Francesca Beolchini

Francesca Beolchini
Università Politecnica delle Marche | Università degli Studi di Ancona · Department of Life and Environmental Sciences - DiSVA

Chemical Engineer

About

204
Publications
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Publications

Publications (204)
Article
Full-text available
Bad choices in municipal waste (MW) management cause negative effects on sustainability. Evolving regulation has identified prevention and recycling as the best strategies; nevertheless, disposal in landfilling sites plays an essential role since a complete zero-waste scenario is not realistic, currently. Nowadays, policies require a preliminary wa...
Article
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The contamination of coastal marine sediments with heavy metals (HMs) is a widespread phenomenon that requires effective remediation actions. Bioremediation based on the use of bacteria is an economically and environmentally sustainable effective strategy for reducing HM contamination and/or toxicity in marine sediments. However, information on the...
Article
This study compared the sustainability of two recycling treatments of fluorescent powders aimed at recovering rare earths. The analysis has been performed to evaluate the environmental impacts and economic aspects by using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life Cycle Cost (LCC). The first process includes a thermal pretreatment at 950°C of powders, f...
Article
Sediment contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons represents a major environmental concern worldwide. The different remediation strategies proposed are mainly based on physico-chemical and biological approaches. Physico-chemical methods (also referred to as conventional methods), although more efficient in several cases, are considered a...
Article
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Acetic acid is an organic acid of great importance globally and the demand of this product is currently increasing. The production of this acid has consequently aroused more and more interest over the years, especially for more sustainable processes. From a biological point of view, acetic acid can be produced by acetogenesis using inorganic substr...
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The growing production of green technologies (such as electric vehicles and systems for renewable electricity production, e.g., wind turbine) is increasing the rare earth element (REE) demands. These metals are considered critical for Europe for their economic relevance and the supply risk. The end-of-life permanent magnets are considered a potenti...
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The agriculture sector produces significant amounts of organic residues and the choice of the management strategy of these flows affects the environmental sustainability of the sector. The scientific literature is rich with innovative processes for the production of bio-based products (BBP) from agriculture residues, aimed at the implementation of...
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This work reports a kinetic study of the bioleaching process for Cu extraction from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs), using iron as an oxidant agent. The kinetic study considered both the Fe²⁺ oxidation by bacteria metabolism and the chemical reaction between Fe³⁺ and Cu within WPCBs. The model was composed of a system of three differential equ...
Article
This study uses Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life Cycle Cost (LCC) to compare three process design alternatives for treating wastewater from galvanic industry. The proposed processes have been developed in according to a zero-liquid discharge, ZLD, approach and included reverse osmosis for the concentration, evaporation and crystallization of sa...
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The construction and building field represents a key sector for the recent Circular Economy Action Plan (March 2020). Therefore, the production of low impact materials represents an essential step towards the implementation of a sustainable market. In this regard, the present paper focused on the production of painting wooden products for interior...
Article
This study compared the sustainability of six alternatives for the treatment of industrial wastewater from a gasifier, considering both environmental and economic aspects by the approaches of: uses Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life Cycle Cost (LCC). The processes have been developed under the zero liquid discharge approach and included a chemica...
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The growing production and use of electric and electronic components has led to higher rates of metal consumption and waste generation. To solve this double criticality, the old linear management method (in which a product becomes waste to dispose), has evolved towards a circular approach. Printed circuit boards (PCBs) are the brains of many electr...
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Coastal sediments subjected to high anthropogenic impacts can accumulate large amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals, demanding effective and eco-sustainable remediation solutions. In this study, we carried out bioremediation experiments on marine sediments highly contaminated with PAHs and metals. In particular, we investig...
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The circularity represents the key strategy of the modern economy, where the waste becomes a raw material, ready to be reprocessed for a second life. In this context, the main aim of the present work was the development of a sustainable process for the recovery of Cu and Zn from end-of-life printed circuit boards (PCBs). The exploitation of this ha...
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Polymetallic nodules on abyssal seafloor represent a major reservoir of valuable metals. Here we analysed fungal-mediated leaching of metals from nodules collected at ca. 5000 m depth in the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone of the Pacific Ocean. The bioleaching efficiency of Aspergillus and a mixed cultures of A. niger and Trichoderma sp., at diffe...
Article
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The increase of waste from electric and electronic equipment has pushed the research towards the development of high sustainability treatments for their exploitation. The end-of-life printed circuit boards (PCBs) represent one of the most significant waste in this class. The interest for these scraps is due to the high Cu and Zn content, with conce...
Article
