Fouad Laoutid

Fouad Laoutid
Materia Nova · SMPC

PhD
- Vice-President of SFC thematic group. - Member of Editorial Board of the journal of renewable materials

About

98
Publications
21,179
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3,502
Citations
Citations since 2017
50 Research Items
2398 Citations
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500

Publications

Publications (98)
Article
Full-text available
Polypropylene (PP) is one of the most versatile polymers widely used in packaging, textiles, automotive, and electrical applications. Melt blending of PP with micro- and/or nano-fillers is a common approach for obtaining specific end-use characteristics and major enhancements of properties. The study aims to develop high-performance composites by f...
Article
Full-text available
The present study investigated the flame-retardant (FR) effect of transparent epoxy coating containing aluminum hypophosphite (AHP) nanoparticles (NPs) on polylactic acid (PLA) sheets used as a typical model of combustible polymeric material. First, AHP NPs (≤60 nm) were prepared by a specific two-stage wet milling process and deeply analyzed (morp...
Article
Full-text available
Nowadays, due to their natural availability, renewability, biodegradability, nontoxicity, light weight and relatively low cost, natural fibers, especially lignocellulosic fibers, present attractive potential to substitute non-eco-friendly synthetic fibers. In this study, Ziziphus jujuba fibers were used, thanks to their low lignin content, as an al...
Article
Full-text available
Biobased and biocompatible polymers, such as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), are of great interest for a large range of applications in the spirit of green chemistry and upcoming reuse and recycling strategies. Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), as a promising biocompatible polymer belonging to PHAs, is subject to increased research concern regarding the hig...
Article
Full-text available
Concerning new polylactide (PLA) applications, the study investigates the toughening of PLA–CaSO4 β-anhydrite II (AII) composites with bio-sourced tributyl citrate (TBC). The effects of 5–20 wt.% TBC were evaluated in terms of morphology, and mechanical and thermal properties, focusing on the enhancement of PLA crystallization and modification of g...
Article
Full-text available
The melt–mixing of polylactide (PLA) with micro- and/or nanofillers is a key method used to obtain specific end-use characteristics and improvements of properties. So-called “insoluble” CaSO4 (CS) β-anhydrite II (AII) is a mineral filler recently considered for the industry of polymer composites. First, the study proves that AII made from natural g...
Article
Active ethylene scavenging in fresh produce involves the use of adsorbers and oxidizers, such as, potassium permanganate, activated carbon, clays and zeolites, often integrated as sachets, labels, liners, or films. Although many studies have been done to develop novel ethylene scavengers, only a few of them have analyzed the ethylene removal kineti...
Article
The development of flame retardant polymer materials has two roots, one in materials design, and the other in materials processing. Over recent decades, different types and classes of flame retardant polymer materials have been commercialized to meet safety requirements in the construction, automotive, and coatings industries. In the vast majority...
Chapter
Very recently, China and India as the game changers of the world producing million tons of greenhouse gases have promised to invest up to 35% of their gross domestic product on global climate change before 2030. In line with such green policies, but starting more than 3 decades ago, research centers active in the field of materials sciences and eng...
Article
Full-text available
Vulcanized and devulcanized ground tire rubber microparticles have been used as a minor phase in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene copolymer (ABS) and thermoplastic polyolefins (TPO) for the development of materials with desired functionalities by 3D printing. These polymers have been selected because they (i) present part of the plastic waste genera...
Chapter
Bio-based and biodegradable natural polymers are experiencing ever-increasing attention because of being environmentally green and economically reasonable. In line with their quick development, however, efforts have continuously been paid to improve their poor mechanical properties and compatibility with other polymers or additives in multi-compone...
Article
Full-text available
Natural and synthetic rubber is gaining increased interest in various industrial applications and daily life sectors (automotive industry, acoustic and electrical isolators, adhesives, impermeable surfaces, and others) due to its remarkable physicomechanical properties, excellent durability, and abrasive resistance. These great characteristics are...
Article
A novel modified exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets (GNP-g-APP), resulting from grafting ammonium polyphosphate (APP) on exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets (GNP) was prepared and evaluated as flame retardant for ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA). The effect of modification on the thermal stability and flame retardancy of EVA was discussed. Therm...
Article
Full-text available
A highly efficient and stable heterogeneous catalyst was successfully prepared by anchoring palladium(0) onto melamine‐functionalized Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs‐Mel‐Pd). With the aid of amine functional groups, melamine was covalently bonded on epoxy functionalized magnetic nanoparticles and then Pd(0) was immobilized on this support with h...
