Fosca Giannotti

Fosca Giannotti
Italian National Research Council | CNR · Institute of Information Science and Technology "Alessandro Faedo" ISTI

About

311
Publications
129,605
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13,541
Citations
Citations since 2016
99 Research Items
9511 Citations
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (311)
Article
Full-text available
The cultural integration of immigrants conditions their overall socio-economic integration as well as natives’ attitudes towards globalisation in general and immigration in particular. At the same time, excessive integration—or assimilation—can be detrimental in that it implies forfeiting one’s ties to the origin country and eventually translates i...
Chapter
Many dimensionality reduction methods have been introduced to map a data space into one with fewer features and enhance machine learning models’ capabilities. This reduced space, called latent space, holds properties that allow researchers to understand the data better and produce better models. This work proposes an interpretable latent space that...
Preprint
Full-text available
In recent years, Graph Neural Networks have reported outstanding performance in tasks like community detection, molecule classification and link prediction. However, the black-box nature of these models prevents their application in domains like health and finance, where understanding the models' decisions is essential. Counterfactual Explanations...
Preprint
Full-text available
Superdiversity refers to large cultural diversity in a population due to immigration. In this paper, we introduce a superdiversity index based on the changes in the emotional content of words used by a multi-cultural community, compared to the standard language. To compute our index we use Twitter data and we develop an algorithm to extend a dictio...
Chapter
Today, many users are actively using Twitter to express their opinions and to share information. Thanks to the availability of the data, researchers have studied behaviours and social networks of these users. International migration studies have also benefited from this social media platform to improve migration statistics. Although diverse types o...
Article
Full-text available
Peace is a principal dimension of well-being and is the way out of inequity and violence. Thus, its measurement has drawn the attention of researchers, policymakers, and peacekeepers. During the last years, novel digital data streams have drastically changed the research in this field. The current study exploits information extracted from a new dig...
Preprint
Full-text available
A key issue in critical contexts such as medical diagnosis is the interpretability of the deep learning models adopted in decision-making systems. Research in eXplainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) is trying to solve this issue. However, often XAI approaches are only tested on generalist classifier and do not represent realistic problems such as...
Article
Full-text available
The rapid dynamics of COVID-19 calls for quick and effective tracking of virus transmission chains and early detection of outbreaks, especially in the “phase 2” of the pandemic, when lockdown and other restriction measures are progressively withdrawn, in order to avoid or minimize contagion resurgence. For this purpose, contact-tracing apps are bei...
Article
Full-text available
The digital revolution has brought about many societal changes such as the creation of “smart cities”. The smart city concept has changed the urban ecosystem by embedding digital technologies in the city fabric to enhance the quality of life of its inhabitants. However, it has also led to some pressing issues and challenges related to data, privacy...
Article
Full-text available
Increased availability of epidemiological data, novel digital data streams, and the rise of powerful machine learning approaches have generated a surge of research activity on real-time epidemic forecast systems. In this paper, we propose the use of a novel data source, namely retail market data to improve seasonal influenza forecasting. Specifical...
Article
Full-text available
A correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s41060-021-00260-6
Preprint
Full-text available
Peacefulness is a principal dimension of well-being for all humankind and is the way out of inequity and every single form of violence. Thus, its measurement has lately drawn the attention of researchers and policy-makers. During the last years, novel digital data streams have drastically changed the research in this field. In the current study, we...
Chapter
The last decade has witnessed the rise of a black box society where obscure classification models are adopted by Artificial Intelligence systems (AI). The lack of explanations of how AI systems make decisions is a key ethical issue to their adoption in socially sensitive and safety-critical contexts. Indeed, the problem is not only for lack of tran...
Article
Full-text available
How can big data help to understand the migration phenomenon? In this paper, we try to answer this question through an analysis of various phases of migration, comparing traditional and novel data sources and models at each phase. We concentrate on three phases of migration, at each phase describing the state of the art and recent developments and...
Article
Full-text available
The exponential increase in the availability of large-scale mobility data has fueled the vision of smart cities that will transform our lives. The truth is that we have just scratched the surface of the research challenges that should be tackled in order to make this vision a reality. Consequently, there is an increasing interest among different re...
Article
Full-text available
This paper shows data science’s potential for disruptive innovation in science, industry, policy, and people’s lives. We present how data science impacts science and society at large in the coming years, including ethical problems in managing human behavior data and considering the quantitative expectations of data science economic impact. We intro...
Preprint
Today, many users are actively using Twitter to express their opinions and to share information. Thanks to the availability of the data, researchers have studied behaviours and social networks of these users. International migration studies have also benefited from this social media platform to improve migration statistics. Although diverse types o...
