France F. Gerard

France F. Gerard
UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology | CEH · UK Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Wallingford

PhD

About

81
Publications
20,969
Reads
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1,986
Citations
Introduction
I am a senior research scientist at UKCEH Wallingford. I develop the Earth Observation research carried out at UKCEH Wallingford. The main focus of the EO team at Wallingford is on developing, analysing and producing EO derived information for research in land surface atmosphere interactions and ecology, but we will also develop EO datasets for other areas of UKCEH research.
Additional affiliations
April 2013 - present
UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology
Position
  • Senior Researcher
Description
  • Co-I in two NERC research grants (Linking biodiversity change with the delivery of ecosystem services across landscapes now and into the future; Changing Land-Atmosphere Feedbacks in Tropical African Wetlands); Member of NERC review college
April 2008 - March 2013
UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology
Position
  • Head of Earth Observation group
Description
  • Co-I in NERC research grant (Changing Land-Atmosphere Feedbacks in Tropical African Wetlands); Leading the development of integrated research in CEH on Methane. PI of GOSAT project; Work Package coordinator in EU IP project EBONE.
January 2004 - March 2008
Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Monsk Wood
Position
  • Head of Biophysical Modelling Group
Description
  • Group head and Co-Investigator in 3 NERC research grants (Tropical Biomes in Transition; QUantifying Ecocystem Roles in the Carbon Cycle; Spatio-temporal characterisation of boreal forest fire intensity dynamics and its impact on carbon flux estimation)
Education
January 1993 - July 2001
University of Leicester
Field of study
  • Remote Sensing
September 1990 - June 1991
University of Aberdeen
Field of study
  • Envrionmental Remote Sensing
September 1985 - July 1990
Ghent University
Field of study
  • Forestry

Publications

Publications (81)
Article
Full-text available
Hyperspectral leaf-level reflectance data may enable the creation of taxonomic inventories and diversity assessments of grasslands, but little is known about the stability of species-specific spectral classes and discrimination models over the course of a growing season. Here, we present a cross-seasonal dataset of seventeen species that are common...
Preprint
Full-text available
Hyperspectral leaf-level reflectance data may enable species classification and diversity assessments in complex grasslands, but little is known about the stability of species-specific spectra over time. Here we present a multi-temporal dataset of seventeen species common to a dry, nutrient poor, calcareous grassland over thirteen sampling dates, a...
Article
Full-text available
The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Vegetation Continuous Fields (MODIS VCF) Earth observation product is widely used to estimate forest cover changes and to parameterize vegetation and Earth system models and as a reference for validation or calibration where field data are limited. However, although limited independent validations o...
Article
Full-text available
According to the Spectral Variation Hypothesis (SVH), spectral variance has the potential to predict taxonomic composition in grasslands over time. However, in previous studies the relationship has been found to be unstable. We hypothesise that the diversity of phenological stages is also a driver of spectral variance and could act to confound the...
Article
Full-text available
Significance Tropical deforestation tends to increase regional air temperatures, but its impacts on rainfall are more complex. The conventional picture, based largely on studies over Amazonia, is that storm frequency can increase over small, deforested areas but is reduced when the landscape is predominantly deforested. This study examines Southern...
Data
This dataset contains land cover classification of the Akrotiri Peninsular of Cyprus, using WorldView Imagery at 2m resolution. Images from March 2018 and July 2018 were used. All the imagery was atmospherically corrected. The thematic detail of the map was generalised to the following main vegetation/cover types: bare, lake, temporary water, salt...
Article
Full-text available
Farmland birds have declined throughout Europe over recent decades. Many farmland songbirds are associated with linear woody features on field boundaries, such as hedgerows and tree lines. Previous studies have assessed songbird associations with specific hedgerow and tree characteristics, and their landscape context, but large-scale assessments ha...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer vegetation continuous fields (MODIS VCF) Earth observation product is widely used to estimate forest cover changes, parameterise vegetation and Earth 30 System models, and as a reference for validation or calibration where field data is limited. However, although limited independent validations of M...