Article
Fire safety has become a major concern due to the ubiquitous use of polymers. The development of flame retardant polymer materials has consequently experienced a huge growth in market size. New strategies and legislation have also been proposed to save lives and property. The science and economics of flame retardancy, fire regulations, and new tech...
Article
In this study, the effect of the chemical nature of different calcium (Ca)‐based minerals as flame retardant additives in combination with ammonium polyphosphate (APP), in 1:1 proportions, on the flame retardancy behavior and performance of ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer was discussed. Combining APP with partly and completely hydrated calcium oxi...
Article
This work reports on nonisothermal degradation kinetics of polyurethane (PU)‐based powder coatings containing 1, 3, and 5%wt% vinyltrimethoxysilane functionalized Al2O3 (V‐Al2O3) nanoparticles. Thermogravimetric analysis of PU/V‐Al2O3 powder coatings with different V‐Al2O3 contents has been performed at different heating rates. Variation of activat...
Article
The objective of this study was to develop multifunctional protective biocompatible (Cu, Zr)/a-C: H coatings with good mechanical properties and high corrosion resistance using a sputtering system on the surface of TC4 alloy. Coatings with a higher Zr/Cu ratio showed higher hardness, Young's modulus, and superior bio-corrosion resistance. It was de...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, a highly efficient flame-retardant bioplastic poly(lactide) was developed by covalently incorporating flame-retardant DOPO, that is, 9,10-dihydro-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide. To that end, a three-step strategy that combines the catalyzed ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of L,L-lactide (L,L-LA) in bulk from a pre-synthesized...
Article
A novel nanocomposite was prepared from ethylene-co-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) and poly-3-hydroxy butyrate-co-valerate (PHBV) in combination with small amounts of [60]Fullerene (C60). The thermal degradation as well as the incorporation effect of C60 on the thermo-oxidative decomposition of EVA/PHBV/C60 nanocomposites was investigated using ther...
Article
Properties of thermoset nanocomposites are dependent on cross-link density of resin network. Surface modification was known as the main solution to nanoparticle aggregation problem. Although surface modification can assist in reaction between curing moieties, tuning cross-link density of network remains as a challenge for desired properties. In thi...
Article
Full-text available
The present study investigates the effect of using lignin at nanoscale as new flame-retardant additive for polylactide (PLA). Lignin nanoparticles (LNP) were prepared from Kraft lignin microparticles (LMP) through a dissolution-precipitation process. Both micro and nano lignins were functionalized using diethyl chlorophosphate (LMP-diEtP and LNP-di...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, calcium hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles have attracted a lot of research inter- est in different sectors: food, packaging, health, automotive construction and food application. In the present study, we report development of bio-material calcium hydroxide nanoparticles (Ceg-Ca(OH)2), obtained from chicken eggshell collected...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we evaluated the interest of combining magnesium hydroxide (MDH) and lignin for developing complementary flame retardant actions in poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA). Lignin was selected owing to its char forming ability thatwas supposed to reinforce the endothermic effect provided by MDH. The effect of lignin chemical modificati...
Article
Disposal of plastics in the form of discarded scrap or waste is an environmental nightmare to the developed and under-developing countries. In this sense, modern technologies are every day growing; meanwhile recycling wastes are taking credit for higher performance to pave the way towards a cleaner planet. Recycling of polymer blends is associated...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, tannic acid (TA) was investigated as flame retardant agent for PLA. Different strategies to modify its thermal degradation pathway have been explored in order to improve its charring effect. The first one consists in combining TA with organomodified montmorillonite (oMMT), and enables limiting the thermo-oxidative degradation of TA a...
Article
A novel bio‐based nitrogen‐rich and phosphorus‐rich flame retardant (Phyt/PEI‐TA) was synthesized and characterized by Fourier transform infrared, inductively coupled plasma, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Thermal degradation and flame retardant properties of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) containing 20 wt% Phyt/PEI‐TA were investigated by TGA, con...
Article
There was a hope that highly reactive nanoparticles would strongly facilitate crosslinking in epoxy-amine systems. In this work, silica (SiO2) nanoparticles are physically modified with poly(ethyleneimine) as surface modifier. The SiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized and physically decorated with poly(ethyleneimine), then the untreated and surface-t...
Article
Full-text available
Due to its variable botanical origin, functionality, reactivity, and heterogeneity, using lignin in industrial application is not an easy task. In the present study, we investigate the effect of lignin fractionation as a simple way for reducing the variability in its properties. Kraft lignin was separated by ultrafiltration membranes in two fractio...
