Forrest Michael Meggers

Forrest Michael Meggers
Princeton University | PU · School of Architecture

Dr sc ETH

About

116
Publications
46,349
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
1,387
Citations
Introduction
Dr. Forrest Meggers currently works at Princeton University as an associate professor with tenure. He is jointly appointed faculty in the School of Architecture and in the engineering school at the Andlinger Center for Energy and the Environment. Forrest has degrees in Environmental Engineering and Mechanical Engineering with a doctorate in Architecture. His current research revolves around low exergy systems related to radiant heat transfer, desiccant dehumidification and geothermal exchange

Publications

Publications (116)
Article
Full-text available
It is widely accepted that most people spend the majority of their lives indoors. Most individuals do not realize that while indoors, roughly half of heat exchange affecting their thermal comfort is in the form of thermal infrared radiation. We show that while researchers have been aware of its thermal comfort significance over the past century, sy...
Article
Advancements in multi-agent, autonomous, and intelligent robotic systems over the past decades point toward new design and fabrication possibilities. Exploring how humans and robots can create and construct collectively is essential in leveraging robotic technology in the building sector. However, only by making existing knowledge from relevant tec...
Article
Full-text available
Cooling a sample of a material until condensation is observed is a standard technique for accurately measuring the dewpoint and associated relative humidity in a volume. When conducting an experiment with a membrane-assisted radiant cooling panel, we found that membrane surface temperatures were difficult to measure directly. Instead, the onset of...
Article
Full-text available
Urban building energy modeling is an important field in the current decade due to the rising rate of urbanization, specifically in developing countries. The UN environment is promoting urban level space cooling approaches in the upcoming smart cities of India. Rourkela is a tier-2 steel township included within the ‘smart city’ mission in India and...
Article
Full-text available
In November 2018, following the Grenfell Tower tragedy in London, the Ministry of Housing, Communities & Local Government (MHCLG) introduced an amendment to the Building Regulations 2010, which outlined stricter rules banning the use of combustible materials defined by the new Building Regulation 7(2). This change had a significant impact since ear...
Article
A data-driven simulation technique is proposed for the calculation of the 3-dimensional radiant temperature distribution across a room with the aid of a ray tracing method. The proposed simulation accounts for interreflections of radiant heat fluxes from surfaces reflective in the longwave range within the indoor environment. The simulation provide...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A radiatively cooled translucent building skin is developed for desert climates, constructed out of pockets of high heat-capacity liquids. The liquids are contained by a wavelength-selective membrane enclosure, which is transmissive in the infrared range of electromagnetic radiation but reflective in the shortwave range, and therefore prevents over...
Article
Radiant cooling-assisted natural ventilation is an innovative technical approach that combines new radiant cooling technology with natural ventilation to increase fresh air delivery into buildings year-round with minimal energy cost and improves air quality. Currently, the standard paradigm for HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) is ba...
Article
Instruments measuring the outdoor radiant environment are limited spatially. They aggregate observations to singular points, eliminating variations from surrounding surface temperatures. Computational methods can characterize the heterogeneous outdoor radiant environment, but spatial validation with accurate tools remains difficult. We use two nove...
Article
Full-text available
This research proposes the use of membrane-assisted radiant panels to improve the thermal comfort of naturally ventilated spaces in hot and humid climates. These radiant panels are capable of conditioning naturally ventilated spaces, which is impractical with conventional mechanical cooling systems. For conventional systems, a permeable envelope wi...
Article
This research proposes the use of membrane-assisted radiant panels to improve the thermal comfort of naturally ventilated spaces in hot and humid climates. These radiant panels are capable of conditioning naturally ventilated spaces, which is impractical with conventional mechanical cooling systems. For conventional systems, a permeable envelope wi...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes an open data set of 3,053 energy meters from 1,636 non-residential buildings with a range of two full years (2016 and 2017) at an hourly frequency (17,544 measurements per meter resulting in approximately 53.6 million measurements). These meters were collected from 19 sites across North America and Europe, with one or more mete...