Article
Full-text available
The identification and counting of plant individuals is essential for environmental monitoring. UAV based imagery offer ultra-fine spatial resolution and flexibility in data acquisition, and so provide a great opportunity to enhance current plant and in-situ field surveying. However, accurate mapping of individual plants from UAV imagery remains ch...
Article
Full-text available
Zoonotic diseases affect resource-poor tropical communities disproportionately, and are linked to human use and modification of ecosystems. Disentangling the socio-ecological mechanisms by which ecosystem change precipitates impacts of pathogens is critical for predicting disease risk and designing effective intervention strategies. Despite the glo...
Article
Full-text available
The leaf phenology (i.e. the seasonality of leaf amount and leaf demography) of ecosystems can be characterized through the use of Earth observation data using a variety of different approaches. The most common approach is to derive time series of vegetation indices (VIs) which are related to the temporal evolution of FPAR, LAI and GPP or alternati...
Poster
Full-text available
Preliminary findings and data collection on my 2019 field season. I collected reflectance data using hand held hyperspectral meters and drones on both chalk and acid grasslands in the south of England over a number of time points.
Article
In this review, we discuss the role of hedgerow structure and condition in determining the value of hedgerow habitat for biodiversity conservation within an agricultural context, to inform and evaluate hedgerow management decisions and policy. Through a systematic literature review, narrative synthesis and vote counting, key structural condition in...
Article
In their recent paper, Staver and Hansen (Global Ecology and Biogeography, 2015, 24, 985–987) refute the case made by Hanan et al. (Global Ecology and Biogeography, 2014, 23, 259–263) that the use of classification and regression trees (CARTs) to predict tree cover from remotely sensed imagery (MODIS VCF) inherently introduces biases, thus making t...
Article
Full-text available
Structure from Motion (SfM) photogrammetry applied to photographs captured from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platforms is increasingly being utilised for a wide range of applications including structural characterisation of forests. The aim of this study was to undertake a first evaluation of whether SfM from UAVs has potential as a low cost metho...
Chapter
This chapter describes the emerging applications for satellite-based soil moisture (SM) data and proposes possible future uses, backed up by some preliminary research which has helped to identify this need. Applications across the ecological and hydrological sciences, in a wide range of discipline areas, are considered. The more established applica...
Article
Full-text available
Radar backscatter from forest canopies is related to forest cover, canopy structure and aboveground biomass (AGB). The S-band frequency (3.1–3.3 GHz) lies between the longer L-band (1–2 GHz) and the shorter C-band (5–6 GHz) and has been insufficiently studied for forest applications due to limited data availability. In anticipation of the British b...
Article
Full-text available
Assessments of forest cover, forest carbon stocks and carbon emissions from deforestation and degradation are increasingly important components of sustainable resource management, for combating biodiversity loss and in climate mitigation policies. Satellite remote sensing provides the only means for mapping global forest cover regularly. However, f...
Article
Leaf age structures the phenology and development of plants, as well as the evolution of leaf traits over life histories. However, a general method for efficiently estimating leaf age across forests and canopy environments is lacking. Here, we explored the potential for a statistical model, previously developed for Peruvian sunlit leaves, to consis...
Article
Full-text available
We assessed the potential for using optical functional types as effective markers to monitor changes in vegetation in floodplain meadows associated with changes in their local environment. Floodplain meadows are challenging ecosystems for monitoring and conservation because of their highly biodiverse nature. Our aim was to understand and explain sp...
Article
Full-text available
• Leaf aging is a fundamental driver of changes in leaf traits, thereby, regulating ecosystem processes and remotely-sensed canopy dynamics. • We explore leaf reflectance as a tool to monitor leaf age and develop a spectra-based partial least squares regression (PLSR) model to predict age using data from a phenological study of 1,099 leaves from 1...