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Citric acid is considered one of the most valuable weak organic acids on the market and its production by biotechnological approaches is a very interesting topic. Despite the related scientific research, the literature still lacks a state of the art for the technological innovation change, necessary for a study of the inventions designed for real s...
Chapter
In the last few decades, challenges of the aquatic environment have been dramatically changed in terms of magnitude of disturbances or types of hazards, along with the rise of new scientific and technological opportunities. In addition to the traditional (legacy) chemicals like metals or organic chemicals (including PAHs, PCBs and dioxins), emergin...
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The biosorption capacities of dried meal and a waste product from the processing for biostimulant extract of Ascophyllum nodosum were evaluated as candidates for low-cost, effective biomaterials for the recovery of indium(III). The use of indium has significantly grown in the last decade, because of its utilization in hi-tech. Two formats were eval...
Article
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A kinetic study of the process for the copper leaching from printed circuit board, by Fe3+, was reported. A mathematical model, supported by experimental data, considered the mechanisms that control the reaction (chemical reaction, particle or liquid film diffusion). The kinetic of the chemical reaction was studied by two models (pseudo-first and p...
Article
End of life photovoltaic panels of different technologies (poly crystalline Si, amorphous Si, and CdTe) were treated mechanically in pilot scale by single shaft shredder minimizing the production of fine fractions below 0.4 mm (<18% weight). Grounded material was sieved giving: an intermediate fraction (0.4-1 mm) of directly recoverable glass (18%...
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Large amounts of waste debris occur in urbanized areas when heavy rain on local geology generates flooding and landslides. Improved understanding of disaster waste management helps to support future strategies. This study aims to find management solutions that are environmentally and economically sustainable, hypothesizing three different options....
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End-of-life liquid crystal displays (LCD) represent a possible source of secondary raw materials, mainly glass and an optoelectronic film composed of indium (90%) and tin (10%) oxides. A strong interest for indium, classified as critical raw material, pushed research towards the development of high-efficiency recycling processes. Nevertheless, a de...
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One of the most significant effects of an earthquake is the production of a huge amount of waste. An incorrect management of the rubbles causes relevant environmental damages, economic losses and a psychological impact for the population. In this context, the present manuscript assesses different strategies of waste management, estimating the carbo...
Article
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The rare earth elements (REEs) were classified as critical raw materials for Europe for their economic relevance and the supply risk. Currently, most of REE production is concentrated in the Chinese area and it is used for the production of many technologies including: fluorescent lamps, fluid catalytic cracking catalysts and permanent magnets. At...
Article
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The photovoltaic market has boomed in the last decade, and it is becoming much richer of high performance technologies. The copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) panel represents an example of young technology that shows high energy efficiency, kept at extreme weather conditions. Its average lifetime is around 25 years, and a strategy for a conveni...
Article
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A huge quantity of end-of-life liquid crystal displays (LCD) is collected, every year, around the world. Nowadays, this equipment is disassembled, for the removal of hazardous components (e.g. the backlight fluorescent lamps), and the resulting panel is stored. The reason is the significant content of valuable fractions (e.g. glass, metals and liqu...
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La particolare geomorfologia dell’Italia, la rende suscettibile a numerosi fenomeni naturali. Al verificarsi di tali eventi, si generano grandi quantità di rifiuti in un lasso di tempo relativamente breve, producendo, un forte impatto sulla gestione dell’emergenza. Attualmente a livello nazionale non esistono linee guida o protocolli specifici per...
Article
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This work presents a review of the international patents dealing with printed circuit board (PCB) recycling. PCBs are present in the majority of electric and electronic devices, and when the appliances reach their end-of-life phase, they need to be properly handled for the presence of valuable and hazardous materials. Many technologies have been de...
Conference Paper
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European industry is dependent on imports of raw materials. It has been recognized that some raw materials are crucial for the functioning of the economy in the EU and show a high risk of supply shortage. Studies imply that supply risk for Cobalt, Niobium, Tungsten, Yttrium, and the Rare Earth Elements is not based on scarcity itself but rather on...
Article
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The geomorphology of the Italian territory causes the incidence of many disasters like earthquakes and floods, with the consequent production of large volumes of waste. The management of such huge flows, produced in a very short time, may have a high impact on the whole emergency response. Moreover, historical data related to disaster waste managem...
Article
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End-of-life liquid crystal displays (LCD) represent a potential source of secondary raw materials for their relevant content of valuable materials, like plastics and metals. Furthermore, the combination of traditional and innovative recycling processes allows the recovery of indium, defined as critical raw material by European Commission. In this c...
Article
Acidophilic S-oxidising bacteria isolated from sulphur-rich deep caves (Frasassi, Italy), characterised by relatively low temperature, were tested for their ability to mobilise (semi-)metals from contaminated sediments. Sediment samples from two commercial Italian seaports were used to set up bioleaching experiments. The effect of different growth...