Article
Full-text available
We present results of a radiant cooling system that made the hot and humid tropical climate of Singapore feel cool and comfortable. Thermal radiation exchange between occupants and surfaces in the built environment can augment thermal comfort. The lack of widespread commercial adoption of radiant-cooling technologies is due to two widely held views...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper describes an open data set of 3,053 energy meters from 1,636 non-residential buildings with a range of two full years (2016 and 2017) at an hourly frequency (17,544 measurements per meter resulting in approximately 53.6 million measurements). These meters are collected from 19 sites across North America and Europe, and they measure elect...
Article
Full-text available
Scaling current cereal production to a growing global population will be a challenge. Wheat supplies approximately one-fifth of the calories and protein for human diets. Vertical farming is a possible promising option for increasing future wheat production. Here we show that wheat grown on a single hectare of land in a 10-layer indoor vertical faci...
Article
Full-text available
In this research we have developed a 3D city model of Princeton University campus for the Campus as Lab (CAL) program using openly available 3D data. The sources include the official open data portal from the United States Geological Survey, OpenStreetMap and Google Maps. The 3D city model is used as a tool for visualizing and analyzing multidiscip...
Article
Full-text available
A roof aperture lined with hydrogel membrane is proposed for combined evaporative and radiative cooling in the desert climate. In order to determine the design, materials and predicted performance of this device, several types of digital simulations and physical experiments were performed. The proposed full-scale prototype, planned to be built and...
Article
Full-text available
Thermal radiation, being the infrared spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, shares many characteristics with visible light, and thus is highly dependent on surface geometry. Much research effort has been dedicated to characterizing the behavior of visible light in the built environment and its impact on the human experience of space. However, long...
Article
Full-text available
Dynamic solar shading has the potential to dramatically reduce the energy consumption in buildings while at the same time improving the thermal and visual comfort of its occupants. Many new typologies of shading systems that have appeared recently, but it is difficult to compare those new systems to existing typologies due to control algorithm bein...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this paper, we present results from a world-first radiant cooling pavilion, demonstrating a method of cooling people without cooling the air. Instead, surfaces are chilled and thermal radiation is used to keep people cool. A thermally-transparent membrane is used to prevent unwanted air cooling and condensation, a required precursor to deploying...
Preprint
In this paper, we present results from a world-first radiant cooling pavilion, demonstrating a method of cooling people without cooling the air. Instead, surfaces are chilled and thermal radiation is used to keep people cool. A thermally-transparent membrane is used to prevent unwanted air cooling and condensation, a required precursor to deploying...
Article
Full-text available
For thermal comfort research, globe thermometers have become the de facto tool for mean radiant temperature, tr, measurement. They provide a quick means to survey the radiant environment in a space with nearly a century of trials to reassure researchers. However, as more complexity is introduced to built environments, we must reassess the accuracy...
Article
Full-text available
To better understand the extent of how the air temperature and mean radiant temperature may vary both spatially and temporally in a radiantly heated space, we conducted a seven-day experiment in the architectural laboratory at School of Architecture, Princeton University. The primary intent of this paper was to decouple the measurement of the air t...
Article
Full-text available
For full access (before February 12, 2020), visit https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1aHm21M7zG%7EOya
Article
Full-text available
Air conditioning demand is projected to increase rapidly over the next 50 years, particularly in already hot and humid climates. Radiant cooling can be an energy efficient strategy to mitigate comfort energy demand with high air temperatures, thereby reducing both sensible and latent loads in spaces. We have built an outdoor radiant cooling pavilio...
Article
Full-text available
In a conventional indoor environment, thermal comfort is supplied by an air based distribution system. This system is controlled by an air temperature (and occasionally humidity) sensor, and the role of radiation in thermal comfort is often overlooked. In a typical indoor environment, slightly less than half of the heat occupants shed to maintain t...