Article
Full-text available
Through interpretations of remote-sensing data and/or theoretical propositions, the idea that forest and savanna represent "alternative stable states" is gaining increasing acceptance. Filling an observational gap, we present detailed stratified floristic and structural analyses for forest and savanna stands located mostly within zones of transitio...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The research reported here sought to test if the principles used in the National Forest Inventory (NFI) to monitor the habitat resource (forest) through Earth Observation (EO) might be extended to a wider suite of habitat types. The NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) was asked to focus the selection of habitat types and review the understa...
Article
Full-text available
Through interpretations of remote-sensing data and/or theoretical propositions, the idea that forest and savanna represent "alternative stable states" is gaining increasing acceptance. Filling an observational gap, we present detailed stratified floristic and structural analyses for forest and savanna stands located mostly within zones of transitio...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The phenological dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems reflect the response of the Earth's biosphere to inter- and intra-annual dynamics of climatic and hydrological regimes. Some Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (GDVMs) have predicted that by 2050 the Amazon rainforest will begin to dieback (Cox et al. 2000, Nature) or that the ecosystem will become...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Plant phenology is a key indicator of environmental change. Observations of plant phenology are made by citizen scientists, coarse resolution satellites and increasingly electronic devices mounted above the canopy, such as digital cameras or Spectro-radiometers. This paper compares the phenological information content of above-canopy Spectro-radiom...
Article
Full-text available
The cost effective monitoring of habitats and their biodiversity remains a challenge to date. Earth Observation (EO) has a key role to play in mapping habitat and biodiversity in general, providing tools for the systematic collection of environmental data. The recent GEO-BON European Biodiversity Observation Network project (EBONE) established a fr...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The European Biodiversity Observation Network (EBONE) is a European contribution on terrestrial monitoring to GEO BON, the Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network. EBONE’s aims are to develop a system of biodiversity observation at regional, national and European levels by assessing existing approaches in terms of their validit...
Article
Full-text available
We present a critical evaluation of the above-ground biomass (AGB) map of Africa published in this journal by Baccini et al (2008 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 045011). We first test their map against an independent dataset of 1154 scientific inventory plots from 16 African countries, and find only weak correspondence between our field plots and the AGB va...
Article
Full-text available
In tropical areas, Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) still have deficiencies in simulating the timing of vegetation phenology. To start addressing this problem, standard Fourier-based methods are applied to aerosol screened monthly remotely sensed phenology time series (Enhanced Vegetation Index, EVI) and two major driving factors of phenolo...
Article
The proposed REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation) protocol will only succeed in reducing emissions if deforestation and degradation can be accurately monitored. Ground surveys are prohibitively expensive over large areas, so satellite monitoring will be essential for independently monitoring deforestation and degradation rat...
Chapter
Full-text available
This paper presents an intercomparison of two burned area datasets, the L3JRC daily global burned area dataset derived from SPOT-VEGETATION and the FFID burned area dataset from MODIS. Burned area dynamics are presented and the influence of climate on the fire regime is discussed. Feedbacks of the fire dynamics to the climate system are evaluated....
Article
Full-text available
BIOPRESS (‘Linking Pan-European Land Cover Change to Pressures on Biodiversity’), a European Commission funded ‘Global Monitoring for Environment and Security’ project, produced land cover change information (1950—2000) for Europe from aerial photographs and tested the suitability of this for monitoring habitats and biodiversity. The methods and re...
Article
EBONE (European Biodiversity Observation Network) is a project developing a system of biodiversity observation at regional, national and European levels as a contribution to European reporting on biodiversity. The project focuses on GEO (Group of Earth Observations) task BI 07-01 to unify many of the disparate biodiversity observing systems and cre...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
To assist the representation of phenology in vegetation models we created several templates of phenology-driver relations by characterizing the annual phase differences between phenology and two phenology drivers. We did this using the results of a cross spectral analysis of MODIS EVI with radiation (CPTEC) and with precipitation (TRMM). Four phase...
Article
Full-text available
Changes in net area of tropical forest are the sum of several processes: deforestation, regeneration of previously deforested areas, and the changing spatial location of the forest-savanna boundary. The authors conducted a long-term (1986-2006) quantification of vegetation change in a 5400 km(2) forest-savanna boundary area in central Cameroon. A c...