Article
According to the WEEE European directives, efforts must be undertaken to reuse or safely dispose liquid crystal displays (LCD) waste, however no practical process was reported yet, although it is possible to recover glass, plastic and precious metals, in particular indium. Indium is one of the elements included by the European Commission in the lis...
Article
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In 2014, the European Union identified 20 raw materials critical for economic importance and high supply risk. Indium, used in several innovative technologies, is among such critical raw materials. Generally, it is mined as a by-product of zinc from a mineral named sphalerite, with a concentration between 1 and 100 ppm. Currently, the largest produ...
Article
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The strong growth of the electrical and electronic equipment production combined with its short lifespan are causing the production of a significant amount of waste to treat. In particular, the present paper focuses on end-of-life liquid crystal displays (LCDs) for their significant content of valuable materials, like plastic, glass and metals that...
Conference Paper
In 2014, the European Union defined a list of 20 raw materials critical for economic importance and high supply risk. The aim of this work is to present the main results achieved within the EU-FP7 Project HydroWEEE-Demo dealing with the recovery of indium and cobalt, metals included in such European list, from LCD scraps and end of life Li-ion batt...
Article
Bioleaching is a consolidated biotechnology in the mining industry and in bio-hydrometallurgy, where microorganisms mediate the solubilisation of metals and semi-metals from mineral ores and concentrates. Bioleaching also has the potential for ex-situ/on-site remediation of aquatic sediments that are contaminated with metals, which represent a key...
Article
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Indium is a critical raw material with economic importance and high supply risk. In the present study, we recovered indium by means of cementation from a leaching solution of waste liquid crystal display panels. Cementation with zinc powder was optimized through the investigation of the effects of different variables (zinc concentration, pH, cement...
Article
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This study deals with anaerobic biotreatments of sediments contaminated with toxic metals carried out in slurry reactor. The sediment samples used for the investigation came from two Italian ports, and they were mainly contaminated with inorganic compounds (zinc, nickel and chromium). The treatments were aimed at assessing the responses of the auto...
Article
Sediment contamination in coastal areas with high anthropogenic pressure is a widespread environmental problem. Metal contaminants are of particular concern, since they are persistent and cannot be degraded. Microorganisms can influence metal mobility in the sediment by several direct and indirect processes. However, the actual fate of metals in th...
Article
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Indium is a critical element mainly produced as a by-product of zinc mining, and it is largely used in the production process of liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. End-of-life LCDs represent a possible source of indium in the field of urban mining. In the present paper, we apply, for the first time, cross-current leaching to mobilize indium from...
Chapter
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The production of end-of-life equipment, known as waste of electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) or e-waste, is a direct consequence of the modern revolution of the electronic industry and of the constant evolution of technology. According to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), a dramatic increase in the illegal import of e-waste,...
Article
The present study deals with the management of end-of-life copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin-film photovoltaic (PV) panels. We quantitatively compare the impacts and environmental weak points of the recycling processes of such panels, and their disposal in a landfill site. Two scenarios of recycling are conside...
Article
Bioremediation strategies applied to contaminated marine sediments can induce important changes in the mobility and bioavailability of metals with potential detrimental consequences on ecosystem health. In this study we investigated changes of bacterial abundance and diversity (by a combination of molecular fingerprinting and next generation sequen...
Article
The contamination of aquatic sediments with metals is a widespread environmental problem. Coastal aquatic ecosystems with low hydrodynamics need to be periodically dredged in order to maintain the navigation depth and facilitate sailing; consequently large volumes of contaminated sediments need to be managed. Conventional remediation strategies inc...
Article
Full-text available
Liquid crystal displays (LCDs) are becoming of common use as a replacement for the old cathode ray tube monitors. The new technologies largely rely on the use of critical raw materials, such as indium. This element makes up the transparent conductive coatings in the thin film displays. Considering the high demand of indium for electric and electron...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In 2010 indium was identified by the European Commission as a critical raw material for its economic importance and the supply risk. This metal represents a component of many electronic equipment and therefore its request is high; this fact favors indium recycling. The present study has bee carried within the European project FP7 308549 HydroWEEE D...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
With the diffusion of the technological progress we have lost the habit of repair, re-use and recycle many goods. To contrast the production of waste and favor sustainable management actions, the European Parliament has promulgated the WEEE (waste electrical and electronic equipment) directive. In this context, the present study deals with manageme...
Article
A dynamic model was developed for representing the abatement of sulfates and metals in column reactors inoculated with sulfate reducing bacteria. The model framework includes both bioactive mechanisms (bioreduction of sulfates and bioprecipitation of metals) and passive abiotic mechanism (sorption onto the column filling). Sorption capacities of co...