Article
A novel bio-based flame retardant was synthesized for poly(lactic acid) (PLA) by inclusion of hydroxyapatite and lignocellulose and characterized, then put into practice. Hydroxyapatite-modified lignocellulose was prepared via in-situ synthesis of hydroxyapatite in the presence of lignocellulose. The chemical structure and thermal degradation behav...
Article
Full-text available
A new halogen-free flame retardant was developed by integrating β-cyclodextrin, triazin ring, and nanohydroxyapatite (BSDH) into a hybrid system. A β-cyclodextrin was grafted to a commercially available SABO®STAB UV94 via an aromatic deanhydrate. The BSDH was prepared in situ in the presence of β-cyclodextrin-grafted nitrogen-rich precursor. The re...
Article
Nowadays, researchers working in the realm of coating or related industries are expected to propose novel materials with multifunctional capabilities. In this work, novel nanocomposites based on poly(ethylene-co-vinyl-acetate) (EVA) copolymer, hydroxyapatite (HA), carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and ammonium polyphosphate (APP) are proposed and examined fo...
Article
In this study, we developed a simple, fast and low-cost method for the preparation of lamellar calcium hydroxide particles (Ceg-Ca(OH)2) from chicken eggshell (Ceg) waste. The flame-retardant effect of these particles has been evaluated into ethylene vinyl acetate copolymers (EVA) alone or in combination with zinc borate (ZnB). The incorporation of...
Conference Paper
Seeking forever greener materials, the use of bio-resources for developing flame retardant systems has roused a growing interest in the last few years. Bio-based polyphenols such as lignin has already attracted interest as sustainable flame retardant for polymers. Its structure containing aromatic cycles provides lignin with the ability to improve...
Article
Fire retardancy of polymeric materials is a subject of major preoccupation due to the need to minimize fire risk and meet fire safety requirements. Numerous efficient conventional flame retardants based on halogen, mineral, and other compounds have been developed. However, some of these compounds, particularly halogen flame retardants, are harmful...
Article
Lignin and phytic acid combinations were used as a simple route for developing bio-based flame retardant systems in PLA. The composites were prepared by melt blending and their mechanical, thermal and fire properties have been explored. Combining these two additives has been shown to present an interesting way of limiting the negative effect of eac...
Conference Paper
Seeking forever greener materials, the use of bio-resources for developing flame retardant (FR) systems has roused a growing interest in the last few years. Lignin is a highly aromatic biopolymer that present the second most abundant constituent of the biomass, has already attracted interest as sustainable flame retardant for polymer. Its structure...
Article
The flame retardant effect of hydrated lime, partially and completely hydrated dolomitic limes in polyethylene and ethylene vinyl acetate copolymers was evaluated and compared to that of magnesium hydroxide and aluminium hydroxide. An important decrease of the peak of heat release rate as measured by cone calorimeter test was observed for Ca-based...
Article
The present study focuses on the use of lignin, which is the second most abundant constituent of the biomass, as sustainable flame retardant additive for polylactide (PLA). Indeed, thanks to its aromatic structure, lignin could be advantageously used, in polymeric matrices, as a char promotor agent that can allow some reduction of the combustion ra...
Article
The effectiveness of hydrophobically modified nanosilica (NS) as interfacial modifying agent for immiscible polymer blends is evaluated. Blends of polypropylene (PP) with 20% of polyamide 6 (PA) and 5% hydrophobic NS were prepared by melt mixing. Compression molded sheets and extruded films were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, transmissi...
Article
In this study, we evaluated the potential flame retardant effect of different metallic phytates as biosourced phosphorous additives for poly(lactic acid) (PLA). Starting from sodium phytate, the sodium cations were replaced by aluminum, iron or lanthanum cations as attested by elemental analysis. PLA-metallic phytate composites containing 20 or 30...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Polylactide (PLA), i.e., a bio-renewable aliphatic polyester, is more and more used in technical applications for which high fire resistance properties are generally required. Fireproofing of bio-based polymers with additives also issued from the biomass is currently an active research subject. As far as PLA is concerned, it is well established tha...
Article
In this work, we have investigated the effect of the incorporation of alumina nanoparticles on the mechanical properties of polyamide 6/polycarbonate (PA6/PC) blends. Nanocomposites were prepared through melt processing using both unreactive and reactive surface-treated alumina nanoparticles. Simple PA6/PC blend comprising 20 wt% of PA6 showed duct...
