirect P2P/RDMA engine for low-latency communication with NVIDIA Tesla GPU de...
Article
Full-text available
In the attempt to develop an interconnection architecture optimized for hybrid HPC systems dedicated to scientific computing, we designed APEnet+, a point-to-point, low-latency and high-performance network controller supporting 6 fully bidirectional off-board links over a 3D torus topology. The first release of APEnet+ (named V4) was a board based...
Article
Full-text available
Recent experimental neuroscience studies are pointing out the role of long-range intra-areal connectivity that can be modeled by a distance dependent exponential decay of the synaptic probability distribution. This short report provides a preliminary measure of the impact of exponentially decaying lateral connectivity compared to that of shorter-ra...
Article
Full-text available
This short report describes the scaling, up to 1024 software processes and hardware cores, of a distributed simulator of plastic spiking neural networks. A previous report demonstrated good scalability of the simulator up to 128 processes. Herein we extend the speed-up measurements and strong and weak scaling analysis of the simulator to the range...
Article
In the next decade, a growing number of scientific and industrial applications will require power-efficient systems providing unprecedented computation, memory, and communication resources. A promising paradigm foresees the use of heterogeneous many-tile architectures. The resulting computing systems are complex: they must be protected against seve...
Article
Full-text available
This short note regards a comparison of instantaneous power, total energy consumption, execution time and energetic cost per synaptic event of a spiking neural network simulator (DPSNN-STDP) distributed on MPI processes when executed either on an embedded platform (based on a dual socket quad-core ARM platform) or a server platform (INTEL-based qua...
Article
Full-text available
NaNet is a FPGA-based PCIe Network Interface Card (NIC) design with GPUDirect and Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA) capabilities featuring a configurable and extensible set of network channels. The design currently supports both standard—Gbe (1000BASE-T) and 10GbE (10Base-R)—and custom—34 Gbps APElink and 2.5 Gbps deterministic latency KM3link—cha...
Article
The APEnet+ board delivers a point-to-point, low-latency, 3D torus network interface card. In this paper we describe the latest generation of APEnet NIC, APEnet v5, integrated in a PCIe Gen3 board based on a state-of-the-art, 28 nm Altera Stratix V FPGA. The NIC features a network architecture designed following the Remote DMA paradigm and tailored...
Article
We developed a point-to-point, low latency, 3D torus Network Controller integrated in an FPGA-based PCIe board which implements a Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA) communication protocol. RDMA requires ability to directly access the remote node application memory with minimal OS or CPU intervention. To this purpose, a key element is the design of...
Article
Systemic fault tolerance is usually pursued with a number of strategies, like redundancy and checkpoint/restart; any of them needs to be triggered by safe and fast fault detection. We devised a hardware/software approach to fault detection that enables a system-level Fault Awareness by implementing a hierarchical Mutual Watchdog. It relies on an im...
Conference Paper
QUonG is a parallel computing platform developed at INFN and equipped with commodity multi-core CPUs coupled with last generation NVIDIA GPUs. Computing nodes communicate through a point-to-point, high performance, low latency 3D torus network implemented by the APEnet+ FPGA-based interconnect. Scaling of this cluster towards peta-and possibly exas...
Article
Full-text available
The EURETILE project required the selection and coding of a set of dedicated benchmarks. The project is about the software and hardware architecture of future many-tile distributed fault-tolerant systems. We focus on dynamic workloads characterised by heavy numerical processing requirements. The ambition is to identify common techniques that could...
Article
Full-text available
While the GPGPU paradigm is widely recognized as an effective approach to high performance computing, its adoption in low-latency, real-time systems is still in its early stages. Although GPUs typically show deterministic behaviour in terms of latency in executing computational kernels as soon as data is available in their internal memories, assess...
Article
Full-text available
APEnet+ is an INFN (Italian Institute for Nuclear Physics) project aiming to develop a custom 3-Dimensional torus interconnect network optimized for hybrid clusters CPU-GPU dedicated to High Performance scientific Computing. The APEnet+ interconnect fabric is built on a FPGA-based PCI-express board with 6 bi-directional off-board links showing 34 G...
Article
Full-text available
We introduce a natively distributed mini-application benchmark representative of plastic spiking neural network simulators. It can be used to measure performances of existing computing platforms and to drive the development of future parallel/distributed computing systems dedicated to the simulation of plastic spiking networks. The mini-application...
Conference Paper
We developed a custom FPGA-based Network Interface Controller named APEnet+ aimed at GPU accelerated clusters for High Performance Computing. The card exploits peer-to-peer capabilities (GPU-Direct RDMA) for latest NVIDIA GPGPU devices and the RDMA paradigm to perform fast direct communication between computing nodes, offloading the host CPU from n...