Chapter
“Tell me what you eat and I will tell you what you are”. Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin was among the firsts to recognize the relationship between identity and food consumption. Food adoption choices are much less exposed to external judgment and social pressure than other individual behaviours, and can be observed over a long period. That makes the...
Preprint
The widespread adoption of black-box models in Artificial Intelligence has enhanced the need for explanation methods to reveal how these obscure models reach specific decisions. Retrieving explanations is fundamental to unveil possible biases and to resolve practical or ethical issues. Nowadays, the literature is full of methods with different expl...
Preprint
The cultural integration of immigrants conditions their overall socio-economic integration as well as natives' attitudes towards globalisation in general and immigration in particular. At the same time, excessive integration -- or acculturation -- can be detrimental in that it implies forfeiting one's ties to the home country and eventually transla...
Chapter
Modern AI systems have become of widespread use in almost all sectors with a strong impact on our society. However, the very methods on which they rely, based on Machine Learning techniques for processing data to predict outcomes and to make decisions, are opaque, prone to bias and may produce wrong answers. Objective functions optimized in learnin...
Article
Full-text available
Artificial Intelligence (AI) has come to prominence as one of the major components of our society, with applications in most aspects of our lives. In this field, complex and highly nonlinear machine learning models such as ensemble models, deep neural networks, and Support Vector Machines have consistently shown remarkable accuracy in solving compl...
Preprint
Full-text available
Artificial Intelligence (AI) has come to prominence as one of the major components of our society, with applications in most aspects of our lives. In this field, complex and highly nonlinear machine learning models such as ensemble models, deep neural networks, and Support Vector Machines have consistently shown remarkable accuracy in solving compl...
Preprint
Full-text available
Increased availability of epidemiological data, novel digital data streams, and the rise of powerful machine learning approaches have generated a surge of research activity on real-time epidemic forecast systems. In this paper, we propose the use of a novel data source, namely retail market data to improve seasonal influenza forecasting. Specifical...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Peacefulness is a principal dimension of well-being, and its measurement has lately drawn the attention of researchers and policy-makers. During the last years, novel digital data streams have drastically changed research in this field. In the current study, we exploit information extracted from Global Data on Events, Location, and Tone (GDELT) dig...
Preprint
Full-text available
We describe in this report our studies to understand the relationship between human mobility and the spreading of COVID-19, as an aid to manage the restart of the social and economic activities after the lockdown and monitor the epidemics in the coming weeks and months. We compare the evolution (from January to May 2020) of the daily mobility flows...
Preprint
Full-text available
Understanding collective mobility patterns is crucial to plan the restart of production and economic activities, which are currently put in stand-by to fight the diffusion of the epidemics. In this report, we use mobile phone data to infer the movements of people between Italian provinces and municipalities, and we analyze the incoming, outcoming a...
Chapter
Full-text available
Studying migration using traditional data has some limitations. To date, there have been several studies proposing innovative methodologies to measure migration stocks and flows from social big data. Nevertheless, a uniform definition of a migrant is difficult to find as it varies from one work to another depending on the purpose of the study and n...
Preprint
Full-text available
The rapid dynamics of COVID-19 calls for quick and effective tracking of virus transmission chains and early detection of outbreaks, especially in the phase 2 of the pandemic, when lockdown and other restriction measures are progressively withdrawn, in order to avoid or minimize contagion resurgence. For this purpose, contact-tracing apps are being...
Article
The rapid dynamics of COVID-19 calls for quick and effective tracking of virus transmission chains and early detection of outbreaks, especially in the “phase 2” of the pandemic, when lockdown and other restriction measures are progressively withdrawn, in order to avoid or minimize contagion resurgence. For this purpose, contact-tracing apps are bei...
Book
This volume constitutes the proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Social Informatics, SocInfo 2020, held in Pisa, Italy, in October 2020. The 30 full and 3 short papers presented in these proceedings were carefully reviewed and selected from 99 submissions. The papers presented in this volume cover a broad range of topics, ranging fro...
Article
The rise of sophisticated machine learning models has brought accurate but obscure decision systems, which hide their logic, thus undermining transparency, trust, and the adoption of AI in socially sensitive and safety-critical contexts. We introduce a local rule-based explanation method providing faithful explanations of the decision made by a bla...
Article
The availability of mobile phone data has encouraged the development of different data-driven tools, supporting social science studies and providing new data sources to the standard official statistics. However, this particular kind of data are subject to privacy concerns because they can enable the inference of personal and private information. In...
Article
Full-text available
Nowadays, a hot challenge for supermarket chains is to offer personalized services to their customers. Market basket prediction, i.e., supplying the customer a shopping list for the next purchase according to her current needs, is one of these services. Current approaches are not capable of capturing at the same time the different factors influenci...