Article
Full-text available
Architectural surfaces constantly emit radiant heat fluxes to their surroundings, a phenomenon that is wholly dependent on their geometry and material properties. Therefore, the capacity of 3D scanning techniques to capture the geometry of building surfaces should be extended to sense and capture the surfaces' thermal behavior in real time. We pres...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The IEA EBC Annex 64 – LowEx Communities was a three year international research project which aims to demonstrate the potentials of low exergy thinking on a community level as energy and cost efficient solutions to achieve 100 % renewable and GHG emission-free energy systems. Central challenges are the identification of promising and efficient tec...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The inherent geometric and material dependence of radiant heat transfer can be leveraged to improve system efficiency and thermal comfort. Unlike in air-based systems, non-uniform temperature distribution can be highly controlled and beneficial in radiant systems, where temperature perception can be manipulated locally. An experiment was devised wi...
Preprint
Full-text available
For thermal comfort research, globe thermometers have become the de facto tool for mean radiant temperature, tr, measure- ment. They provide a quick means to survey the radiant environment in a space with nearly a century of trials to reassure researchers. However, as more complexity is introduced to built environments, particularly with radiant he...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present a makeover of the psychrometric chart using a new color-shading method that allows the chart to be considered comfortable based on the variation of non-air related comfort parameters such as mean radiant temperature, air movement, and the transitional behavior of occupants. These representations allows us to think outside the thermal com...
Article
We can use the concept of exergy to analyze a human body as a heat emitter: while generating heat continuously, the body remains at roughly the same temperature through physiological responses such as shivering, sweating, breathing thus raising/decreasing the core and/or skin temperature to maintain effective heat dissipation. Existing literature p...
Article
Borehole heat exchangers (BHEs) are often used to harvest geothermal energy at shallower depths. The standard increase in temperature with depth is generally ignored. Without high quality electricity generation as with enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) there is a lack of financial incentive for drilling deeper for higher temperatures. This temperat...
Article
Although passive building envelope systems dominate contemporary building design, active building envelope (ABE) research, development, and deployment are rapidly growing and present many new ways to address building energy efficiency at the façade level. This paper presents a comprehensive review on the state-of-art-research on ABEs for improving...
Article
In this study, we enhance the understanding and design of a radiant cooling technology for outdoor comfort in tropical climates, originally proposed by R.N. Morse in 1963, in this journal. We investigate a type of radiant cooling methodology whereby the cold temperature source is physically separated from the outdoor environment by an insulated enc...
Article
The globe thermometer has been considered a reliable instrument to quantify mean radiant temperature (MRT) since Bedford & Warner isolated its readings from air movement in their 1934 paper so that radiation could be quantified. Recent expanded use of radiant heating and cooling systems has presented new challenges for the usage of globe thermomete...
Article
Full-text available
Discouraged by the high-cost and lack of connectivity of indoor air quality (iAQ) measurement equipment, we built a platform that would allow us to investigate what kinds of iAQ evolution information could be collected by a low-cost, distributed sensor network. Our platform measures a variety of iAQ metrics (CO2, HCHO, volatile organic compounds, N...
Technical Report
LowEx Communities - Optimised Performance of Energy Supply Systems with Exergy Principles
Article
Full-text available
The satisfaction of occupants with an indoor environment supplied by a conventional central VAV air-conditioning system was compared to a novel system represented by decentralized ventilation units and a network of passive chilled beams. In parallel with occupant survey measurement of indoor air quality (IAQ) parameters was conducted with the devel...
Article
Full-text available
This study focuses on the inference of characteristic data from a data set of 507 non-residential buildings. A two-step framework is presented that extracts statistical, model-based, and pattern-based behavior. The goal of the framework is to reduce the expert intervention needed to utilize measured raw data in order to infer information such as bu...