Conference Paper
We describe the hands-on experience in developing a network-centric IP core supporting the RDMA protocol which is the engine of an FPGA-based PCIe NIC targeted for GPU-accelerated HPC clusters with a 3D-toroidal network topology. We report on different development areas related to our IP: the optimizations required to evolve the NIC to the current...
Article
APEnet+ is a point-to-point, low-latency, 3D-torus network controller integrated in a PCIe Gen2 board based on the Altera Stratix IV FPGA. We characterize the transmission system (embedded transceivers driving external QSFP+ modules) analyzing signal integrity, throughput, latency, BER and jitter at different data rates up to 34 Gbps. We estimate t...
Article
Full-text available
NaNet is an FPGA-based PCIe X8 Gen2 NIC supporting 1/10 GbE links and the custom 34~Gbps APElink channel. The design has GPUDirect RDMA capabilities and features a network stack protocol offloading module, making it suitable for building low-latency, real-time GPU-based computing systems. We provide a detailed description of the NaNet hardware modu...
Article
Full-text available
Modern Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) are now considered accelerators for general purpose computation. A tight interaction between the GPU and the interconnection network is the strategy to express the full potential on capability computing of a multi-GPU system on large HPC clusters; that is the reason why an efficient and scalable interconnect...
Article
Full-text available
We implemented the NaNet FPGA-based PCI2 Gen2 GbE/APElink NIC, featuring GPUDirect RDMA capabilities and UDP protocol management offloading. NaNet is able to receive a UDP input data stream from its GbE interface and redirect it, without any intermediate buffering or CPU intervention, to the memory of a Fermi/Kepler GPU hosted on the same PCIe bus,...
Article
Full-text available
We introduce a natively distributed mini-application benchmark representative of plastic spiking neural network simulators. It can be used to measure performances of existing computing platforms and to drive the development of future parallel/distributed computing systems dedicated to the simulation of plastic spiking networks. The mini-application...
Article
Full-text available
Modern GPUs support special protocols to exchange data directly across the PCI Express bus. While these protocols could be used to reduce GPU data transmission times, basically by avoiding staging to host memory, they require specific hardware features which are not available on current generation network adapters. In this paper we describe the arc...
Article
Full-text available
This is the second of a planned collection of four yearly volumes describing the deployment of a heterogeneous many-core platform for experiments on scalable custom interconnects and management of fault and critical events, applied to many-process applications. This volume covers several topics, among which: 1- a system for awareness of faults and...
Article
Full-text available
Many tile systems require techniques to be applied to increase components resilience and control the FIT (Failures In Time) rate. When scaling to peta- exa-scale systems the FIT rate may become unacceptable due to component numerosity, requiring more systemic countermeasures. Thus, the ability to be fault aware, i.e. to detect and collect informati...
Article
Full-text available
We describe a pilot project (GAP - GPU Application Project) for the use of GPUs (Graphics processing units) for online triggering applications in High Energy Physics experiments. Two major trends can be identified in the development of trigger and DAQ systems for particle physics experiments: the massive use of general-purpose commodity systems suc...
Article
Full-text available
In the supercomputing arena, the strong rise of GPU-accelerated clusters is a matter of fact. Within INFN, we proposed an initiative — the QUonG project — whose aim is to deploy a high performance computing system dedicated to scientific computations leveraging on commodity multi-core processors coupled with latest generation GPUs. The inter-node i...
Conference Paper
One of the most important issues that particle physics experiments at hadron colliders have to solve is real- time selection of the most interesting events. Typical collision frequencies do not allow all events to be written to tape for offline analysis, and in most cases, only a small fraction can be saved. The most commonly used strategy is based...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
APEnet+ is our custom developed PCIe gen2 board based on an Altera Stratix IV FPGA. We demonstrate reliable usage of Altera's embedded transceivers coupled with QSFP+ (Quad Small Form Pluggable) technology. QSFP+ standard defines a hot-pluggable transceiver available in copper or optical cable assemblies for an aggregated bandwidth of up to 40 Gbps...
Article
Full-text available
One of the most demanding challenges for the designers of parallel computing architectures is to deliver an efficient network infrastructure providing low latency, high bandwidth communications while preserving scalability. Besides off-chip communications between processors, recent multi-tile (i.e. multi-core) architectures face the challenge for a...
Article
Full-text available
We present test results and characterization of a data compression system for the readout of the NA62 liquid krypton calorimeter trigger processor. The Level-0 electromagnetic calorimeter trigger processor of the NA62 experiment at CERN receives digitized data from the calorimeter main readout board. These data are stored on an on-board DDR2 RAM me...