Article
Full-text available
Soccer analytics is attracting increasing interest in academia and industry, thanks to the availability of sensing technologies that provide high-fidelity data streams for every match. Unfortunately, these detailed data are owned by specialized companies and hence are rarely publicly available for scientific research. To fill this gap, this paper d...
Presentation
Full-text available
Creating ranking of players through data-driven evaluations of performance is becoming more and more central in the soccer industry. However, measuring performance of players via data-driven tools means computing proper scores that quantify the quality of a player’s performance in a specific match or a series of matches. This is a complex task sinc...
Article
Full-text available
The problem of evaluating the performance of soccer players is attracting the interest of many companies and the scientific community, thanks to the availability of massive data capturing all the events generated during a match (e.g., tackles, passes, shots, etc.). Unfortunately, there is no consolidated and widely accepted metric for measuring per...
Chapter
We explore various means of quantifying integration using two of the D4R Challenge datasets. We propose various integration indices and discuss their output. We combine the data from the D4R Challenge with data from the GDELT Project and with data on transactions on the housing market in Turkey. We also describe research directions to be undertaken...
Article
Black box AI systems for automated decision making, often based on machine learning over (big) data, map a user’s features into a class or a score without exposing the reasons why. This is problematic not only for lack of transparency, but also for possible biases inherited by the algorithms from human prejudices and collection artifacts hidden in...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we investigate the regularities characterizing the temporal purchasing behavior of the customers of a retail market chain. Most of the literature studying purchasing behavior focuses on what customers buy while giving few importance to the temporal dimension. As a consequence, the state of the art does not allow capturing which are th...
Article
Full-text available
Most people have become “big data” producers in their daily life. Our desires, opinions, sentiments, social links as well as our mobile phone calls and GPS track leave traces of our behaviours. To transform these data into knowledge, value is a complex task of data science. This paper shows how the SoBigData Research Infrastructure supports data sc...
Article
Full-text available
Ideas, information, viruses: all of them, with their mechanisms, spread over the complex social information, viruses: all tissues described by our interpersonal relations. Usually, to simulate and understand the unfolding of such complex phenomena are used general mathematical models; these models act agnostically from the object of which they simu...
Article
Full-text available
The new data sources give the possibility to answer analytically the questions that arise from mobility manager. The process of transforming raw data into knowledge is very complex, and it is necessary to provide metaphors of visualizations that are understandable to decision makers. Here, we propose an analytical platform that extracts information...
Article
Globalization can lead to a growing standardization of musical contents. Using a cross-service multi-level dataset we investigate the actual Italian music scene. The investigation highlights the musical Italian superdiversity both individually analyzing the geographical and lexical dimensions and combining them. Using different kinds of features ov...
Article
Full-text available
Data describing human activities are an important source of knowledge useful for understanding individual and collective behavior and for developing a wide range of user services. Unfortunately, this kind of data is sensitive, because people’s whereabouts may allow re-identification of individuals in a de-identified database. Therefore, Data Provid...
Preprint
Full-text available
Black box systems for automated decision making, often based on machine learning over (big) data, map a user's features into a class or a score without exposing the reasons why. This is problematic not only for lack of transparency, but also for possible biases hidden in the algorithms, due to human prejudices and collection artifacts hidden in the...
Preprint
Full-text available
The recent years have witnessed the rise of accurate but obscure decision systems which hide the logic of their internal decision processes to the users. The lack of explanations for the decisions of black box systems is a key ethical issue, and a limitation to the adoption of machine learning components in socially sensitive and safety-critical co...
Conference Paper
This work deals with quantifying skills use, reading, writing, numeracy, and ICT, at work and at home. It aims at contributing to the debate on developing policies transforming "better skills in better jobs, social inclusion and economic growth". Thanks to data collected by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), we can ob...
Conference Paper
One of the most pressing and fascinating challenges scientists face today, is understanding the complexity of our globally interconnected society. The big data arising from the digital breadcrumbs of human activities has the potential of providing a powerful social microscope, which can help us understand many complex and hidden socio-economic phen...
Article
Full-text available
The flow of information reaching us via the online media platforms is optimized not by the information content or relevance but by popularity and proximity to the target. This is typically performed in order to maximise platform usage. As a side effect, this introduces an algorithmic bias that is believed to enhance polarization of the societal deb...
Chapter
Everyday, ideas, information as well as viruses spread over complex social tissues described by our interpersonal relations. So far, the network contexts upon which diffusive phenomena unfold have usually been considered static, composed by a fixed set of nodes and edges. Recent studies describe social networks as rapidly changing topologies. In th...