Article
In order to deal with corrosion, crossover and desiccant utilization issues encountered in commercially available liquid desiccant systems, we develop and characterize the performance of a hydrophilic nonporous membrane-based liquid desiccant absorber. The liquid desiccant is an alkoxylated siloxane mixture, a modified silicone oil for enhanced moi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Synopsis The given study explores the potential of centralized cooling systems applicable to mass housing complexes in community as compared to the pre-existing split air conditioning systems. The study then investigates institutional mechanisms towards implementing such centralized cooling systems in high density mass housing stock for developing...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Maintaining the thermal comfort of building occupants is a challenge typically negotiated by air based heating and cooling systems that rigidly maintain supply air temperatures and humidity levels. Such a practice overlooks several other design variables, including the mean radiant temperature, TMRT , which is responsible for a significant portion...
Article
Full-text available
As of 2015, there are over 60 million smart meters installed in the United States; these meters are at the forefront of big data ana-lytics in the building industry. However, only a few public data sources of hourly non-residential meter data exist for the purpose of testing algorithms. This paper describes the collection, cleaning, and compilation...
Article
Full-text available
Geothermal energy is commonly harvested at either shallower depth (below 150ft/45.72m) for residential purposes (with ground source heat pumps), or deeper depths (beyond 8000ft/2.43 km) for Enhanced Geothermal Systems. The in-between depths are rarely visited due to high drilling costs, and the water harvested being unable to power turbines. Recent...
Article
Full-text available
Maintaining the thermal comfort of building occupants is a challenge typically negotiated by air based heating and cooling systems that rigidly maintain supply air temperatures and humidity levels. Such a practice overlooks several other design variables, including the mean radiant temperature, TMRT, which is responsible for a significant portion o...
Article
Full-text available
We develop a model and prototype for a lightweight roof oculus structure, which integrates two complementing cooling strategies. During the day the roof oculus takes the shape of a downdraft evaporative cooling chimney. A water mist sprays inside the chimney crown, cooling and densifying hot dry air and causing it to fall down the chimney into the...
Article
By using small, decentralized liquid desiccant dehumidification combined with radiant panels or other low exergy chiller technologies large amounts of energy can be saved. This study builds off previous work characterizing a novel liquid desiccant system using a vapor permeable Pebax® membrane in conjunction with an alkoxylated siloxane liquid desi...
Article
Full-text available
Low exergy building systems generate new possibilities for the design of high performance buildings, especially when the design of a new building is considered as part of a district where the relationship between buildings are optimized to minimize the dispersion of energy in the environment and maximize the recovery of waste energy. We present an...
Article
We have developed novel sensing techniques to understand mean radiant temperature and indoor air quality for a holistic understanding of indoor environment quality. A novel scanning mean radiant temperature sensor provides a spatially resolved description of the radiant heat transfer from all surfaces in a space. A low-cost deployable indoor air qu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The understanding of thermal comfort has improved significantly since the introduction of the Fanger comfort model (1970), yet Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) and its adapted versions still are the predominantly used forms (Rupp et al., 2015). Out of the six variables contributing to the PMV values and occupant thermal comfort, Mean Radiant Temperature (...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We investigate the geometric co-optimization of shading and solar photovoltaic tracking with a single surface. The simulation combines ideal solar tracking with a unique method for continuous shading of a fixed surface area through all sun angles. For photovoltaics, a panel achieves maximum power production by maintaining a normal orientation to th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Presented in this paper is our investigation on the potential of usingexisting natural gas and oil wells in the USA to provide high quality geothermal heat. Geothermal heat is renewable energy that can be used from higher temperature sources for direct heating. In the USA and other less thermally active regions, it is most commonly harvested from s...
Article
The Thermoheliodome is an experimental pavilion that explores cooling without air conditioning. The two research aims were to explore the use of indirect evaporative cooling and the geometric reflection of radiant cooling. For evaporative cooling we utilize a cooling tower outside of the pavilion to indirectly supply water chilled near the wet-bulb...