Chapter
The realization of special formulations of biopolymers characterized by flame retardancy significantly enlarges their potential for utilization in engineering sectors while reducing the environmental impact. The production of nanocomposites using nanofillers of different morphologies, associated or not associated with traditional flame retardants (...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The effect of adding 5% of a hydrophobic nanosilica (NS) on the crystallization and tensile properties of PP and PP rich blends (80%) with polyamide 6 (PA6) or polycarbonate (PC) were studied. Upon evaluating the phase morphology of the blends by electron microscopy an "emulsifier" effect of the NS was verified since the size of the dispersed phase...
Data
Full-text available
The realization of special formulations of biopolymers characterized by flame retardancy significantly enlarges their potential for utilization in engineering sectors while reducing the environmental impact. The production of nanocomposites using nanofillers of different morphologies, associated or not associated with traditional flame retardants (...
Article
The effect of adding 5% of a hydrophobic nanosilica (NS) on the crystallization and tensile properties of PP and PP rich blends (80%) with polyamide 6 (PA6) or polycarbonate (PC) were studied. Upon evaluating the phase morphology of the blends by electron microscopy an "emulsifier" effect of the NS was verified since the size of the dispersed phase...
Article
Full-text available
The influence of the incorporation of polyamide-6 (PA) and natural sepiolite nanoparticles on both the thermal degradation and fire behaviour of polypropylene (PP) matrix has been investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and mass loss calorimetry. For that purpose, PP/PA blends and nanocomposites thereof were prepared by melt processing. TG...
Article
In this study, we evaluated the potential flame retardant effect of calcium-based hydrated minerals, such as hydrated lime, partially and completely hydrated dolomitic limes in polyethylene (MDPE) and ethylene vinyl acetate copolymers (EVA) and compared to that obtained with magnesium di-hydroxide (MDH). The most significant flame retardant effects...
Conference Paper
Resumen En el presente trabajo se estudió el efecto de la adición de 5% de una nanosílice (NS) hidrofóbica sobre la cristalización y propiedades tensiles del PP y de mezclas ricas de éste (80%) con poliamida 6 (/PA) o con policarbonato (PC). Al evaluar la morfología de fase de las mezclas por microscopía electrónica se verificó el efecto “emulsific...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the present work, the effect of adding 5% of a hydrophobic nanosilica (NS) on the crystallization and tensile properties of PP and PP rich blends (80%) with polyamide 6 (PA) or polycarbonate (PC) were studied. Upon evaluating the phase morphology of the blends by electron microscopy an "emulsifier" effect of the NS was verified since the size of...
Article
Full-text available
In addition to very good flame retardant properties, comparable to those provided by MDH and ATH, the Ca-Mg based fillers have also been proven to be responsible for the formation of a cohesive residue after the polymer composition combustion. This cohesive mineral residue is formed through a chemical reaction between the filler and the gases relea...
Article
The effect of hydrophilic and hydrophobic nanosilica on the morphological, mechanical and thermal properties of polyamide 6 (PA) and poly(propylene) (PP) blends is investigated by extrusion compounding. Depending on the difference between the polymer/nanoparticle interfacial tensions, different morphologies are obtained as highlighted by TEM and SE...
Article
The influence of the incorporation of hydrophobic nanosilica on morphological and mechanical properties of polyamide 6 (PA) and poly(propylene) (PP) blends has been investigated. Depending on the amount of silica nanoparticles in the blend and the melt mixing procedure, a strong refinement of PP (as minor dispersed phase) droplet size can be achiev...
Article
Full-text available
Several copolyesters were synthesized from carboxytelechelic poly(-caprolactone) and bis(2-hydroxyethyl)terephthalate (BHET), using a two-step method and a one-step method providing regular and random distributions of starting comonomers in the copolyester chains, respectively. Even with an identical molar comonomer composition, the properties of o...
Article
The influence of magnesiumdihydroxide (MDH) nanoparticles on thermal degradation and fire behavior of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) has been investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), cone calorimeter, and pyrolysis combustion flow calorimeter (PCFC) tests, respectively. MDH nanoparticles with either lamellar or fibrous shape have been sy...
Chapter
IntroductionCombustion and Flame Retardancy of PolymersLaboratory Fire TestingFlame Retardant AdditivesSynergistic Effects of Fillers with Flame Retardant AdditivesConclusion AcknowledgementsReferences
Article
The flammability of various flame‐retarded formulations containing different hydrated mineral fillers and/or phosphorous compounds and/or carbon nanotubes has been investigated using both a cone calorimeter and a pyrolysis combustion flow calorimeter (PCFC). A method was proposed to evaluate the barrier effect of the flame retardant additives. This...