Article
Full-text available
Wildfires have major effects on forest dynamics, succession and the carbon cycle in the boreal biome. They are a significant source of carbon emissions, and current observed changes in wildfire regimes due to changes in climate could affect the balance of the boreal carbon pool. A better understanding of postwildfire vegetation dynamics in boreal f...
Article
Full-text available
EBONE (European Biodiversity Observation Network) is a project developing a system of biodiversity observation at regional, national and European levels as a contribution to European reporting on biodiversity. The project focuses on GEO (Group of Earth Observations) task BI 07-01 to unify many of the disparate biodiversity observing systems and cre...
Article
Full-text available
Environmental monitoring and assessment frequently require remote sensing techniques to be deployed. The production of higher level spatial data sets from remote sensing has often been driven by short-term funding constraints and specific information requirements by the funding agencies. As a result, a wide variety of historic data sets exist that...
Article
Full-text available
Disturbance events such as fire have major effects on forest dynamics, succession and the carbon cycle in the boreal biome. This paper focuses on establishing whether characteristic spatio‐temporal patterns of the fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (fAPAR) occur in the initial two years after a fire event in Siberian boreal fo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We explore the relative influence of biophysical drivers on phenology to assist validation and parameterization of Dynamic Global Vegetation Models. Using 6.8 years of MODIS data we created a vegetation index time series to map the spatial variability of vegetation phenology in the Amazon. TRMM and CERES data were used as a measure of two biophysic...
Article
The Habitat Directive is a an important policy instrument for nature conservation in order to avoid the further loss of important European habitats and to reduce the amount of pressures on these habitats. The set-up of a effective network of Natura 2000 sites is the most important goal of the the Habitat and Bird Directive. In order to test the pot...
Article
Full-text available
BIOPRESS – Linking pan‐European land cover change to pressures on biodiversity – is a European Community Framework 5 project, which aims to develop a standardised product that will link quantified historical (1950–2000) land cover change to pressures on biodiversity. It exploits archived historic and recent aerial photographs (a data source that ha...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A time series of 18 years of fAPAR (fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by the green parts of vegetation) data from the NOAA AVHRR instrument series was analyzed for interannual variations in the start, peak, end and length of the season of vegetation photosynthetic activity in Central and East Siberia. Variations in these indi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Boreal forests comprise one third of global forested area and are the largest terrestrial carbon store. Forest fires are the regions most dynamic disturbance factor, occurring mainly in Siberia, Russian Far East, Canada and Alaska, and these fires represent a globally important release of terrestrial carbon to the atmosphere, via the burning of veg...
Article
Full-text available
An 18-yr time series of the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR) taken in by the green parts of vegetation data from the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instrument series was analyzed for interannual variations in the start, peak, end, and length of the season of vegetation photosynthetic activity i...
Article
Full-text available
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Conference Paper
Full-text available
In 2004, the European community adopted a framework within which indicators could be identified to facilitate the assessment of progress towards the 2010 target for biodiversity and communication of this evaluation (EEA-ECNC 2004). A few indicators were considered ready for immediate use. However it was recognized that new indicators were required...
Article
The boreal forest contains almost half the total carbon pool of world forest ecosystems, and so has a very significant role in global biogeochemical cycles. The flux of greenhouse gases in and out of these forests is influenced strongly by disturbances such as diseases, logging and predominantly fire. It is important to quantify these disturbances...
Data
This is a document issuing from the project: Linking Pan-European Landcover Change to Pressures on Biodiversity (BIOPRESS); a project funded by the European Commission DG Research under the specific research and technological development programme “Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development” and the “Global Monitoring for the Environment and S...
Book
Land cover change in Europe from 1950'ies to 2000 presents part of the work carried out under the framework of the European project "Linking Pan-European Land Cover Change to Pressures on Biodiversity" (BIOPRESS). This book captures the changes in land cover which have been observed from aerial photography between the 1950'ies, 1990'ies and 2000 in...